Challenges and opportunities with environmental pollutants in the regime of UN sustainable development goals.
The growth of synthetic polymers has resulted in a significant rise in the manufacturing and use of plastics worldwide. Microplastics (MPs) may survive in the environment for very prolonged periods of time because of how slowly plastics degrade. Information on the importance of several potential entrance paths and the amount of MPs entering the environment via numerous mediums is still needed. Numerous questions about the environmental consequences of MPs remain unsolved despite the enormous amount of research that has been carried out. It is still difficult to understand the true effects on a population exposed to several MPs with various structures, sizes, and shapes throughout the course of a lifetime. Importantly, hazardous chemicals such as persistent organic pollutants could deposit on the physical surface of MPs. As a result, it could be a localized source of environmental contamination or a pathway for harmful contaminants in the food chain, which has serious consequences for human health. In this review, we also emphasized the various sources of MP pollution and its potential effects, while also talking about the legal implications of managing MP pollution under the canopy of the UN sustainable development objectives.
The desire to improve the utilization of available resources is necessitated by increasing the competitive demand for limited resources and poor utilization of those limited resources. If these inefficiencies are not addressed, marginal farmers, mostly in developing nations, would be the ones who suffer the most. Despite this, resource farmers make a significant contribution to food production in developing countries. Small‐scale farmers must be engaged and acquire new ways to help them continue farming while making the most of scarce agricultural resources and even agricultural garbage. Rapid changes in the climate, a loss in soil fertility, nutrient insufficiency, abuse of chemical fertilizers, and other xenobiotics presence in the soil are all difficulties being faced by the agricultural sector. However, as the world's population grows, so does the demand for food. By raising crop output and restoring and improving soil quality, nanotechnology has made a significant improvement to sustainable agriculture. The agricultural land has been significantly impacted by the hazardous agrochemicals that pollute the surface and groundwater due to lack of information among farmers and the overuse of chemicals. Chemical pesticides are being used more frequently, which means that beneficial micro‐organisms, insects, and other species are being wiped out of the soil. The combined effect of all of the foregoing leads to significant environmental degradation. Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding discipline that has the capability to revolutionize the agriculture and food industries by providing new tools that promise to enhance food production while also protecting crops from pests in a sustainable manner. Such aspirations are tempered by concerns about NPs' fate in the agricultural environment. However, using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) has yet to be thoroughly researched to accurately assess ENMs' utility for plant fertilization and protection that is used in agriculture in a variety of ways. This article focuses on new nano‐based applications for sustainable farming and how they are influencing agricultural and food waste management and advances in the future.
Circular Economy- an Approach to Reduce Burden on Earth's Resources
The search for “green materials” is fueled by a desire to protect the environment. Bio-based polymers have proven to be a viable alternative. Because of advancements in biorefineries and bioprocessing technology, their building blocks may now be derived from various biomass, by-products, and organic residues, reducing the demand for fossil fuel resources and lowering their carbon footprint. Novel bio-based polymers with significant added value and improved characteristics and functions have been created for use in a variety of industries. The actual benefits and concerns of such innovative bio-based plastic solutions, on the other hand, have heightened scientific and public awareness.
The appearance and fate of nanomaterials (NMs) also are new area of waste management. Information and techniques for investigations are minimal. Nonetheless, it is incredibly likely that nanomaterials used in several items or papers of one type would be in the waste stream. Environmental and environmental risks related to the treatment of nanowastes remain unexplored. Another factor is whether containing nanomaterials, consisting of recycling processes, will affect the waste management capabilities/performance. In comparison, nanomaterials may substitute certain substances that make products, for example, smarter or more efficient, to get into waste management sooner and potentially play a role in waste reduction. Draw up an overview of nanomaterial and waste-related scientific, health, and environmental problems, and assess the available recycling issues of environmental health significance are needed. One ultimate goal is to consider looking for identical statistics to compare the potential hazards associated with the existence of NMs in the waste. The emphasis is on eliminating consumer goods as waste and not creating waste anymore. Alternatively, instead of other residuals (e.g., cosmetics, containers, etc.), attention can be given to appliances and athletic equipment. Consciousness is usually on product forms and waste sources, where knowledge is at all available. Thus, the papers and studies that are indirectly available statistics are implicit delimitations; this research area is relatively new because of the reality. It has also sought to cover goods, however. Concerning incineration, its miles found it more relevant to observe the load and fate of particular NMs in respect of goods categories. After the initial activities, the spectrum can be similarly oriented and fabricated/designed nanomaterials to offer a selected character in a product. Besides, the commonly considered nanomaterials within the context of the EU concept supported. Nevertheless, most of the evidence sources examined no longer detailed nanomaterials in exercise, and as a result, all known sources of information about nanomaterials were included in the waste.