Project

Central Asian Journal of Water Research (CAJWR)

Goal: “Central Asian Journal of Water Research (CAJWR)”, ISSN: 2522-9060, is a bi-lingual, open-access, peer-reviewed e-Journal dedicated to all aspects of water management in the region of Central Asia.

CAJWR seeks to reach all scientists working in the areas of Water Research and familiarize them with each other’s achievements across the region, not limiting its range to the national audience. It aims at strengthening the existing networks to support creation of the regional scientific community with the goal of developing scientific research throughout the region.

Date: 1 January 2015

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Stefanos Xenarios
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This study aimed to investigate the dust-retaining capacity of tree crowns and analyze the possibility of utilizing this parameter to assess the air dust content in different parts of Tashkent City. The Dust Retention Index is expressed in the dust mass that a unit of green tree mass can hold. The plant material was collected at three sites in Tashkent with different environmental conditions (sunlight, temperature, dust sources) for the following species: catalpa (Catalpa bignonioides Walt.), London plane (Platanus acerifolia), Eldar pine (Pinus eldarica), and cedar red juniper (Juniperus virginiana). The research shows that compared to coniferous species the following deciduous species demonstrate the highest dust retention values: plane (2.4, 1.2, and 13.3 mg/cm2, respectively), catalpa (8 and 3.6 mg/cm2, respectively), pine (0.185, 0.062, and 0.785 mg/cm2, respectively), and juniper (2.2 and 0.4 mg/cm2, respectively). The dust-retaining capacity was calculated based on the total dust emission in Tashkent averaging 24.6±6.9 thou. tons per year (2009-2018). Plane is capable of retaining approx. 0.61%, and pine – approx. 0.16% of the mean annual (2009-2018) aerosol mass (per 100 thou. trees). The calculations allow concluding that in order to compensate (retain) the annual dust emission in Tashkent, approximately 17-19 mln plane trees or 60-62 mln pine trees are necessary.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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In 1991, when the five Central Asian countries became independent, most of their population was rural and about a third of the workforce was in agriculture. Collective farming was predominant, and land reform was an important component in the transition to a market-based economy. The Soviet rural economy was also characterized by small household plots of under 0.2 hectares that accounted for a large share of output of many farm products, including milk, meat, potatoes, eggs, and vegetables for home or local consumption.
Despite the need to reform the Soviet-era collective and state farms, agrarian reform was among the slowest areas of enterprise restructuring in Central Asia. Except for Turkmenistan, the governments opted for farm fragmentation away from large-scale collective and state farms which resulted in an increasing number of individual farms. Apart from agroholdings operating in Kazakhstan’s wheat belt and the recently introduced private cotton-textile clusters in Uzbekistan, agricultural production has been turned to individual farms (Petrick, 2021). Household plots have retained their contribution to the output of labor-intensive food commodities.
However, reflecting differing and evolving attitudes towards private ownership of land and about the desirable structure of production and of farm size distribution, reform paths differed.
Governments decollectivized and distributed land to individualfarmers but were to varying degrees cautious about granting full private ownership of land. After initially issuing long-term leases, Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic supported private ownership of land, but Tajikistan and Uzbekistan provided neither land tenure security nor full decision-making freedom to farmers. Within countries, the speed and nature of change could vary greatly, depending on regional variations in the type of farming, and sometimes depending on the local administration or
power of former collective farm managers trying to retain their influence. Early delays in implementation were often associated with a power vacuum in which asset- stripping in the collective farms was rampant. Powerful individuals seized hold-up points in the agricultural supply chain, especially cotton gins, but also for tobacco, sugar and oil-processing. The fragmentation and individualization in Central Asia’s farming sector followed the process of “Southernization” of agriculture in the Global South as they did not bring growth in labor productivity, but on the contrary, kept rural incomes low and rural poverty high.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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his paper documents the food and agricultural policy process in the context of agrarian reforms in Tajikistan. It uses the case study of Tajikistan and applies a recently developed conceptual framework for understanding the drivers of policy change. It undertakes a historical review of agrarian reforms and appraises current policy challenges within the food and agricultural sector. Using specific tools to study power relations, financing, and information flows in the policy process, it maps institutional architecture and key stakeholders in the pre- and post-soviet era. Information gathered through focused group discussions, key informant interviews, and recent field research on food and agricultural policy issues is used to analyze factors that drive different stages of the policy making process. We find that understanding the political economy and policy process interface in Tajikistan is key for designing and implementing successful policy interventions. While progress has been made, agrarian reforms towards improving land tenure rights, strengthening WUAs, providing crop insurance against drought, are the necessary steps in a larger policy discussion. Ensuring the effectiveness of land reforms, building agricultural extension system, and supporting agricultural research systems are examples of some key initiatives that the government should focus on. Investments in transportation, storage, credit facilities, and markets involving private sector will speed up the reform process.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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This paper examines the preconditions for collective action in the context of Water User Associations (WUAs) in Tajikistan. The paper uses qualitative case studies of five WUAs from three cotton-producing districts of Khatlon region in Tajikistan. Findings suggest that the ability of WUAs to generate collective action for the benefit of the rural community depends on factors internal and external to WUAs. The WUAs in our study tended to exhibit top-down organizational forms which might not bode well for their sustainability. WUAs were set up by donors in a setting where large, collectivized farms and vestiges of command agriculture persist alongside small individual farms. The presence of large farms among smaller holdings makes it difficult for WUAs to distribute water equitably among its members. Local government officials tend to favor the interest of big planters over small independent farms and can exert pressure on WUAs to skew water distribution. By studying the institutional challenges facing water resource management in Tajikistan, a major natural resource challenge facing all the Central Asian economies, the paper identifies opportunities for speeding up the process of agrarian reforms currently underway in all the transition economies
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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Agricultural cooperatives play an important role in promoting local communities and sustainable farming practices in many parts of the world. In Kyrgyzstan their development remains a challenge despite the existence of laws and policies, support from donor-funded projects and the existence of an apex organisation. What is missing for their development and who should lead their development? Adopting an entrepreneurial ecosystem (EE) approach to the analysis of the agricultural cooperatives, we aim to identify the lead actors of the agricultural cooperatives' development in Kyrgyzstan and understand what roles such a lead actor plays in the emergence and strengthening of an EE for agricultural cooperatives. Adopting a case study approach, we retrieved archival data published between 1991 and 2020 on agricultural cooperatives in Kyrgyzstan, that included documents from government, cooperatives and their apex organisations, and studies commissioned by international organisations. We reviewed data using a grounded theory approach and organised our codes and text excerpts around the EE elements and actors. Thereby, we identify what roles the three principal actors of cooperative development, namely government, cooperatives and their apex organisation, and international organisations, play in different EE dimensions – i.e., policy, skills and education, market environment, culture, networks and partnerships. Among others, we uncover that the lead actor varies across EE dimensions and the paradox, where expectations of the government and cooperatives’ are inadequate to their funding abilities; while international organisations, that could fund cooperatives’ development, do not consider them as a priority in their projects. Although the study has limitations due to its exploratory nature, we offer both theoretical contribution extending entrepreneurial ecosystem approach to the study of agricultural cooperatives in transition economies and practical implications for better understanding and integrating agricultural cooperatives in the international development programming.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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Uzbekistan’s cotton supply chain experienced a wave of deregulation reforms in the last five years. This paper attempts to assess the process and results of the State-driven transition from the centrally planned cotton sector to private cotton-textile clusters. The article employs secondary data sources to analyse the effects of the deregulation policies descriptively. The study reveals that the deregulation reforms increased productivity in the sector. The reform initiatives also vertically integrated the cotton supply chain from production to marketing. However, the reforms failed to transparently incorporate and harmonise the needs of cotton farmers that grow and sell raw cotton. Consequently, the promises of the State-led deregulation reforms and initiatives are eroded. The article highlights the emerging risks and tensions in the current cotton liberalisation and privatisation reforms in Uzbekistan.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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The kariz (karez, qanat) represent one of the ancient water supply systems in arid zones. Natural collection of groundwater coming down from the mountains and its transportation to irrigated fields is the main advantage of the kariz systems. This article aims to introduce into the community of Central Asian hydrologists, hydrogeologists, and farmers the idea of the possibility of applying the kariz technologies and constructing them based on the experiences of neighboring countries and the ancient settlement of Sauran (Turkestan Region, Kazakhstan). Satellite imagery allowed identifying 3 (three) karizes around Sauran. The subsequent geomorphological analyses of the digital elevation model was carried out using the specialized ECO GIS-software. Further on, the maximum catchment areas (MCA) of mother wells (kariz beginning) were calculated. As the result, it was revealed that the target karizes themselves were located in the areas with low MCA. However, the mother wells were located in close proximity to the areas with high MCAs. 300 hectares was enough to collect groundwater to feed the entire irrigation system in ancient times. Modern examples from neighboring countries and the archaeological sites on the territory of Kazakhstan prove the possibility of using the kariz technology in current conditions. The introduction of this practice will allow introducing the foothill land in Southern Kazakhstan into agricultural circulation, as well as eliminating water losses due to evaporation during storage and transportation.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Academic scholarship captures different land governance dimensions while focusing mainly on agrarian, legal, and economic aspects. However, little to no attention is paid to land governance consideration through public policy lenses. In particular, this holds for Central Asian (CA) countries where there is a noticeable lack of academic works on land governance effectiveness and anti-corruption strategies in the land sector. This review paper analyzes the question of how Central Asian countries are presented in land governance indices and assessment frameworks such as the World Bank's Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF), Global Property Rights Index (Prindex), Global Land Governance Index (LANDex), and The Open Data Barometer. The paper uses the integrative review of academic works and the author's empirical data on Central Asian performance in land governance indices and assessment programs. The findings revealed that while the Prindex results for the region are promising, the underperformance and lack of active engagement of Central Asian countries in the Open Data Barometer, LANDex, and LGAF are still visible. This fact could be explained by various reasons, including the lack of institutional and legal capacities in CA countries and the limitation in methodology and data collection techniques observed in present land indices. Considering that the subject is understudied, it is anticipated that this review paper will give both scholars and practitioners from the region and abroad the impetus to improve Central Asian performance in global land governance indices and assessment programs.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
The article reviews the latest available statistical information on gender inequalities in labor markets and in access to financial institutions, social services, and education. After a general review of agricultural development, household food security and rural poverty, population structure, and labor outmigration in Central Asia, the article examines the women’s role in the labor market, including both formal and informal female employment, the feminization of agriculture in the region, gender gaps in education and wages, and constraints on women’s access to extension services and land ownership. It is observed that women’s asset ownership rights and their access to supply and product markets are constrained by social norms. The article concludes with some conclusions and policy recommendations. This reassessment is designed to strengthen the qualitative approaches of the gender literature with some quantitative approaches from agricultural and development economics.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
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The article reviews the issues of forming fish populations and studying the current state of commercial fish species in the delta lakes of the Syrdarya River for subsequent effective development of fish farming. In 2020, research works were carried out on lakes Akbilek, Tushchy, Shomishkol, Karakol and Akshatau-Sorgak of Aral District of Kyzylorda Region. At each of them, local ichthyofauna were identified and studied by way of experimental catches. Subsequently, the ichthyologic material was selected, processed and underwent biological analysis. The research also included the determination of physical and geographical parameters of target lakes, as well as evaluation of their chemical water profile. Experimental and control fish catches were carried out using fixed nets with 18-60 mm mesh. For biological analysis, 239 fish were selected, including: snakehead (1 sample), common carp (3 samples), crucian carp (9 samples), roach (102 samples), pikeperch (25 samples), Northern pike (26 samples), perch (35 samples), rudd (19 samples), sabre carp (1 sample), bream (11 samples), and asp (11 samples). The suitability of target lakes for further fish husbandry was determined based on the research findings, available literature, and archival data.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Urbanization and population growth increase the demand for freshwater abstraction, food production, rising thus the agricultural, economic, and productivity expectations. The need for improved water services, sustainable and resilient management under changing climate, are major drivers to set forth the redesigning of water planning. Water scarcity combined with the limited expansion of new infrastructure create competition among water uses and further stress the satisfactory coverage of the increasing needs. Integrated modeling is a way to simulate and address the above challenges, however, poor monitoring, incomplete databases, and complexity make its applications difficult. Questions such as what data to use, how to best exploit the (limited) available databases, what parameters to calculate, and how to satisfy both economic and environmental objectives, occur. This study presents a novel Decision Support System (DSS), combining hydrology, economics, engineering, and social aspects, aimed to participatory management, using simple concepts, and discussing assumptions for working with limited data, and useful parameters to estimate. Water availability and demand, water quality, profits, costs, and management scenario analysis, including nature-based solutions, are explored under climate change scenarios, and alternative policies are evaluated. The combination of the above and the useful modeling insights, under water- and data-scarcity conditions are novel elements, while the aim is to encourage integrated and sustainable water resources management through understandable and user-friendly DSSs.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
The study aimed to assess the efficiency of the pilot sonar (hydroacoustic) fish protection device (FPD) installed at the Kokaral Dam of the Small Aral Sea. For this purpose, between August 27 and September 5, 2020 experimental and control fish catching was carried out using fixed fishing nets (30x60 mm mesh). The FPD’s effectiveness was assessed based on the amount and species diversity of the caught fish with and without the FPD operating. Fish behavior and distribution were monitored using an echo sounder. In terms of quantity, the total of 173 fish were caught with the FPD off, and 94 with the FPD on. In terms of biomass, the values were 37.5 kg and 27.6 kg, respectively. With the FPD off, the ichthyofauna composition was represented by 12 fish species: common carp, crucian carp, roach, ide, bream, rudd, saber carp, snakehead, pikeperch, perch, pike, and asp. With the FPD on, roach and ide were absent in the catch, and the quantity of rudd significantly decreased. In both catches, the quantity of common carp and crucian carp was similar; bream and saber carp specimens were sporadic. The number of predatory fish (pike, perch, snakeheads, and pikeperch) in the catches increased. Asp was absent in the net catches also; however, this fish species represents the main object of amateur hook and line fishing. Based on the catch-per-effort unit, it can be concluded that whereas the FPD demonstrated efficiency – for small non-predatory fish like ide, roach, and rudd it was 95%, it was 0% for large non-predatory fish (carp and crucian carp); and negative for predatory fish.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
статье приводятся результаты исследований водоемов Урало-Каспийского бассейна на содержание тяжелых металлов в воде. Одним из наиболее объективных и надежных показателей загрязнения водоема и общей антропогенной нагрузки на него является содержание тяжелых металлов в воде, донных отложениях (илах) и биоте. В настоящее время техногенный путь поступления тяжелых металлов в открытые водоемы (со сточными водами промпредприятий, городов, с поверхностными стоками сельхозугодий и др.) значительно превышает естественный. В связи с этим возникает реальная угроза нарушения равновесия водных экосистем, в первую очередь, имеющих рыбохозяйственное значение. Одним из таких объектов с давних пор является Каспийское море и впадающие в него реки.
Мы изучили токсикологическое состояние воды Северо-Восточного Каспия, впадающих в него рек и их притоков. Среди поллютантов тяжелые металлы представляют наиболее приоритетный интерес не только из-за высокой токсичности для водных организмов, но и за способность к аккумуляции и трансформации внутри биоценоза, а также как одна из причин уменьшения численности биоресурсов.
В р. Урал повышенное содержание меди, хрома и свинца во все периоды года и превышение этих металлов составляет 2–6 ПДК. Р. Кигач менее подвержена загрязнению тяжелыми металлами, однако летом было определено повышенное содержание меди и свинца. В рр. Урал и Кигач загрязнение тяжелыми металлами происходит за счет стоков, поступающих из верхних территорий. Установлена сезонная динамика содержания тяжелых металлов в воде Северо-Восточного Каспия. Исследования показали, что тяжелые металлы поступают в водоемы не только во время весенних паводков, а во все сезоны года.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
The article aims to assess the survival rate of saxaul plantations on the dry seabed of the Aral Sea (DSAS) and these close to the villages along the original seacoast. Protective black saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron) plantations on the DSAS were established in the course of 2009-2019 with the grant support of the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea (IFAS), Japan’s environmental funds, UNDP Kazakhstan, as well as under the Grass-Roots Program of the Embassy of Japan in Kazakhstan. During September 1-14, 2020, the target plantation plots at 24 sites adjacent to the villages of Aralkum and Karateren underwent examination, including forest surveying, projected species cover determination, as well as seed regeneration and survival rate assessment. The findings of 2020 revealed the varying condition of target saxaul plantations. Thus, the survival rate of saxaul inside forest plantations ranged between 0.12 and 78.0%. The actual number of saxaul trees varied from 1 (one) to 1,000 per ha on the DSAS and from 888 to 2,633 per ha in Aralkum village. The novelty of the obtained results is due to the fact that they clearly demonstrate that the survival rate and development of forest plantations, as well as saxaul seed self-renewal, above all, depend on the overall ecological conditions at specific sites. Saxaul demonstrated the best survival rate and growth at the sites with sandy loam and saline light loamy soils with sandy cover, and the worst – at the sites with crusty and takyr (dry-type playa) saline soils.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Covering increasing water demand for competitive uses with limited resources is becoming one of the most challenging water management issues. The effects are more evident in arid areas, where conflicts are more likely to occur. Such an example is Urumqi County, China; Urumqi River is the main water supply source, and in order to balance the upstream agricultural water demand and the downstream urban water demand, the government imposed fallow measures. The region is traditionally a rural area with high production expectations, however, urban water demand is continuously increasing over the last decades, following the population and urbanization trends. Irrigation needs are covered from the river, during the summer period, creating seasonal demand peaks. The fallow measures aim to sustain agriculture and the government defines which farmers will fallow each year. This study uses a questionnaire survey to examine the farmers’ willingness to continue fallow, and the fallow period preference; both examined for the first time so far. The driving factors are used as variables to analyze and describe the preferences through regression models. A non-negligible portion of farmers highly depend on agriculture and want to cultivate. The feasibility of satisfying their needs through better water management is examined through a coupled WEAP (Water Evaluation And Planning) model. Combining econometric and hydrological tools is a novel element. The results are encouraging, with significant insights on the current water management policy, the potential of diversified fallow systems, and the achievement of sustainable and socially acceptable planning.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
The study investigated the effects of pre-ozonation on the parameters such as turbidity, color, chlorophyll a and TOC on a pilot scale.   The investigation results indicate that the amount of required ozone to remove TOC, color and turbidity depends on the quality of inlet water, and the efficiency of water ozonation depends on the process factors such as ozone dose, temperature, pH and ozone-water contact  time.  The study likewise shows that the lower amount of turbidity, TOC, temperature and higher alkaline pH of sample water boost the ozonation effect on removing the variables in question.  The results also demonstrate a direct relationship between pH, ozone dosage and contact time, as well as an indirect relationship between temprerature and the removal of parameters.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Water security in Central Asia has been discussed by researchers and international organizations using hydrological, engineering, and modeling approaches. Various frameworks conceptualize water security through technical, socio-economic, and environmental aspects. This study attempts to identify the current trends of perceptions of experts about water security in Central Asian countries and Afghanistan as assessed through different regional and international experts with relevant knowledge and experience. The experts originate from diverse professional backgrounds like ministries, NGOs, international organizations, research, and academic institutes. The analysis was conducted through the Delphi approach, which has been widely used to identify experts’ views by reaching a consensus on various subjects. The Delphi method assisted in the elicitation of experts’ opinions about different water security dimensions in the overall region and each Central Asia country that have been suggested from the relevant literature. The two-round questionnaire was developed to infer the experts’ views (round 1) on water security in Central Asia and then identify the agreement’s rate with the initial findings (round 2). The results have shown that, while the relevant scientific literature gives priority to environmental factors, the experts emphasize water security’s economic aspects. Experts suggested including transboundary challenges, legislative and institutional weaknesses in assessing water security in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Respondents highlighted the low effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the current institutions and mechanisms that dealt with water security-related issues in Central Asia and suggested strengthening water governance in the region.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
В статье приводятся результаты исследований водоемов Урало-Каспийского бассейна на содержание тяжелых металлов в воде. Одним из наиболее объективных и надежных показателей загрязнения водоема и общей антропогенной нагрузки на него является содержание тяжелых металлов в воде, донных отложениях (илах) и биоте. В настоящее время техногенный путь поступления тяжелых металлов в открытые водоемы (со сточными водами промпредприятий, городов, с поверхностными стоками сельхозугодий и др.) значительно превышает естественный. В связи с этим возникает реальная угроза нарушения равновесия водных экосистем, в первую очередь, имеющих рыбохозяйственное значение. Одним из таких объектов с давних пор является Каспийское море и впадающие в него реки.
Мы изучили токсикологическое состояние воды Северо-Восточного Каспия, впадающих в него рек и их притоков. Среди поллютантов тяжелые металлы представляют наиболее приоритетный интерес не только из-за высокой токсичности для водных организмов, но и за способность к аккумуляции и трансформации внутри биоценоза, а также как одна из причин уменьшения численности биоресурсов.
В р. Урал повышенное содержание меди, хрома и свинца во все периоды года и превышение этих металлов составляет 2–6 ПДК. Р. Кигач менее подвержена загрязнению тяжелыми металлами, однако летом было определено повышенное содержание меди и свинца. В рр. Урал и Кигач загрязнение тяжелыми металлами происходит за счет стоков, поступающих из верхних территорий. Установлена сезонная динамика содержания тяжелых металлов в воде Северо-Восточного Каспия. Исследования показали, что тяжелые металлы поступают в водоемы не только во время весенних паводков, а во все сезоны года.
 
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Целью статьи является оценка сохранности саксауловых насаждений на обсохшем дне Аральского моря (ОДАМ) и вблизи поселков, расположенных на коренном берегу. Защитные лесонасаждения саксаула черного (Haloxylon ammodendron) на обсохшем дне были заложены в 2009–2019 гг. по грантам Международного фонда спасения Арала (МФСА), экологических фондов Японии, ПРООН Казахстана и по программе «Корни травы» посольства Японии в Казахстане. В 2020 г., с 1 по 14 сентября, было проведено обследование этих насаждений на 24 участках, прилегающих к населенным пунктам Аралкум и Каратерен. На каждом участке проводились лесотаксационные измерения саксаула, определялось проективное покрытие присутствующих видов, оценивалось семенное возобновление и сохранность насаждений. Наблюдения 2020 г. выявили разное современное состояние саксауловых насаждений. Сохранность саксаула в лесопосадках изменяется от 0,12 до 78 %. Численность саксаула варьировала от 1 до 1000 экз./га на обсохшем дне моря и от 888 до 2633 экз./га в пос. Аралкум. Новизна полученных результатов связана с тем, что наглядно показано, что сохранность лесопосадок, развитие и семенное самовозобновление саксаула зависят, прежде всего, от экологических условий участков, на которых они закладываются. Наилучшая сохранность и развитие саксаула характерны для участков с супесчаными и солончаковыми легкосуглинистыми почвами с навеянным песчаным чехлом, наихудшие – для участков с корковыми и отакыривающимися солончаками.
 
Aliya Assubayeva
added a research item
Water security in Central Asia has been discussed by researchers and international organizations using hydrological, engineering, and modeling approaches. Various frameworks conceptualize water security through technical, socio-economic, and environmental aspects. This study attempts to identify the current trends of perceptions of experts about water security in Central Asian countries and Afghanistan as assessed through different regional and international experts with relevant knowledge and experience. The experts originate from diverse professional backgrounds like ministries, NGOs, international organizations, research, and academic institutes. The analysis was conducted through the Delphi approach, which has been widely used to identify experts’ views by reaching a consensus on various subjects. The Delphi method assisted in the elicitation of experts’ opinions about different water security dimensions in the overall region and each Central Asia country that have been suggested from the relevant literature. The two-round questionnaire was developed to infer the experts’ views (round 1) on water security in Central Asia and then identify the agreement’s rate with the initial findings (round 2). The results have shown that, while the relevant scientific literature gives priority to environmental factors, the experts emphasize water security’s economic aspects. Experts suggested including transboundary challenges, legislative and institutional weaknesses in assessing water security in Central Asia and Afghanistan. Respondents highlighted the low effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the current institutions and mechanisms that dealt with water security-related issues in Central Asia and suggested strengthening water governance in the region.
Stefanos Xenarios
added an update
Наша группа искренне благодарит читателя за проявленный интерес к статье и за время, затраченное на письмо в редакцию.
Основная критика заключается в следующей фразе: «Таким образом, 6 залетов спутника в течение 24 лет, каждый раз в разный сезон, от 1 июля до 6 октября, никак не могут характеризовать многолетнюю динамику альбедо ледника» [Терехов, 2020].
Мы исходили из принципа разумной достаточности. Наша цель была установить общие пределы колебаний альбедо в самом первом приближении; отработать методику пересчёта данных. И это нам удалось. В частности, выявлено достаточно плотное облако точек (рис. 3 и рис. 4) в диапазоне значений альбедо примерно от 0,200 до 0,531. Это указывает на определённую степень загрязнённости поверхности ледника. Аномально высокое альбедо в один год, конечно, обусловлено свежим снегом, что и сказано в статье. Мы не ставили цели выявить высокочастотное колебание альбедо во времени.
Для изучения колебания альбедо за каждые сутки читатель рекомендует использовать «массив из 1800 спутниковых покрытий [MOD 09; 2000–2019 гг., с июля по сентябрь] этой территории» [Терехов, 2020]. Это очень хорошая идея для следующей статьи. Но такая большая работа, конечно, должна проводиться крупным коллективом. Если уважаемый читатель имеет возможность организовать научную группу для обработки такого массива данных, мы с радостью включимся в данное исследование.
Предлагаем примерное название для такой статьи: «Высокочастотное колебание альбедо ледников массива Ак-Шыйрак в период с 1994 по 2018 гг., Тянь-Шань, Кыргызстан».
 
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Река Зарафшан является одним из основных источников водоснабжения для различных отраслей народного хозяйства Узбекистана. Цель данной статьи – анализ использования водных ресурсов в бассейне р. Зарафшан. Задачами являются: расчет количества воды, которую можно будет сэкономить при внедрении водосберегающих технологий в системе ирригации; проверка гипотезы возможности восстановления стока р. Зарафшан в качестве притока р. Амударья, как это было в древности; а также рассмотрение опыта развитых стран по закачке сточных вод в глубокие водоносные слои и возможность внедрения этого опыта в Узбекистане. Измерение расстояния от р. Зарафшан до р. Амударья проводилось при помощи карты, и выяснилось, что на сегодняшний день расстояние составляет 127 км. При внедрении водосберегающих технологий возможно сэкономить достаточно воды и вычислить объём, который необходим для восстановления стока. Результаты показали, что сэкономленной воды хватит на восстановление стока и на освоение новых орошаемых земель. По итогам исследования выяснилось, что гипотеза о восстановлении стока подтверждается и можно не только восстановить сток до р. Амударья, что позволит увеличить объём воды в реке, но также сэкономленную воду можно применять для орошения новых земель. Полученные орошаемые территории могут быть использованы для выращивания садов и виноградников.
 
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В данной статье представлены результаты исследований динамики изменения химического состава воды озера Искандеркуль и впадающих в него рек, а также сравнение результатов качества воды водных объектов бассейна Искандеркуль и некоторых средних притоков реки Зарафшан. Установлено, что по химическому составу вода озера Искандеркуль и его притоков соответствует требованиям государственного стандарта (ГОСТ 2874-82 «Питьевая вода»). Однако вода озера Искандеркуль по показателям растворенного кислорода, меди, цинка, свинца и железа не удовлетворяет требованиям, предъявляемым для рыбоводства. Основными причинами загрязнения воды в регионе являются такие природные явления как наводнения, сходы лавин и селей, растворение горных пород.
 
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В статье исследована возможность применения спутниковой информации о снежном покрове для краткосрочного гидрологического прогнозирования на реках Центральной Азии с высокогорными бассейнами. Целью работы является разработка методики для прогнозирования среднедекадного стока рек Варзоб и Тар на основе спутниковых снимков MODIS, обработанных в программе MODSNOW. Задачами исследования было проведение расчетов индекса снежного покрова (SCI) для высотных зон через 200 м для выбранных речных бассейнов; анализ тесноты зависимостей индекса снежного покрова со среднедекадными расходами воды. В результате были получены уравнения, применимые для выпуска оперативных прогнозов водности рек. Получение своевременной и достоверной информация об ожидаемой водности рек на будущую декаду позволяет лицам, принимающим решения (водохозяйственным и гидроэнергетическим организациям, органам по чрезвычайным ситуациям), планировать водообеспечение различных народнохозяйственных отраслей и принимать превентивные меры по предотвращению опасных гидрологических явлений на реках республик Таджикистан и Кыргызстан.
 
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В статье анализируются вопросы освещения в прессе гендерного распределения труда в водном секторе Узбекистана. Предметом исследования определены контент, виды, методы, формы, приёмы и принципы освещения темы в периодических изданиях «Народное слово», «Правда Востока», «Даракчи». Цель научного исследования – изучить на основе анализа деятельность и подходы узбекистанской прессы по освещению гендерного распределения труда в водном секторе, стереотипы в освещаемой теме и пути их устранения. Для достижения данной цели применены три теоретических подхода к сущности журналистики – формулировка повестки дня, фрейминг и альтеркастинг. Результаты мониторинга материалов прессы показали, что героями публикаций чаще выступают мужчины в качестве специалистов госструктур водного хозяйства, а женщины – как домохозяйки.
 
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The study aimed to define the classes in the Heavy Metals Section of the Regional Environmental Ranking System based on long-term data (1997-2017).  When distinguishing water quality classes, the following factors were taken into account: background content of heavy metals, content of heavy metals in water bodies exposed to different levels and character of anthropogenic pollution, and response of biological communities to toxic pollution of their natural habitats.  According to the proposed classification, the non-contaminated water of Сlass 1 contains the following: Cd<0.2, Cu<2.5, Zn<4, Pb<3, Cr<0.5, and Ni<0.5 μg dm-3.  Class 2 water is characterized by Cd<0.5, Cu<6, Zn<6, Pb<7, Cr<1, and Ni<2 μg dm-3 content.  Moderately polluted water of Class 3 contains Cd<3, Cu<10, Cr<10, Ni<10, Zn<20, and Pb<20 μg dm-3.  Concentrations of all heavy metals increase proportionally and exceed 30-100 μg dm-3 in the most polluted water of Class 6.  The proposed methodological approach assesses not only the local content of heavy metals in water bodies of Kazakhstan but also the degree of toxic pollution of their vast catchment basins.  The proposed methods are applicable to other arid regions with similar physical and climatic conditions.
 
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In Afghanistan, water is mostly used for agricultural purposes. The water supply chain requires updating to en-sure its sustainability. Different irrigation methods – such as surface water based irrigation (via canals), groundwater based irrigation, and the Karez irrigation system – are applied across the country. Considering the compatibility of the Karez system with the environment, it can be deemed the most effective irrigation scheme, as it allows collecting a significant amount of groundwater and conveying it to land surface via sub-horizontal tun-nels using gravity. This article analyzes Afghanistan’s Karez irrigation systems currently feeding water to over 170,000 ha of farmland with a potential to expand and become a component of sustainable water supply chain
 
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The main aim of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of the drinking water quality in Kabul city and identify its suitability for drinking. During the work, a total of 60 water samples were collected from four drinking water sources (qanat, open well, tap water, and a hand pump) located at different points and were tested for physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Physical and chemical analyses were performed according to the standard methods, while a bacterial analysis was performed by using the Wagtech Potatest single incubator test kit and membrane filter method. The results obtained were compared with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO) and Afghanistan’s National Standards Administration (ANSA). The study showed that physical parameters were within acceptable limits for qanat, open well, and tap waters. However, color, taste, odor, and turbidity values exceeded the recommended limits for hand pump wells. All analyzed chemical parameters were within permissible limits recommended by WHO/ANSA. The bacteriological analysis showed total coliform and fecal coliform contamination, particularly in warm weather conditions. The bacteriological contamination reveals the mixing of the sewage water with drinking water due to expired corroded pipes and discharge of wastewater to the groundwater. Several governance recommendations are proposed for improving water quality. They include strengthening coordination between government and public, considering options to install a new water distribution and sewage collection networks, enforcing standards for adequately preventing contamination from septic tanks, and increasing public awareness on low-cost measures such as boiling the drinking water before intake.
 
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Anthropogenic activities and climate change contribute to the deterioration of wetlands worldwide with Central Asia (CA) being among the regions which are most severely affected. This study examined how the distribution of wetlands in CA has changed in the last two decades. Emphasis was put on inland wetlands protected as International Bird and Biodiversity Areas. Time series of maps of wetlands (i.e. reed beds) were created for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2018. A supervised classification approach was applied using NDVI of MODIS satellite images with 1000m resolution for the respective years. Ground control points were acquired through fieldtrips to the lower Chu River, upper Ili River and Ili River Delta in Kazakhstan and the Amu Darya River Delta and the Lower Amu Darya State Biosphere Reserve in Uzbekistan. The applied method is not applicable for the classification of wetlands in northern Kazakhstan. The vegetation there is too alike to the wetland vegetation in terms of values and seasonality of NDVI. For the remaining part of the study area, the applied method delivers satisfying results. However, it is difficult to determine a general trend for most wetland areas since there is a large variability between years. This study marks a first attempt at examining wetlands in CA at a regional scale. The results provide a baseline for further, more detailed research through either fieldtrips or by using higher resolution remote sensing data.
 
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Accurate assessment of the soil salinization is an important step for mitigation of agricultural land degradation. Remote sensing (RS) is widely used for salinity assessment, but knowledge on prediction precision is lacking. A RS-based salinity assessment in Khorezm allows for modest reliable prediction with weak (R2=0.15–0.29) relationship of the salinity maps produced with RS and interpolation of electromagnetic EM38 during growth periods and more reliable (R2=0.35–0.56) beyond irrigation periods. Modeling with HYDRUS-1D at slightly, moderately and highly saline sites at various depths showed that irrigation forces salts to move to deeper layers: salts reappear in the upper profile during dry periods. Beyond irrigation events, salts gradually accumulated in the upper soil layers without fluctuations. Coupling RS techniques with numerical modeling provided better insight into salinity dynamics than any of these approaches alone. This should be of interest to farmers and policy makers since the combination of methods will allow for better planning and management.
 
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The present contribution is based on a keynote presentation at the 2018 International Symposium on Water and Land Resources in Central Asia (CAWa). It reviews the current international literature on the topic in view of developing the necessary knowledge basis, including aspects related to Central Asia.
 
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The paper analyses initiatives and plans implemented by the Afghan Government and international community to enhance human capacity and hydro-meteorological data acquisition,
 
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В данной работе была рассмотрена многолетняя динамика широкополосного альбедо для снега и льда, а также динамика размера таких ледников как Лысый, Давыдов и Сары-Тор массива Ак-Шыйрак (Кыргызстан),
 
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The study analyzes maximum wave height at coastal stations using wave and wind data, SWAN model. The outcome offers some wind zoning map for the Kazakh part of Caspian Sea,
 
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This paper offers an assessment of the hydroecological state of the Syr Darya delta by using data from the Karateren and Kazalinsk gauging
stations,
 
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Glad to share an announcement by the OSCE Programme Office in Dushanbe (POiD) in cooperation with the OSCE Academy in Bishkek on the 4th Capacity Building Workshop for young researchers from Central Asia and Afghanistan in Water Policy Studies at 22-27 March 2020 in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
The training course will be followed by a two-month mentorship program in which selected candidates will be guided to writing up their research for publication. OSCE POiD will cover the travel costs (from within Central Asia and Afghanistan) and provide per diem for the course participants.
 
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We welcome papers in the following research areas withing the Central Asia region and its neighboring countries:
  • Economic & financial mechanisms
  • Climate and environment
  • Hydro technical facilities
  • Water Governance
  • Capacity development
  • Food security
  • Drinking water and sanitation
CAJWR is indexed in Google Scholar, the Russian Science Index System (RINZ). All accepted articles receive a DOI prefix.
CAJWR does not have any publication and processing charges and all the manuscripts are published free of cost in the original language submitted (English or Russian) as well into a translated version.
 
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The paper presents results of comparison rock quality designation (RQD) and Lugeon parameters, based on a review and analysis of initial engineering-geological studies and additional field observations, https://www.water-ca.org/article/8186-analysis-of-engineering-properties-of-rock-mass-of-shah-wa-arus-dam-site-kabul-afghanistan
 
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After reviewing the water situation in Kazakhstan and identifying some of the important issues in the water sector, the economic and financial tools will be discussed,
 
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The purpose of this paper is to explore the problem of regional water security in Central Asia given the crucial importance of water resources for all interested states.
 
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This paper presents the rules of international water law, as they apply to transboundary aquifers following from these instruments, with a specific focus on the draft articles, https://www.water-ca.org/article/8014-international-water-law-for-transboundary-aquifers-a-global-perspective
 
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International watercourses are a very significant part of the water resources endowment of Central Asia (CA) where a “water-energy-agriculture nexus” has long been a conundrum, https://www.water-ca.org/article/7614-international-watercourses-international-water-law-and-central-asia
 
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The paper explores the benefit of collaboration between the littoral countries beyond water allocation and sharing for extending Afghanistan and Pakistan cooperation for sustainable development of the Kabul River Basin, pls see here
 
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OSCE Programme Office in Dushanbe (POiD) anticipates organizing its 3rd Capacity Building Workshop for young researchers in Water Policy Studies.
 
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Внутрисезонное изменение осадков и климатических характеристик в бассейне реки Кабул ,http://www.water-ca.org/article/3246
Взаимодействие воды, электроэнергии и продовольствия в Таджикистане: роль ассоциаций водопользователей в улучшении энергетической и продовольственной безопасности, http://www.water-ca.org/article/3233
Управление водными ресурсами на местном уровне в Таджикистане: правовые основы ,http://www.water-ca.org/article/3223
 
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The paper can bee found in CAJWR in the following weblink: http://www.water-ca.org/article/3214-local-water-management-in-tajikistan-legal-framework, hope you enjoy reading!
It is can be also downloaded from the attached document
 
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CAJWR seeks original research in the following research areas with focus on Central Asian countries or Afghanistan:
* Economic and financial mechanisms * Climate and environment * Hydro technical facilities * Water Governance * Capacity development * Food security * Drinking water and sanitation * Agroforestry
All the papers are to be submitted in Russian or English language. .
Publication is free of charge.
Please submit your manuscript through the online submission system, https://submissions.scholasticahq.com/login
 
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Многофункциональное использование водных ресурсов водопользователями в сельских поселениях – на примере Ферганского района Узбекистана, Нозилахон Нозилахон Мухамедоваa, Institution: Отдел Общих Условий Аграрного Сектора и Политического Анализа Институт аграрного развития в Странах с Переходной Экономикой имени Лейбница, Галле (Заале), Германия, Кай Вегерих, Institution: Институт Геологии и Географии Галле-Виттенбергский Университет имени Мартина Лютера, Галле (Заале), Германия, http://www.water-ca.org/article/2706
The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Tajikistan: The Role of Water User Associations in improving Energy and Food Security, Ronan Shenhav, Institution: University of Groningen, Department of International Relations, Daler Domullodzhanov Institution: Independent Researcher, Tajikistan, http://www.water-ca.org/article/2707-the-water-energy-food-nexus-in-tajikistan-the-role-of-water-user-associations-in-improving-energy-and-food-security
 
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Intra-seasonal Variation of Rainfall and Climate Characteristics in Kabul River Basin,
The rising challenge of multiple water resource use at the urban fringes – evidence from Ferghana District of Uzbekistan
Влияние изменения климатических условий на ледовый режим Каспийского моря
 
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Here is the English version of the Influence of climate change on the ice regime of the Caspian Sea, hope you enjoy reading!
It is can be also downloaded from the attached document
 
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CAJWR is now on Facebook and Vkontakte! ( Great thanks to our Managing Editor, Ms. Marina Kolaleva)
We look forward to seeing you in there!
 
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Assessment of Water Quality and Quantity trends in Kabul Aquifers with an outline for future water supplies, http://www.water-ca.org/article/1925-assessment-of-water-quality-and-quantity-trends-in-kabul-aquifers-with-an-outline-for-future-water-supplies
Влияние изменения климатических условий на ледовый режим Каспийского моря, http://www.water-ca.org/article/2589
 
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“Central Asian Journal of Water Research (CAJWR)”, ISSN: 2522-9060, is a bi-lingual, open-access, peer-reviewed e-Journal dedicated to all aspects of water management in the region of Central Asia.
CAJWR seeks to reach all scientists working in the areas of Water Research and familiarize them with each other’s achievements across the region, not limiting its range to the national audience. It aims at strengthening the existing networks to support creation of the regional scientific community with the goal of developing scientific research throughout the region.