Project

Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT)

Goal: Online resources for the CPORT, including access to the original article, training handout describing the items, scoring guide, and FAQ. We will also periodically post other updates, including presentations or papers using the CPORT or its companion measure, the CASIC.

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Project log

Michael C Seto
added a research item
Accessing child sexual exploitation material (CSEM; child pornography in legal statutes) can indicate sexual interest in children. It logically follows then that the age and gender of the depicted children may reflect specific interests in those age/gender groups, and if so, may correspond to age and genders of any known contact offending victims. We had data on CSEM characteristics and child victims for 71 men convicted of CSEM offenses who also had contact sexual offenses against children; some had also sexually solicited children online. Sixty-four men had 134 prior or concurrent child victims, and 14 men reoffended directly against 17 children during follow-up. There were significant, positive associations (with moderate to large effect sizes) between age and gender of children depicted in CSEM and age and gender of child contact or solicitation victims. Examining future offending, though with only 14 recidivists, all men who sexually reoffended against a girl had more girl CSEM content, and all men who sexually reoffended against a boy had more boy CSEM content. Our results suggest that CSEM characteristics can reflect child preferences. This information can be relevant in clinical settings, police investigations, and community risk management, though it does not rule out interest in, or offending against, victims of other ages or gender. We discuss these findings in the context of other evidence regarding victim cross-over, and suggest future research.
Michael C Seto
added an update
I'm very grateful to Julia S. Nentzl for preparing German translations of the CPORT & CASIC manual and forms and granting us permission to share them on this Project page.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
I'm pleased to share -- with permission -- this translation by Ana Loureiro de Lemos & Ricardo Barroso for potential users of these measures for research or clinical purposes.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
I'm pleased to share the Norwegian translation of these forms, prepared by Svein Øverland and shared with his permission
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Posting, with permission, the results of an inter-rater reliability evaluation using the practice case scores of 29 probation and parole officers in Ontario. This evaluation was conducted under the auspices of the Ontario Ministry of the Solicitor General's Program Evaluation Unit.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Adding a Danish translation of the CPORT and CASIC items, created and graciously shared by Susanne Bengtson and her colleague E. Kristensen
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Just discovered this 2018 MSc thesis by Chloe Black (University of Canterbury) showing that a modified CPORT (first four items) significantly predicted sexual recidivism in a sample of 547 cases followed in New Zealand
Link to PDF here:
 
Angela W Eke
added an update
We were recently asked about the average CPORT score with cases where CASIC might have been used as a proxy for missing Item 5. We thought we would post it here on ResearchGate for those interested; this average is similar to the original average CPORT score posted in our Guide.
For the combined 5-year fixed group where CASIC may replace a missing Item 5 and there is max one other item missing the average CPORT score is 1.93 (SD = 1.56, CI = 1.76, 2.09).
 
Michael C Seto
added a research item
The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.
Angela W Eke
added an update
An update to the CPORT Guide originally posted Dec 2016. This Version 2 includes data from the combined sample (development + validation sample), CPORT percentiles and a discussion of risk categories. Also, an update to the FAQ (FAQ Version 2).
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
With many thanks to Virginia Soldino and her colleague, Enrique Carbonell, we're pleased to share Spanish translations of the coding forms for the CPORT and CASIC.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
FYI, our CPORT validation study is now online first in the journal Sexual Abuse (and available here on ResearchGate)
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Created and shared by Julia Wilpert, Wineke Smid, and Edwin Wever, with thanks to them. Please direct questions or interest in using this translation with the authors.
Also, please let us know if you are interested in or have translated the CPORT or CASIC to another language.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
For those in the Northwest or willing to travel, Angela Eke will be giving a presentation for the Washington Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (WATSA) at their 2018 spring conference
 
Michael C Seto
added a research item
The explanations given by child pornography offenders for their crimes were explored in two samples, one interviewed by the police as part of a criminal investigation and the second assessed by clinicians following a child pornography conviction. There were many similarities across the two samples with regard to demographic characteristics, criminal history and explanations. Many offenders in both samples admitted possession of child pornography, a majority admitted they deliberately accessed child pornography, and substantial minorities acknowledged their sexual interest in child pornography and/or children. Similar proportions claimed curiosity or accidental access. Relatively few offenders reported internet addiction, child pornography as a substitute for contact offending or indiscriminate sexual interests. There was evidence to suggest that the recently arrested offenders were more sexually deviant, as they were more likely to have images of boys, larger collections, images depicting sexual violence or other paraphilic content and more involvement in online trading and communication.
Angela W Eke
added an update
In this FAQ document we provide responses to questions we have received regarding the CPORT and CASIC. We thank everyone who sent in questions, comments as well as shared samples from their reports. We will update the FAQ periodically. We'll also provide an update to the Guide and include additional information from our validation work.
 
Michael C Seto
added 2 research items
There is much concern about the likelihood that online sexual offenders (particularly online child pornography offenders) have either committed or will commit offline sexual offenses involving contact with a victim. This study addresses this question in two meta-analyses: the first examined the contact sexual offense histories of online offenders, whereas the second examined the recidivism rates from follow-up studies of online offenders. The first meta-analysis found that approximately 1 in 8 online offenders (12%) have an officially known contact sexual offense history at the time of their index offense (k = 21, N = 4,464). Approximately one in two (55%) online offenders admitted to a contact sexual offense in the six studies that had self-report data (N = 523). The second meta-analysis revealed that 4.6% of online offenders committed a new sexual offense of some kind during a 1.5- to 6-year follow-up (k = 9, N = 2,630); 2.0% committed a contact sexual offense and 3.4% committed a new child pornography offense. The results of these two quantitative reviews suggest that there may be a distinct subgroup of online-only offenders who pose relatively low risk of committing contact sexual offenses in the future.
Angela W Eke
added an update
ATSA Kansas City
27 OCT 2017
Eke & Seto
Presentation Slides
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
We've been working on a FAQ, with some great questions from users and potential users, and hope to post soon.
 
Michael C Seto
added a research item
The current study compared 38 lower risk (based on actuarial risk assessments) men convicted of contact sexual offenses against children, 38 child pornography offenders, and 70 solicitation offenders (also known as luring or traveler offenders). Solicitation and child pornography offenders were better educated than contact offenders but did not differ on other sociodemographic variables. In comparison to child pornography offenders, solicitation offenders had lower capacity for relationship stability and lower levels of sex drive/preoccupation and deviant sexual preference. Solicitation offenders were also more problematic than lower risk contact offenders on sex drive/preoccupation and capacity for relationship stability and had greater self-reported use of child pornography. Differences between groups on two actuarial risk measures, the Static-99 and the VASOR, were inconsistent. This study suggests that solicitation offenders differ in meaningful ways from lower risk contact offenders and child pornography offenders and, consequently, in risk, treatment, and supervision needs.
Michael C Seto
added 2 research items
Most research on child pornography use has been based on selected clinical or criminal justice samples; risk factors for child pornography use in the general population remain largely unexplored. In this study, we examined prevalence, risk factors, and correlates of viewing depictions of adult-child sex in a population-representative sample of 1,978 young Swedish men (17-20 years, Mdn = 18 years, overall response rate, 77 %). In an anonymous, school-based survey, participants self-reported sexual coercion experiences, attitudes and beliefs about sex, perceived peer attitudes, and sexual interests and behaviors; including pornography use, sexual interest in children, and sexually coercive behavior. A total of 84 (4.2 %) young men reported they had ever viewed child pornography. Most theory-based variables were moderately and significantly associated with child pornography viewing and were consistent with models of sexual offending implicating both antisociality and sexual deviance. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, 7 of 15 tested factors independently predicted child pornography viewing and explained 42 % of the variance: ever had sex with a male, likely to have sex with a child aged 12-14, likely to have sex with a child 12 or less, perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, and ever viewed violent pornography. From these, a 6-item Child Pornography Correlates Scale was constructed and then cross-validated in a similar but independent Norwegian sample.
Advances in Internet and other digital technologies have created ready and affordable access to pornography involving real children or computer-generated images of children. To better understand and manage child pornography users, clinicians must acquaint themselves with the characteristics and behaviors of these offenders. This article distinguishes motivations to use child pornography and different types of child pornography offenders and provides a brief overview of the assessment, diagnosis, and management options available. The authors conclude with recommendations on future directions in the assessment, diagnosis, and management of child pornography offenders.
Michael C Seto
added an update
Wondering if any users or potential users have questions as they review the CPORT and CASIC materials. Haven't forgotten we will be creating a common FAQ for the risk measure.
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Have been presenting on the CPORT in the United States and it`s clear there is interest in using this risk measure for adult men convicted of CP offenses, with requests for the scoring guide, coding forms, and training.
Recent presentations in Napa, CA for state evaluators; Portland, OR for the Oregon Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers; and Albany, NY for the New York State Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers in collaboration with the New York State Alliance for the Prevention of Sexual Abuse.
 
Michael C Seto
added a research item
In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Michael C Seto
added a research item
Slides from National Criminal Justice Association webinar on April 20, 2015, on internet-facilitated sexual offending
Michael C Seto
added a research item
Online chapter for SMART office on internet-facilitated sexual offending
Michael C Seto
added a research item
Recent research on a risk assessment tool for child pornography offending suggests that admission of sexual interest in children is a risk factor for any sexual recidivism. Admission is easily vulnerable to lying, however, or to refusals to respond when asked about sexual interests. This may become a particular issue when individuals are concerned about the potential impact of admission of sexual interest on sentencing and other risk-related decisions. In this study, we identified the following behavioral correlates (coded yes/no) of admission of sexual interest in children in the risk tool development sample of 286 men convicted of child pornography offenses: (a) never married (54% of sample), (b) child pornography content included child sexual abuse videos (64%), (c) child pornography content included sex stories involving children (31%), (d) evidence of interest in child pornography spanned 2 or more years (55%), (e) volunteered in a role with high access to children (7%), and (f) engaged in online sexual communication with a minor or officer posing as a minor (10%). When summed, the average score on this Correlates of Admission of Sexual Interest in Children (CASIC) measure was 2.21 (SD = 1.22, range 0-6) out of a possible 6, and the CASIC score was significantly associated with admission of sexual interest in children, area under the curve (AUC) = .71, 95% CI [ .65, .77]. The CASIC had a stronger relationship with admission in a small cross-validation sample of 60 child pornography offenders, AUC = .81, 95% CI [.68, .95]. CASIC scores may substitute for admission of sexual interest in risk assessment involving those with child pornography offenses. (PsycINFO Database Record
Michael C Seto
added an update
Brief article on the development and use of the CPORT, appearing in the Spring 2017 issue of the ATSA Forum newsletter
 
Angela W Eke
added a research item
We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again.
Angela W Eke
added an update
Here are the CPORT and the CASIC coding forms, exported from the guide.
 
Angela W Eke
added an update
ATSA 2016 CPORT Validation Study
 
Angela W Eke
added an update
ATSA 2016 Presentation CASIC
 
Angela W Eke
added an update
CPORT coding guide
 
Michael C Seto
added an update
Link was posted to ATSA listserv today (Nov 17, 2016), with indication we hope to upload CPORT scoring guide within the next few weeks.
Once the guide is uploaded, I will copy-and-paste questions and responses from emailed queries regarding CPORT scoring, so they are available to all potential users and those interested in the CPORT.
 
Michael C Seto
added a project goal
Online resources for the CPORT, including access to the original article, training handout describing the items, scoring guide, and FAQ. We will also periodically post other updates, including presentations or papers using the CPORT or its companion measure, the CASIC.