Project

Chemical modification of natural polymers

Updates
0 new
0
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
13
Reads
0 new
52

Project log

Rakesh K Mishra
added 2 research items
Cellulose and its derivatives are used as potential matrices for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of ethyl cellulose (EC) and methyl cellulose (MC). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The biofield treated polymers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction study (XRD), Differential Scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR analysis of treated EC showed downward shifting in C-O-C stretching peak from 1091→1066 cm-1 with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed upward shifting of –OH stretching (3413→3475) and downward shifting in C-O stretching (1647→1635 cm-1) vibrations with respect to control MC. CHNSO analysis showed substantial increase in percent hydrogen and oxygen in treated polymers with respect to control. XRD diffractogram of EC and MC affirmed the typical semi-crystalline nature. The crystallite size was substantially increased by 20.54% in treated EC with respect to control. However, the treated MC showed decrease in crystallite by 61.59% with respect to control. DSC analysis of treated EC showed minimal changes in crystallization temperature with respect to control sample. However, the treated and control MC did not show any crystallization temperature in the samples. TGA analysis of treated EC showed increase in thermal stability with respect to control. However, the TGA thermogram of treated MC showed reduction in thermal stability as compared to control. Overall, the result showed substantial alteration in physical, chemical and thermal properties of treated EC and MC.
Peptone and Malmgren modified terrestrial orchid (MMTO) has been used as a growth medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was conducted to explore the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of peptone and MMTO. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as untreated, and the treated group was received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further subjected to characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, particle size analyzer and surface area analyzer. The XRD analysis revealed the amorphous nature of the control and treated peptone samples. The DSC analysis showed an increase in thermal denaturation temperature of the treated peptone (196.22°C) as compared to the control sample (141.20°C). Additionally, the exothermic peak of treated sample (280°C) was increased as compared to the control (270°C). The DSC of control and treated MMTO showed the absence of the melting temperature in their respective DSC thermograms. The TGA analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (172°C) with respect to the control (170°C). Nevertheless, the TGA thermogram of the treated MMTO (293.96°C) showed an increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) as compared with the control (281.41°C). It indicated the good thermal stability of the treated peptone and MMTO samples. The FT-IR result of the treated peptone showed an upward shift in C-H (2817→2833 cm-1), and amide I (1635→1641 cm-1), stretching in the treated sample with respect to the control sample. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated MMTO showed an increase in the frequency of the C-H (2817→2833 cm-1) and amide I (1596→1606 cm-1) bands as compared to the control. Particle size analysis of the treated peptone showed an increase in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of particles) by 9.3 and 41.4%, respectively with respect to the control. Surface area analysis showed increase in surface area by 4.3% in the treated peptone. Altogether, the results corroborated that the biofield energy treatment had altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of peptone and MMTO. It is assumed that biofield treated peptone and MMTO could be utilized as potential candidates for cell culture applications.
Rakesh K Mishra
added 2 research items
In the present study, an attempt has been made to modify pectin by grafting polyacrylamide using ammonium ceric sulphate as initiator. The effect of various variables like initiator concentration, monomer concentration, temperature and time has been studied. The grafted copolymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), organic elemental analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR studies indicated incorporation of amide group. Rheological behavior of pectin solution was compared with that of the grafted copolymer. The comparative rheological properties of pectin and grafted copolymer indicated change in the property of the product. Differential scanning calorimetry and XRD suggested formation of the grafted copolymer.
The design and development of pectin-based hydrogels were attempted through the chemical modification of pectin with diethanolamine (DA). Diethanolamine modified pectin (DAMP) was synthesized by the chemical modification of pectin with varying concentrations of DA (1:1,1:2,1:3 and 1:4) at 5 oC in methanol. The modified product was used for the preparation of the hydrogel with glutaraldehyde (GA) reagent. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; organic elemental analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and swelling, hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility studies of the prepared hydrogels were also done. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. The XRD pattern of the DAMP hydrogel clearly indicated that there was a considerable increase in crystallinity as compared to parent pectin. The degree of amidation (DA) and molar and mass reaction yields (Ym and Yn) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. Drug release studies from the hydrogel membranes were also evaluated in a Franz's diffusion cell. The hydrogels demonstrated good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells and human blood.
Rakesh K Mishra
added 4 research items
The purpose of the present study was to develop and design pectin and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blended hydrogel membranes (PEVP), with different pectin: PVP ratios (1:0.2, 1:0.4, 1:0.6, 1:0.8 and 1:1 w/w), which were prepared by using a conventional solution casting technique. An attempt has been made to characterize the hydrogel membranes by various instrumental techniques like, FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release patterns of the drug (salicylic acid) from the hydrogel membrane were done in three different release mediums (pH 1.4, pH 7.4 and distilled water) and samples were analyzed spectrophotometrically at 294 nm wavelength on a UV Vis spectrophotometer. MTT assay was done to ensure cytocompatibility of the pectin/PVP hydrogel membranes using B16 melanoma cells. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of secondary amide (I) absorption bands. The XRD study shows decrease in crystallinity of the hydrogel membranes with increase in PVP ratio. DSC study shows an increase in T g of pectin after blending with PVP. It was found that tensile strength increases with increasing PVP ratios in the hydrogel membranes. The prepared hydrogel membranes were found to be biocompatible with B16 melanoma cells.
In the current studies attempts were made to prepare hydrogels by chemical modification of pectin with ethanolamine (EA) in different proportions. Chemically modified pectin products were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde reagent for preparing hydrogels. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), organic elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction studies (XRD), swelling studies, biocompatibility and hemocompatibility studies. Mechanical properties of the prepared hydrogels were evaluated by tensile test. The hydrogels were loaded with salicylic acid (used as a model drug) and drug release studies were done in a modified Franz’s diffusion cell. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the presence of primary and secondary amide absorption bands. XRD studies indicated increase in crystallinity in the hydrogels as compared to unmodified pectin. The degree of amidation (D A) and molar and mass reaction yields (Y M and Y N) was calculated based on the results of organic elemental analysis. The hydrogels showed good water holding properties and were found to be compatible with B-16 melanoma cells & human blood.
This work reports the development and characterization of chitosan/Phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) based composite membranes. The prepared composite membranes were characterized by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy, X ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength test, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy indicated the proper molecular interactions between chitosan and PMA. XRD spectroscopy indicated the semi crystalline nature of the composite membranes. DSC study showed the presence of single glass transition temperature (Tg) at 156°C in the 20% PMA doped membrane, which indicates the miscible nature of chitosan and PMA blend. TGA study indicates increase in thermal stability of the composite membranes as compared to pure chitosan. Mechanical properties of the composite membranes were found to be sufficient. KeywordsChitosan-Phosphomolybdic acid-Blending-Composite-Membrane