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Colloidal drug delivery systems
Encapsulation possibilities of two neuroprotective drugs of slightly different structures, kynurenic acid (KYNA) and its more hydrophilic analogue (SzR72), are studied in bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoparticles (NPs) to increase their permeability through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The effect of various preparation conditions such as protein concentration, protein-to-drug ratio, pH, ionic strength, type, and amount of desolvation agent and cross-linker concentration are discussed. It was found that the encapsulation proved to be successful only if the drugs are added to the pre-prepared BSA NPs. If the pH of the medium is adjusted to 4.0 instead of 7.4 the drug loading increased (from 4.5 % to 20.7 % for KYNA) due to the electrostatic interaction between the oppositely charged functional groups accompanied by significant secondary structural changes verified by circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) suggesting the drug insertion in the hydrophobic pockets of BSA. The in vitro polar brain lipid extract (porcine) based permeability test proved the aimed three-, or fourfold higher BBB specific penetration for KYNA in the carrier relative to the unformatted drug.
In this work, we firstly presented a simple encapsulation method to prepare thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1)-loaded asolectin-based liposomes with average hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 225 and 245 nm under physiological and acidic conditions, respectively. In addition to the optimization of the sonication and magnetic stirring times used for size regulation, the effect of the concentrations of both asolectin carrier and initial vitamin B1 on the entrapment efficiency (EE %) was also investigated. Thermoanalytical measurements clearly demonstrated that after the successful encapsulation, only weak interactions were discovered between the carriers and the drug molecules. Moreover, the dissolution profiles under physiological (pH = 7.40) and gastric conditions (pH = 1.50) were also registered and the release profiles of our liposomal B1 system were compared with the dissolution profile of the pure drug solution and a manufactured tablet containing thiamine hydrochloride as active ingredient. The release curves were evaluated by nonlinear fitting of six different kinetic models. The best goodness of fit, where the correlation coefficients in the case of all three systems were larger than 0.98, was reached by application of the well-known second-order kinetic model. Based on the evaluation, it was estimated that our liposomal nanocarrier system shows 4.5-fold and 1.5-fold larger drug retention compared to the unpackaged vitamin B1 under physiological conditions and in artificial gastric juice, respectively.
Analysis of in vitro dissolution profiles of encapsulated drugs usually involves the linearization of the applied mathematical model and sometimes transformation of the measured data. In this work, we demonstrate that a spreadsheet routine could provide a universal and reproducible data analysis strategy without the need for linearization. To test the evaluation method, different liposome-based drug carrier systems were prepared and characterized. Thereby, this work also demonstrates the preparation and characterization of size-controlled liposomes (LIPs) for encapsulation of the fluorescent Rhodamin-B (RhoB) as a drug model. During the experimental work different encapsulation-and size controlling techniques have been studied. The in vitro examined dissolutions of the fluorescent dye from the liposomal colloid systems were also presented in physiological environment. According to the evaluation of the release profiles we clearly established that, beside the appropriately chosen size controlling procedure, the remote loading encapsulation technique can increase the half-life of RhoB from 0.8 h to nearly two hours. Moreover, we highlighted the importance of application way of the chosen kinetic model. Explicitly, the coefficient of the determination-based choice of the appropriate mathematical model can be false if only the linearized forms are applied.
A protein-polysaccharide-based potential nanocarrier system have been developed via a simple, one-step preparation protocol without the use of long-term heating and the utilization of hardly removable crosslinking agents, surfactants, and toxic organic solvents. To the best of our knowledge, this article is the first which summarizes in detail the pH-dependent quantitative relationship between the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hyaluronic acid (HyA) confirmed by several physico-chemical techniques. The formation of colloidal complex nanoconjugates with average diameter of ca. 210-240 nm is strongly depend on the pH and the applied BSA:HyA mass ratio. Particle charge titrations studies strongly support the core-shell type structure, where the BSA core is covered by a thick HyA shell. Besides the optimization of these conditions, the drug encapsulation capacity and the dissolution profiles have been also studied for ibuprofen (IBU) and 2-picolinic acid (2-PA) as model drugs.
This poster demonstrates the preparation and characterization of size-controlled liposomes in the diameter range of 50-250 nm for encapsulation of the fluorescent Rhodamin-B (RhoB) as a model drug molecule. During the experimental work three different encapsulation techniques have been studied and the dominant effect of the size, the structure and the applied encapsulation processes on the binding as well as the dissolution of the model drug have been interpreted. The in vitro examined dissolution of fluorescent dye from the liposomal colloid system was also presented in physiological environment. According to the evaluation of release profiles beside the appropriately chosen size controlling procedure the remote loading encapsulation technique can be increase the half-life of RhoB from 0.8 hours to nearly two hours. Moreover this findings we point out the importance of application way of the chosen kinetic model. The coefficient of determination based choice of the appropriate mathematical model can be completely false if only the linearized forms are applied.
Precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by anionic surfactants with alkyl chains of increasing lengths (octyl, decyl, dodecyl sulfates) was studied at room temperature, at pH 3.0, in isotonic sodium chloride solution. The particle size of albumin, the zeta potential, the surface charge and fluorescent properties of BSA-surfactant composites were investigated concerning addition of increasing amount of surfactant. The thermal stability of the systems was monitored by calorimetric analysis (DSC). The formation of the well-ordered structure in the self-assembly process in liquid phase was studied by XRD measurement. The structure of the precipitated BSA-surfactant nanocomposites was characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Finally, ibuprofen (IBU) molecules were enclosed in BSA-surfactant bioconjugate systems and the release properties of the drug were investigated. It has been found out that, as a consequence to the increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chains of the surfactant, the structure and the fluorescent properties of the aggregates formed can be controlled due to the increase in the hydrophobicity of BSA-surfactant composites. The bioconjugates are well applicable as carrier to realize controlled release of drug molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This work demonstrates the preparation, structural characterization, and the kinetics of the drug release of hyaluronic acid (HyA)-based colloidal drug delivery systems which contain hydrophobic ketoprofen (KP) as model molecule. Because of the highly hydrophilic character of HyA the cross-linked derivatives at different cross-linking ratio have been synthesized. The hydrophobized variants of HyA have also been produced by modifying the polymer chains with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at various HyA/CTAB ratios. Due to modifications the coherent structure of HyA changes into an incoherent colloidal system that were verified by rheological investigations. Nearly 70% of the encapsulated KP dissolve from the totally cross-linked HyA carrier but the release rate of KP is about 20% (after 8 h) from the CTAB-modified colloidal system at HyA monomer/CTAB 1:0.8 mass ratio. It has been verified that the modified HyA may be a potential candidate for controlled drug release of hydrophobic KP molecules.
- László Janovák
- Árpád Turcsányi
- Eva Bozo
- Ferenc Bari
The pH-responsive intelligent drug release facility of hydrophobically modified chitosan nanoparticles (Chit NPs) (d = 5.2 ± 1.1 nm) was presented in the case of poorly water soluble Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine (NIMO) drug molecules. The adequate pH-sensitivity, i.e. the suitable drug carrier properties of the initial hydrophilic Chit were achieved by reductive amination of Chit with hexanal (C6-) and dodecanal (C12-) aldehydes. The successful modifications of the macromolecule were evidenced via FTIR measurements: the band appearing at 1412 cm-1 (CN stretching in aliphatic amines) in the cases of the hydrophobically modified Chit samples shows that the CN bond successfully formed between the Chit and the aldehydes. Hydrophobization of the polymer unambiguously led to lower water contents with lower intermolecular interactions in the prepared hydrogel matrix: the initial hydrophilic Chit has the highest water content (78.6 wt%) and the increasing hydrophobicity of the polymer resulted in decreasing water content (C6-chit.: 74.2 wt% and C12-chit.: 47.1 wt%). Furthermore, it was established that the length of the side chain of the aldehyde influences the pH-dependent solubility properties of the Chit. Transparent homogenous polymer solution was obtained at lower pH, while at higher pH the formation of polymer (nano)particles was determined and the corresponding cut-off pH values showed decreasing tendency with increasing hydrophobic feature (pH = 7.47, 6.73 and 2.49 for initial Chit, C6-chit and C12-chit, respectively). Next the poorly water soluble NIMO drug was encapsulated with the C6-chit with adequate pH-sensitive properties. The polymer-stabilized NIMO particles with 10 wt% NIMO content resulted in stable dispersion in aqueous phase, the formation of polymer shell increased in the water solubility/dispersibility of the initial hydrophobic drug. According to the drug release experiments, we clearly confirmed that the encapsulated low crystallinity NIMO drug remained closed in the polymer NPs at normal tissue pH (pH = 7.4, PBS buffer, physiological condition) but at pH < 6.5 which is typical for seriously ischemic brain tissue, 93.6% of the available 0.14 mg/ml NIMO was released into the buffer solution under 8 h release time. According to this in vitro study, the presented pH-sensitive drug carrier system could be useful to selectively target ischemic brain regions characterized by acidosis, to achieve neuroprotection at tissue zones at risk of injury, without any undesirable side effects caused by systemic drug administration.