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Composite Manufacturing

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Sauda Ali
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Background: Over two-thirds of breast cancer patients who relapse will develop bone metastasis, and there are currently no effective biomarkers to predict for this event. Multiplex immunoassay technology for 60 bone metastasis-associated biomarkers was conducted on pretreatment plasma from 40 patients enrolled in a 2nd-line phase III hormone therapy trial of metastatic breast cancer, to discover effective circulating biomarkers predictive of bone metastasis. Methods: Pretreatment EDTA plasma from 20 patients with bone metastasis, and 20 patients with non-bone metastasis from the letrozole-megace 2nd-line phase III hormone therapy trial of metastatic breast cancer was evaluated using Searchlight multiplex immunoassay technology (Aushon Biosciences, Billerica, MA) on 60 biomarkers custom-selected for known association with bone metastasis. Multiplex data analysis for maximal discrimination of bone metastasis vs. no bone metastasis cohorts was performed by two independent statisticians: one evaluated the predictive capacity of individual biomarkers as well as two-marker combinations constructed by Monte Carlo optimization using Metropolis algorithm (MMC), and the other used a machine learning technique called hybrid bootstrapped RLDA +PCA (regularized linear discriminant analysis with principal component analysis, with dimensionality reduction used in the bootstrapping procedure). Results: One of the 60 analytes (IL-17) was undetectable at the 1.6 pg/ml lower limit of detection, and was not included in the multiplex statistical analyses. Of the remaining 59 analytes, MMC multiplex analysis yielded 9 biomarkers that predicted for bone metastasis, whereas RLDA + PCA multiplex analysis yielded 20 predictive biomarkers. Common to both analyses, which were limited in this small 40 patient study, were 5 biomarkers, with varying functions including growth factors, cytokines, inflammatory factors, protease inhibitors, and cell adhesion molecules. Conclusions: Multiplex analysis of 60 biomarkers custom-selected for known association with breast cancer metastasis to bone yielded 5 pretreatment plasma biomarkers classified as predictive of bone metastasis by 2 different multiplex statistical analysis methods. Evaluation of these biomarkers is now warranted in a larger validation cohort of breast cancer patients with and without bone metastasis. Citation Information: Cancer Res 2011;71(24 Suppl):Abstract nr P1-07-17.
In this paper a simulation based system developed for analysis and bit error rate (BER) performance measurement of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. This paper involves the basics of OFDM system. In this paper bit error rate is calculated and measured with respect to Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Doppler Effect, and guard interval. BPSK, QPSK and 16PSK are used as modulation techniques. Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) is used as a communication channel. The effect of SNR, Doppler Effect, and guard intervals on OFDM signals improves the system performance.