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The Highway Safety Manual (HSM) is the premier guidance document for incorporating quantitative safety analysis in the highway transportation project planning and development processes. The HSM, developed by AASHTO and first published in 2010 with a supplement for freeways published in 2014, presents contemporary scientific methodologies for estimating the safety performance of highways and streets to inform the highway transportation decision-making process.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is Asia's biggest Arab kingdom, covering 2149690 km2. The inhabitants of Saudi expanded from approximately 20 million in 2000 to more than 32 million in 2017. At the present, the population goes up by 1 million individuals per year. In 2018, the per capita income exceeded 120,000 Saudi Arabia Riyal. The number of motor vehicles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia rose from 2 million in 1980 to more than 20 million in 2018. As nothing more than a consequence, the owner's automobile is becoming the major mode of transportation, leading to a high volume of traffic, high pollutants, and a high number of road fatalities. The RTA was the first cause of morbidity and mortality in Saudi Arabia. (2) (Reference taken from Road Safety and Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia - A systemic review of existing evidence by Farah A. Mansuri, FCPS, MCPS, Abdulmohsen H. Al-Zalabani, MD (ABCM), MSc Epi, Marwa M. Zalat, MSc, MD, and Reem I. Qabshawi, MD (JBFM)).
Part C of the HSM identifies an 18-step method to estimate crashes for a given facility. This is shown in a flow chart for Volume 2 (Chapters 10 -12) in Section C.5, The HSM Predictive Method. The 18-step methods for Freeways and Ramps are slightly different from the one used for rural 2-lane roads, Rural Multilane Highways and Urban/ Suburban Arterial. The flow charts for Freeways and Ramps are located in the supplement (Section 18.4, Predictive Method for Freeways and Section 19.4, Predictive Method for Ramps and Ramp Terminals).
Synchro is primarily used for modeling traffic flow, traffic signal progression, and optimization of traffic signal timing. Additionally, it can be used to analyze arterials and signalized/unsignalized intersections. Additionally, Synchro Software and its suite of associated applications is a traffic signal timing software that assists engineers and transportation planners design, model, optimize, simulate and animate signalized and unsignalized intersections (including roundabouts).
According to Saudi Gazzete, new traffic regulations in Saudi Arabia went into effect after two weeks in October 2016 and include fines for infractions. The consequences for several offenses were severe; the offender had to pay a significant fine and some of them even involved going to jail. Given that the regulations were put into place at the end of 2016, this may have also contributed to the drop in traffic accidents that occurred in 2017. The number of fatalities from traffic accidents is greatest in Saudi Arabia. The rise in the number of traffic accidents may have been caused by a variety of variables. I looked at the pertinent facts to the problem in order to identify what those variables might be. The number of driver's licenses and the regional average for traffic accidents should show some patterns, as I had anticipated. When I looked into the data, I saw some suspicious peaks and drops in both the number of traffic accidents and the issuance of driving licenses. My primary findings were that there were fewer accidents in 2017 and that there was an unusually large decline in the number of driving licenses issued in one of the years. I anticipated that the data analysis would support the observations.
In Recent Years , there is still some problems which has been observed on the roads and highways that affects not only the pedestrian on streets but also the traffic flow of Bangladesh. Purpose of Roadway Condition Survey-The main purpose of road way condition survey is take initiative and to make significant changes that is required for every one of us.
Hospitals are major trip generators in any country. Significant amount of trips are attracted everyday by numbers of hospitals. A trip to hospital is generally considered as an emergency trip based on purpose. So as it is an emergency purpose, trip attraction plays vital role in solving and improving traffic facilities by developing road networks. Moreover, trip attraction rates of hospitals can be very useful in performing Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA). Some studies have been conducted based on trips done by people and also on vehicular attraction on western countries, but for a country like Bangladesh no study has been performed for determining the trip attraction rates of hospitals. In this thesis an attempt has been taken to determine trip attraction rates of hospitals in Dhaka city. The study involves the estimation of trip attraction rates of eight different hospitals on various locations. Hourly trip attraction rates are determined based on gross floor area, number of beds, number of employee and number of parking spaces. Trip attraction rates are determined for both the morning and evening peaks. Average trip attraction rates for three major size categories of hospitals (small, medium and large hospitals) are determined. It has been observed that the trip attraction rates of large-size hospitals are higher than the trip attraction rates of small-size and medium-size hospitals.