Project

Building Tartessos: Constructive, spatial and territorial analysis of an architectural model in the Middle Guadiana valley

Goal: Our knowledge of Tartessos is based mainly on isolated objects and on the necropolis excavated in the past century, as well as some
remains of the urban layout and walls that have barely given any information about the complex social system of this culture. All this
information belongs to researches that lack an architectonic spatial analysis within the territory where the Tartesic culture was developed,
the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in a period characterized by the Mediterranean colonization of Phoenicians and Greeks, between
the IX and the VI centuries BCE.
The main objective of this project is the characterization of the Tartesic material culture sensibly complemented by our actual knowledge
through the architectonic study of public buildings excavated in the past two decades. Until this moment, only the layouts a have been
studied and some interpretations of their function have been given, but lack an analysis of the architectonic model, limited almost
exclusively to planimetric documentation. Therefore, we want to introduce the concept of architecture as an element integrated within a
territory, at the same time that we consider it fundamental for the analysis of the perception that society had at the time of that architecture,
as well as the impact of this architecture in the mentality of this society.
We postulate a new analytical system consisting in the study of the construction, the establishment of comparisons among this analysis
and the interpretation of the results obtained. For this to be done, we want to unite traditional architectonic studies, the symbolic
expression of these construction, and the environmental analysis of the territory where these constructions are located.
This new methodological model is susceptible of being applied to other cultural and chronological spheres, which means a high level of
impact of this project.
This proyect has a strong multidisciplinary character, though having a solid archaeologycal bases, derived from the need to tecnically
analyze the constructive systems of this buildings, being able to manage the large amount of data obtained from aereal and LiDAR
surveys, as well as studing the anthropological connotations of this phenomenon.

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Project log

Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added a research item
El valle medio del Guadiana se ha convertido en el mejor escenario para el estudio de la cultura tartésica gracias al excelente estado de conservación que presentan los yacimientos de esta región hasta la fecha conocidos. Este trabajo recoge un pequeño recorrido por la arquitectura monumental de la periferia a través tanto del estudio de su territorio como del análisis de dos casos concretos: Cancho Roano y el Turuñuelo. El hecho de que los edificios bajo túmulo conocidos en el valle medio del Guadiana estén construidos en tierra obliga a plantear una metodología de musealización que favorezca su conservación. Por último, planteamos iniciativas para el fomento de la divulgación y la puesta en valor de los yacimientos protohistóricos de la región.
Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added 2 research items
Se presentan los primeros resultados de las excavaciones del patio del edificio de época tartésica de Casas del Turuñuelo (Guareña, Badajoz), resultado de las excavaciones llevadas a cabo en los años 2017 y 2018. En este trabajo se analiza tanto su arquitectura como las técnicas constructivas empleadas para conformar este espacio, donde destaca especialmente la presencia de una escalera monumental que salva la distancia entre las dos plantas conservadas del edificio; así mismo, se dan a conocer los materiales de importación mediterránea documentados en este ámbito. Por último, se ofrecen los primeros datos acerca de la hecatombe de animales documentada sobre el suelo del patio, dentro de la cual destaca la figura del caballo. Estos hallazgos convierten al yacimiento de Casas del Turuñuelo en un ejemplo único para abordar el estudio de los últimos momentos de la cultura tartésica en el valle medio del Guadiana, a finales del siglo V ane.
Esther Rodríguez González
added a research item
Dressing the sacrifice: textiles, textile production and the sacrificial economy at Casas del Turuñuelo in fifth-century BC Iberia - Volume 93 Issue 370 - Beatriz Marín-Aguilera, Esther Rodríguez-González, Sebastián Celestino, Margarita Gleba
Esther Rodríguez González
added 2 research items
Analysis of the mortars and coatings used in the walls of the archaeological site “El Turuñuelo” has been carried out using spectrometric and thermo-physics techniques. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy coupled with X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) were used to shed light on the composition and morphology of the mortars used in the construction of the Tartessic building. In addition, studies of porosity and thermogravimetry, and comparisons with mortars from Roman and Arabic Iberian civilizations nearby have also been performed. From the results of EDXRF, Fe was found as the main element, while Ti, K and Ca were observed as minor components, and some traces of Si and Mn. The semiquantitative analysis performed by XRD and FTIR showed that the samples were mainly composed of aluminum silicates such as illite, dawsonite, muscovite, glauconite and calcium montmorillonite. SEM-EDX and stratigraphic studies showed the morphology of the samples, and the absence of Ca, which is in agreement with the visual assumption of adobe as the material used in mortars. This Ca fault was confirmed by the thermogravimetry results, where no weight losses were found in the heating curves.
This article presents a new approach towards the territorial model in the central Guadiana valley during the Early Iron Age. The main focus is an analysis of the so-called Tartessian buildings hidden under tumuli. These buildings are large constructions which bear a certain resemblance to the Phoenician architecture of the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. A settlement pattern can be discussed which is unique to the period, and which gives personality to the geographical sphere in which it is found.
Esther Rodríguez González
added 2 research items
The main purpose of this project was to verify the use of the DStretch plugin, designed to study rock art, for analysing post-firing painted pottery from the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in the Atlantic façade of the Iberian Peninsula. To do so, a Guadalquivir-type carinated pot was used as a study vessel from the excavations of Portaceli (Medellín, Badajoz, Spain). The study brought together all of the different methods used, from the photogrammetry used to obtain a high-quality image of the piece, analysis with DStretch, and the final 3-D modelling process in order to accurately reproduce the shape and decoration of the vessel. The final goal was to obtain precise documentation on these types of vessels, the handling of which is not recommended due to the fragile nature of the pigments used in their decoration.
Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added 4 research items
Uno de los aspectos constructivos-estructurales que queremos destacar en este trabajo es el planteamiento de la cubrición de la estancia principal del Turuñuelo. Las dimensiones en planta de la habitación principal son de 11,00 m de largo por 5,50 m de ancho aproximadamente, es decir en una proporción aproximada de 2:1. Estas dimensiones la convierten en uno de los espacios más amplios de los ejemplos arquitectónicos adscritos a la protohistoria del suroeste peninsular. Sus grandes dimensiones (60 m2 aprox.) plantean el problema de su cubrición, pues habitualmente los edificios de esta cronología emplean techos planos construidos con ramajes y barro; sin embargo, la ausencia de restos vegetales, caso de vigas de sustentación, durante las labores de excavación de esta estancia descartan esa hipótesis de trabajo. Frente a ellos planteamos la existencia de una falsa bóveda de ladrillos de arcilla como elemento de cubrición de este espacio. Para ello nos basamos en los siguientes indicios: 1- Durante las labores de excavación se documentaron una gran cantidad de ladrillos de arcilla sobre el suelo de la estancia, concentrados en mayor volumen en el extremo oriental de la misma. 2- Los muros longitudinales de la estancia, orientados al norte y al sur, tienen un ancho de aproximadamente 1,70 m y una profundidad de alrededor de 6 m. 3- Las paredes que cierran este espacio principal conservan en algunos puntos los 1,25 y 1,30 m de altura, un hecho poco habitual en excavaciones similares realizadas hasta el momento. 4- La conservación del alzado de los muros ha permitido registrar, justo en el tramo en el que se localiza unos de los elementos más singulares de la estancia, la bañera o sarcófago, que presenta un trazado curvo regular. 5- Características físicas de los ladrillos y conservación de parte del dintel de la puerta. PLANTEAMIENTO DE LA HIPÓTESIS: A partir del segmento circular de la pared y de otras consideraciones, como la altura de la singular puerta como único punto de acceso a la sala principal, se propone un trazado geométrico que Choisy (1904) denominó como Carpanel Peraltado, y que tiene su origen en la búsqueda de geometrizar la catenaria. Arco que como es conocido no presenta juntas de rotura. Como se puede observar en las imágenes aportadas, se trata de un arco con tres centros. Dos de los centros son los extremos del ancho de la sala a cubrir. El tercer centro que necesitamos para cerrar la parte mas alta del arco y también para determinar la longitud de los diferentes segmentos que forman el arco, surge de dividir el ancho de la estancia en 8 partes iguales. En el centro, es decir a cuatro partes de las paredes laterales, se sitúa el cateto menor del conocido triángulo de relación 3:4:5, obteniendo una recta perpendicular al piso y en cuyo vértice, es decir a tres partes, está el tercer centro. La aparente complejidad del método del trazado geométrico es de una maravillosa sencillez en su replanteo espacial, como ya expuso Choisy, con una sencilla cuerda dividida en 8 partes iguales a la que se ata otra de 5 partes iguales en la quinta parte, se realiza el trazado para su ejecución solo mediante la tensión de las cuerdas.
Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added a research item
The fact that the middle valley of the Guadiana River has been considered as a peripheral region of Tartesos since the Late Bronze Age has highly conditioned the different interpretations regarding the settlement pattern of this area. Considered as a system that had been inspired by the main territories of Tartesos, this preconception of its territorial organization has nullified the strong personality that this territory possesses by increasing its supposed dependence on the population documented in the Guadalquivir Valley, while diminishing its strong link to the Atlantic world. Therefore, in the following paper we pose a new re-lecture for a better understanding of the territorial and social-economical organization of this region based on new archaeological evidences obtained throughout a series of archaeological excavations carried out in the last couple of years.
Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added a research item
Sebastián Celestino Pérez
added a project goal
Our knowledge of Tartessos is based mainly on isolated objects and on the necropolis excavated in the past century, as well as some
remains of the urban layout and walls that have barely given any information about the complex social system of this culture. All this
information belongs to researches that lack an architectonic spatial analysis within the territory where the Tartesic culture was developed,
the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in a period characterized by the Mediterranean colonization of Phoenicians and Greeks, between
the IX and the VI centuries BCE.
The main objective of this project is the characterization of the Tartesic material culture sensibly complemented by our actual knowledge
through the architectonic study of public buildings excavated in the past two decades. Until this moment, only the layouts a have been
studied and some interpretations of their function have been given, but lack an analysis of the architectonic model, limited almost
exclusively to planimetric documentation. Therefore, we want to introduce the concept of architecture as an element integrated within a
territory, at the same time that we consider it fundamental for the analysis of the perception that society had at the time of that architecture,
as well as the impact of this architecture in the mentality of this society.
We postulate a new analytical system consisting in the study of the construction, the establishment of comparisons among this analysis
and the interpretation of the results obtained. For this to be done, we want to unite traditional architectonic studies, the symbolic
expression of these construction, and the environmental analysis of the territory where these constructions are located.
This new methodological model is susceptible of being applied to other cultural and chronological spheres, which means a high level of
impact of this project.
This proyect has a strong multidisciplinary character, though having a solid archaeologycal bases, derived from the need to tecnically
analyze the constructive systems of this buildings, being able to manage the large amount of data obtained from aereal and LiDAR
surveys, as well as studing the anthropological connotations of this phenomenon.