added 2 research items
The middle Cambrian Hanneh Member of the Burj Formation and the middle to upper Cambrian Umm Ishrin Formation of the Dead Sea area, Jordan, contain well-preserved and abundant ichnofaunas. Trace fossils are present in a wide variety of depositional environments, from tide-dominated shelf to prodelta, delta front and interdistributary-bay tidal flats. Twelve trace fossil assemblages have been identified within a number of sequence-stratigraphic settings, namely early transgressive subtidal dune and bar complex, late transgressive isolated dune patches and dune-field abandonment, highstand deltaic progradation, and forced-regressive deltaic progradation. These ichnofaunas provide information that helps us to understand the nature of Cambrian ecosystems in the aftermath of the Cambrian radiation. The Jordan ichnofaunas display evidence of firm ground conditions at or near the sea bottom. These include (1) well-preserved scratch marks in most Cruziana and Rusophycus ichnospecies, (2) adhering Gyrolithes polonicus burrows, and (3) unlined passively filled Diplocraterion isp. penetrating into underlying mudstone. Whereas the Diplocraterion isp. occurrences are a classic example of the Glossifungites ichnofacies linked to erosional exhumation, the firmground G. polonicus is associated to a maximum flooding surface with no erosion involved. The trace fossil suites dominated by trilobite structures are firmground examples of the Cruziana ichnofacies, raising issues with respect to the substrate affinities of this ichnofacies, which is typically considered indicative of softgrounds. Our study underscores evolutionary controls on this ichnofacies, suggesting that lower Paleozoic occurrences, which are dominated by trilobite trails and trackways, reflect firm substrates and younger ones represent the typical softground examples. The occurrence of abundant bilobate trace fossils, scratch marks and trackways in interdistributary-bay tidal flats within a braidplain delta complex in the Umm Ishrin Formation provides evidence that arthropods were able to foray into marginal-marine brackish-water settings during the Cambrian. Analysis of the tiering structure indicates relatively simple communities and limited use of the infaunal ecospace. Low-energy fully marine and marginal-marine ichnofabrics are dominated by shallow-tier deposit- and detritus-feeding trace fossils. Deep-tier structures of detritus feeders are present in ichnofabrics from fully marine low-energy settings, whereas deep-tier trace fossils of suspension feeders are dominant in high-energy subtidal zones.
The Hanneh Member (Cambrian Stage 5) of the Burj Formation and the Umm Ishrin Formation of Jordan represent a transgressive-regressive succession that contains twenty-eight ichnotaxa, including vertical burrows (Arenicolites isp., Diplocraterion isp., Gyrolithes polonicus, Rosselia isp., Skolithos linearis, escape trace fossils), horizontal simple burrows and trails (Archaeonassa fossulata, Gordia marina, Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Palaeophycus tubularis, Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus), plug-shaped burrows (Bergaueria sucta), horizontal branched burrows (Asterosoma isp., Phycodes isp., Treptichnus cf. T. pedum), bilobate structures (various ichnospecies of Cruziana and Rusophycus), and trackways and scratch marks (Diplichnites isp., Dimorphichnus cf. D. obliquus, Monomorphichnus isp.). Eleven trace-fossil assemblages are identified. The Arenicolites isp. and Diplocraterion isp. assemblages occur in transgressive tidal dunes and bars whereas the Rosselia isp. assemblage characterizes areas between tidal dunes. The Cruziana salomonis assemblage reflects a wide variety of environmental settings including channels within tidal-bar complexes, bottomsets of tidal dunes, and interdune areas. The Gordia marina assemblage is present between dune patches. The Gyrolithes polonicus assemblage penetrates into firmground mudstone below the maximum flooding surface. The Bergaueria sucta, Archaeonassa fossulata, Rusophycus aegypticus and Cruziana problematica assemblages occur in different subenvironments of the progradational delta. Cruziana salomonis and Rusophycus burjensis, originally considered indicative of an early Cambrian age, are actually middle Cambrian in their type locality. Occurrences of Cruziana jordanica and Rusophycus aegypticus provide evidence that these ichnospecies are of the same age in Jordan and may co-exist in terms of stratigraphic distribution with C. salomonis and R. burjensis.