Through the efforts shared in this chapter, we embrace the hypothesis that local representations of our changing climate offer a key angle for facing climate change. We describe the coconstruction processes of climate services in five sites across Europe: Bergen (Norway), Brest, Kerourien (France), Dordrecht (the Netherlands), Gulf of Morbihan (France), and Jade Bay (Germany), to share novel ways of transforming state-of-the-art climate science into action-oriented place-based climate services that can be integrated with social understandings and practices of coping with change in Europe. The formal context for “modes of representation” enabled us to recognize the importance of explicitly linking social transformation intentions with local challenges and values, and to connect from there with national and European Framework Directives related to climate services. We reiterate the importance of having local stakeholders engage in the climate services coproduction process in order to forge common commitments and incorporate value perspectives, even those that may be polarized, throughout society as a whole.
Institutions have a central role in climate change governance. But while there is a flourishing literature on institutions' formal rules, processes, and organizational forms, scholars lament a relative lack of attention to institutions' informal side; their cultures. It is important to study institutions' cultures because it is through culture that people relate to institutional norms and rules in taking climate action. This review uncovers what work has been done on institutional cultures and climate change, discerns common themes around which this scholarship coheres, and advances and argument for why institutional cultures matter. We employed a systematic literature review to assemble a set of 54 articles with a shared concern for how climate change and institutional cultures concurrently affect each other. The articles provided evidence of a nascent field, emerging over the past 5–10 years and fragmented across literatures. This field draws on diverse concepts of institutionalism for revealing quite different expressions of culture, and is mostly grounded in empirical studies. These disparate studies compellingly demonstrate, from different perspectives, that institutional cultures do indeed matter for implementing climate governance. Indeed, the articles converge in providing empirical evidence of eight key sites of interaction between climate change and institutional cultures: worldviews, values, logics, gender, risk acceptance, objects, power, and relationality. These eight sites are important foci for examining and effecting changes to institutions and their cultures; showing how institutional cultures shape responses to climate change, and how climate change shapes institutional cultures. This article is categorized under: The Social Status of Climate Change Knowledge > Knowledge and Practice
Rooted in the main CoCLiServ purpose -community dialogue with climate services in order for them to be more meaningful in a place- the modes of representation are rooted in the 5 CoCliServ sites. From the very beginning of the CoCliServ project to its end in June 2021, the partners saw the progressive stabilization of the 3 main modes of representation: metadata, dynamic mapping, and the Art–science conjoint analysis. The 4-year learning process and the final choices of the modes of representation are the core of this deliverable.
We conducted 5 locally-based Arts and Sciences processes, working closely with local stakeholders, artists, scientists and inhabitants in order to propose for each site a conjoint art–science analysis through shared engagement in the interpretation and representations of the various steps conducted within WPs 1, 2 and 3. We present here the theoretical roots, local processes and shared learning, with the art forms as an integral part of the climate services co-construction. The 3 main purposes of the D 4.4 document are: • Remember CoCLiServ shared challenges related with art–science conjoint analysis and share our theoretical approach; • Make explicit the site by site processes associated with the art–science conjoint analysis; • Establish what we consider to be the key points for ongoing and upcoming art–science approaches in the context of climate services.
The purpose of this document is • To provide an overview over the results of Work Package 1, Narratives of change; • To critically discuss the role of narratives in the production of place-based climate services for action; • To document the lessons learned from the five case-studies; • To inform the consortium and the respective site organizers from scenario building, climate services, metadata, citizen science and knowledge assessment, • and to provide guidelines for the implementation in other sites.
Climate services, and research on climate services, have mutually developed over the past 20 years, with quality assessment a central issue for orienting both practitioners and researchers. However, quality assessment is becoming more complex as the field evolves, the range and types of climate services expands, and there is an increasing appeal to co-production of climate services. Scholars describe climate services as emerging from complex knowledge systems, where information moves through institutions and actors attribute various qualities to these services. Seeing climate services' qualities as derived from and activated in knowledge systems, we argue for comprehensive assessment conducted with an extended peer community of actors from the system; co-evaluation. Drawing inspiration from Knowledge Quality Assessment and post-normal science traditions, we develop the Co-QA assessment framework; a checklist-based framework for the co-creation of criteria to assess the quality of climate services. The Co-QA framework is a deliberation support tool for critical dialogue on the quality of climate services within a co-construction collective. It provides a novel, structured, and comprehensive way to engage an extended peer community in the process of quality assessment of climate services. We demonstrate how we tested the Co-QA-through interviews, focus groups and desktop research-in two co-production processes of innovative climate services; an ex post evaluation of the "Klimathon" in Bergen, Norway, and an ex ante evaluation for designing place-based climate services in Dordrecht, the Netherlands. These cases reveal the challenges of assessing climate services in complex knowledge systems, where many concerns cannot be captured in straightforward metrics. And they show the utility of the Co-QA in facilitating co-evaluation.
Human settlements, both urban and rural, face numerous challenges at once: adapting to the impacts of climate change, improving sustainability and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, soil subsidence, urbanisation and renewal, increasing housing demand and goals, unemployment and other economic challenges, and a need for more social cohesion. While governments have knowhow and budgets, and are now developing plans and scenarios for a climate resilience and sustainable settlements, it is the local citizens who will be living in these settlements. Consequently, they should be involved in designing, planning, and building their future environment. However, while many governments are experimenting with citizen participation, it can be difficult to set up meaningful and engaging collaboration between policymakers, citizens, and other local and regional actors. It may be particularly challenging for ‘foresight’ or ‘futures’ processes, which focus on designing future visions and scenarios. Much has been written on the technical aspects of scenario methods, but there is little practical guidance on what might make it engaging to citizens. For citizens, it may feel too technical or distant. Rather than recruiting citizens into what feels like a technical process, it should be an actual collaboration. This toolkit offers practical guidance, tools, and tips on how to set up such collaborations in thinking about and jointly developing the future. The toolkit collects and showcases some of the lessons learned from several international research programs on citizen engagement in the form of a practical exercises and advice on how to apply them. These programs include CoCliServ (Co-development of place-based climate services for Action; funded by EU JPI Climate/ERA4CS), CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security; funded by CGIAR global research partnership), and Utrecht University’s Water, Climate and Future Deltas program. The latter funded the development of this toolkit. In addition to playing a role in the training modules being developed by these, we envision that it may provide inspiration and guidance for other policymakers, consultants and researchers involved in collaboratively tackling local and regional future challenges.
In this report, local climate service components are evaluated. In CoCliServ, local climate service components are 1) local narratives (input from WP1) and 2) existing climate information and services (assessed in task 3.1.). For each case study site, local narratives of change are evaluated according to potential entry points for local contextualization of climate information. Based on these results, further steps for the evaluation of climate service components are derived and carried out for each case study site.
We developed, tested and refined a novel incremental participatory scenario approach. This method allows for the development of normative scenarios, pathways that lead to desirable futures, with local communities, through a non-linear approach. Developments in the real world rarely follow straightforward linear paths. The approach inventories ‘hinge points’: critical moments in time where things might lead to a better or worse future. The hinge points facilitate the inventory of critical challenges and ambitions relevant to the local situation: climate-related as well as key socio-economic, legal, policy/political, and technological ones. They also allow for exploration of key needs for information or climate services that might be useful to local actors at a given point in time. The method was ground-tested and refined in five case studies in the Netherlands, Norway, France, and Germany. The cases showed that the new approach could be applied and tailored successfully in a variety of situations. Goal/Purpose of the document - Document the novel participatory incremental scenario approach developed by the CoCliServ project. - Detail how locally embedded visions, scenarios, hinge points, and climate information needs can be derived, together with local communities. - Provide guidance and examples to others who might want to use this incremental scenario approach.
How do you make a neighbourhood that is both resilient to a future climate and suits the needs and wishes of its inhabitants? This is what researchers from Utrecht University have been exploring in Dordrecht-an old Dutch city perched on a river island. Dordrecht's rich history is intertwined in its relationship with water. It is one of the oldest cities in the Netherlands-built in the midst of peat swamps on an island at a crossroad of five rivers and not far from the sea. This makes it extremely vulnerable to a changing climate.
We conducted case studies using a novel incremental scenario approach. With local actors, we co-developed visions of desirable futures, normative scenarios that might lead towards those futures, and inventoried ‘hinge points’: critical moments in time where things might lead to a better or worse future. To bridge the latter, specific information or climate services might be needed. The cases showed that the new approach could be applied and tailored successfully in a variety of situations. The novel notion of hinge points allowed us to inventory critical challenges and ambitions relevant to the local situation: climate-related as well as key socio-economic, legal, policy/political, and technological ones. It also resulted an inventory of key information and climate service needs.
Climate change is dramatically shifting the way cities interpret and live with their local climate. This paper analyses how climate change is emerging as a matter of concern in the public spheres of Bergen, and interprets how this concern is effecting Bergen’s identity, with implications for the city’s climate risk governance. Historically, Bergen has a strong identity as Europe’s rainiest city, manifested in its cultural and social life. In the past 15 years, Bergen’s identity has been shifting from a ‘weather city’ to a ‘climate city’. This paper draws on ethnographic research, interviews and document analysis to map this shift as co-produced by certain social and natural events and processes; told as narratives of change. This identity shift is creating surprising hybrid representations of climate that are locally meaningful, shaped as much by Bergen’s cultural weatherworld as by incoming ideas of climate change. These representations influence Bergen’s attitudes towards climate risk governance, and may extend influence to global scales via climate city networks. This identity shift also moves the timeframe of risk governance. As a weather city, risks were implicit to the city’s heritage and peoples’ lived experience. But as a climate city, risks are predicted to foresee and prevent impacts. Critically employing co-production as an analytical lens can help us understand the multiple facets to cities’ climate risk governance, including the role of culture and identity.
Cities face increasing risks due to climate change, and many cities are actively working towards increasing their climate resilience. Climate change-induced risks and interventions to reduce these risks do not only impact urban risk management systems and infrastructures, but also people’s daily lives. In order to build public support for climate adaptation and resilience-building and stimulate collaboration between authorities and citizens, it is necessary that adaptation and resilience-building are locally meaningful. Thus, interventions should be rooted in citizens’ concerns and aspirations for their city. Urban policymakers and researchers have started the search for better citizen participation in adaptation. However, tools to connect the relatively strategic and long-term notions of adaptation to a gradually changing climate held by planners and scientists with how citizens experience today’s climate and weather remain elusive. This paper investigates the use of ‘narratives of change’ as an approach to elicit perceptions of past, present and future weather, water, and climate, and how these relate to citizens’ desired futures. We tested this by eliciting and comparing narratives of change from authorities and from citizens in the Dutch city of Dordrecht. Our analysis of the process showed that historical events, embedded in local memory and identity, have a surprisingly strong impact on how climate change is perceived and acted upon today. This contributes to an awareness and sense of urgency of some climate risks (e.g. flood risks). However, it also shifts attention away from other risks (e.g. intensified heat stress). The analysis highlighted commonalities, like shared concerns about climate change and desires to collaborate, but also differences in how climate change, impacts, and action are conceptualized. There are possibilities for collaboration and mutual learning, as well as areas of potential disagreement and conflict. We conclude that narratives are a useful tool to better connect the governance of climate adaptation with peoples’ daily experience of climate risks and climate resilience, thereby potentially increasing public support for and participation in resilience-building.
Samen met beleidsmakers, bewoners en onderzoekers is nagedacht over toekomstvisies en plannen voor de Vogelbuurt in Dordrecht, in de context van een ‘veerkrachtige Vogelbuurt in een toekomstig klimaat’. Twee visies en tijdslijnen werden ontwikkeld: ‘Hechte eilandgemeenschap’ en ‘Innovatieve verbindingen’. Ook werd nagedacht over ‘kritieke momenten’, waarop de plannen de mist in zouden kunnen gaan of juist beter kunnen uitpakken, en over informatiebehoeften. Uit de discussie over ‘Hechte eilandgemeenschap’ in de toekomst komt idealiter een vorm van wijkenergie, wijkgroen en wijksamenwerking naar voren. Dordtenaren houden namelijk graag zaken zelf in de hand. Veel maatregelen vereisen op korte termijn inzet van de gemeente (o.a. samenstelling buurt behouden, vergroenen, opknapwerkzaamheden, voorlichting geven) die vervolgens kan afzwakken door gemeentelijke potjes te ontschotten, taken te decentraliseren en meer zelfstandigheid aan de buurt te geven. De kritieke momenten in de verhaallijnen kunnen voor bepaalde crises zorgen die bewerkstelligen dat de buurt hechter wordt. Uit de discussie over ‘Innovatieve verbindingen’ komt naar voren dat er op veel terreinen integrale plannen voor de stad en de wijk gemaakt kunnen worden, maar dat die sterk afhangen van ontwikkelingen in EU en Nederlandse wetgeving. Voorbereid zijn op verrassingen en kapitaliseren op ‘kleine rampen’ (verstoringen, incidenten, etc.) is belangrijk omdat dit de soms stroperige ontwikkelingen in een versnelling kan brengen. Verder is het bevorderen van samenwerking in de wijk en tussen wijk en Gemeente belangrijk. Data en (slimme) technologie kunnen gebruikt worden om meer inzicht te geven in wat er speelt in de wijk, koppelingen tussen problemen/oplossingen te laten zien en sneller te reageren. Dit is wel afhankelijk van het debat over technologie en privacy. De workshop leverde tal van ideeën op en de uitwisseling tussen beleid, wijk en wetenschap werd gewaardeerd. Het werken met soms abstracte zaken als visies, scenario’s, kritieke momenten en innovatieve verbindingen in de groepen ging prima. Wel vonden deelnemers het nuttig om een dergelijke sessie in ‘flitsvorm’ (bijv. 1 uur) te herhalen met een grotere groep bewoners.
We explored different issues and trends at play in the case study areas that might be relevant for designing local scenarios. Particularly, we examined both climate-related and non-climate related aspects, and aspects that the local community has considerable influence on as well as those that are largely beyond their control. These different aspects provide input for developing future visions, scenarios, and potential hinge/branching points. Most case study sites (Jade Bay, Bergen, Dordrecht, Golfe du Morbihan) face climate change related challenges, particularly related to precipitation and sea level rise, and their relation to urban planning, coastal management, and agriculture and aquaculture. For Kerourien, it was more difficult to pinpoint climatic challenges, and the case focused on other grand challenges (social justice, migration, urbanisation & housing) instead. Climate change provides added pressure to these. All case study sites discussed locally important factors that are not or less directly related to climate change, such as local diversity, urban forms, local values and customary practices, local history, economy, (un)employment, social cohesion, social justice, urban renewal and housing issues, migration, and trends in agriculture. The Jade Bay case focused less on non-climate issues, but did focus how local values and practices played an important role. Interestingly, this notion of local values, practices, and particularly also local identity seems to be important in most, if not all, of the case studies (explicitly in Jade Bay, Bergen, Dordrecht, Golfe du Morbihan). Goal/Purpose of the document • Brief exploration of the context in which the scenario exercises will be conducted. • Collect and organise first ideas on the elements that might form the future visions, hinge/branching points, and scenarios.
How can scientific climate knowledge be transformed into locally meaningful knowledge? CoCliServ explores new ways in climate communication and shifts the focus on narratives in order to co-develop new forms of climate services for action. Narratives of change provide local knowledge, they facilitate decision-making, and they help identifying information needs and addressing local communities’ concerns, aspirations and goals. Narratives add value and meaning to scientific data about climate change and turn ‘matters of fact’ into ‘matters of concern’. Based on the mapping, analysis and interpretation of narratives of change, CoCliServ develops vision-based scenarios, deploying an incremental and community-led strategy. Exemplary collaborative relationships between climate science and local communities will be established in five representative case-studies: in Bergen / Norway; in the Jade Bay area in Lower Saxony / Germany; in Dordrecht / Netherlands; in St. Pierre / Kerourien and in the Golf du Morbihan in France. In this report, we present the results of D1.3. After the mapping of narratives in D1.1. (Krauß et al., 2018 a) and the chronology and in-depth analysis of weather-related local narratives in D1.2 (Krauß et al. 2018 b),in this deliverable we document and analyse place-specific excerpts of interviews and protocols. These excerpts serve to outline a corpus of narratives for the co-development of climate services for action. This choice of narratives serves to frame and to provide content for scenario building (WP2) and climate services (WP3), and is in some cases in alignment with (prospective or already active) citizen scientists and artists. The goal is to present selected narratives of change based on interview and protocol excerpts in order to • characterise place-specific conflict or problem constellations • identify the issues at stake and the relevant actors involved • outline desired futures on this basis In doing so, D 1.3 seeks to provide the link between the work packages 1 and 2 as abasis for the co-development of climate services for action.
Vor der Französischen Revolution ging an alle Gemeinden, Dörfer und Städte in Frankreich ein Fragebogen, in den sie eintragen konnten, unter welchen Bedingungen sie lebten, welche Steuern sie zu zahlen hatten und was sie dringend brauchten. Die Liste der Beschwerden war lang und eindrücklich, schließlich litt man unter der Willkür des Adels, es gab Hunger, und die Infrastrukturen ließen zu wünschen ubrig. Aus diesen Beschwer-deheften entstand eine vollständige und buchstäblich zu verstehende Geo- Grafie des Landes. Daran erinnert Bruno Latour in seinem Buch 'Das terres-trische Manifest' aus aktuellem Anlass. Was würde heute in einem solchen Beschwerdeheft stehen, wenn danach gefragt würde, was es braucht, um ein gutes Leben zu führen? Ein gutes Leben im Sinne von klimafreundlich, erdverbunden und dennoch weltoffen? Gerade vor dem Hintergrund des Aufstiegs von Populismus und Trumps Ausstieg aus dem Klimavertrag von Paris gewinnt diese Frage an Relevanz. Weder Brexit, America First noch Heimattümelei sind eine gesunde Reaktion auf den Stress, den die globalen Probleme soziale Ungleichheit, Migration und Klimawandel verursachen.
Climate change and extreme events brought about by it increasingly threaten an urbanising humanity and imposes the need for adapting to arising challenges and mitigate further climate change due to the limitations of adaptation. Climate action, with many activities depending on behavioural changes, should be centred around people’s lives and aspirations for a desirable future to let people identify with these measures and thus let them become part of desired futures, which will be certainly shaped by climate change. One way to elicit such desired futures is to focus on people’s narratives, which are in principal stories and shared realities that bind people together, foster interaction among them, and let people make sense of the world they live in as narratives organize their experiences. Narratives unfold around key events, actors, activities, relations between them as well as embeddedness in time and space and are therefore holding crucial implications for future-proofing a place. Studying narratives within a case study in Dordrecht, an island in the South-Western Dutch Delta, involved authorities and citizens eliciting their narratives around weather and water affecting the city. This research unearthed nine main narrative themes shedding light on the historical struggle of the city with water that is shaping its fate until today. Exposure to water and weather causing threats for Dordrecht that are increasing in their severity due to climate change related extremes and sea-level rise, as well as the vision for a climate resilient and safe future become obvious in the elicited narratives. This study let both shared and diverging stories among authorities and citizens appear, with the shared underlying motivator of climate change employing a climate threat frame being critical for climate-proofing Dordrecht. Shared narratives involve historical struggles, outlooks for the future as well as both constraints and drivers for collective problem solving. Diverging narratives state specificities of threats and occurring measures to deal with them. Involved authorities are focusing more on water management and detailed strategies to deal with vulnerabilities arising out of climate change and its impacts, whereas inhabitants narrate more holistically on their experiences with weather, water, and mitigating climate change in order to safeguard the future of Dordrecht and its inhabitants. Finally, elicited narratives imply the need for actively involving authorities and citizens in collaborative governance arrangements focusing simultaneously on climate adaptation and climate mitigation to bridge the elicited divergence in this endeavour and act on anthropogenic climate change.