Project

Bridging the Divide

Goal: Details available at: www.dietitians.ca/mentalhealth

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Project log

Karen M Davison
added 4 research items
Background: Little is known about depression in middle-aged and older Canadians and how it is affected by health determinants, particularly immigrant status. This study examined depression and socio-economic, health, immigration and nutrition-related factors in older adults. Methods: Using weighted comprehensive cohort data from the baseline Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (n = 27,162) of adults aged 45-85, gender-specific binary logistic regression was conducted with the cross-sectional data using the following variables: 1) Depression (outcome) measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression (CESD-10) rating scale; 2) Immigration status: native-born, recent and mid-term (< 20 years), and long-term immigrants (≥20 years); and 3) covariates: socioeconomic status, physical health (e.g., multi-morbidity), health behavior (e.g., substance use), over-nutrition (e.g., anthropometrics), under-nutrition (e.g., nutrition risk), and dietary intake. Results: The sample respondents were mainly Canadian-born (82.6%), women (50.6%), 56-65 years (58.9%), earning between C$50,000-99,999 (33.2%), and in a relationship (69.4%). When compared to Canadian-born residents, recent, mid-term (< 20 years), and longer-term (≥ 20 years) immigrant women were more likely to report depression and this relationship was robust to adjustments for 32 covariates (adjusted ORs = 1.19, 2.54, respectively, p < 0.001). For women, not completing secondary school (OR = 1.23, p < 0.05), stage 1 hypertension (OR = 1.31, p < 0.001), chronic pain (OR = 1.79, p < 0.001), low fruit/vegetable intakes (OR = 1.33, p < 0.05), and fruit juice (OR = 1.80, p < 0.001), chocolate (ORs = 1.15-1.66, p's < 0.05), or salty snack (OR = 1.19, p < 0.05) consumption were associated with depression. For all participants, lower grip strength (OR = 1.25, p < 0.001) and high nutritional risk (OR = 2.24, p < 0.001) were associated with depression. For men, being in a relationship (OR = 0.62, p < 0.001), completing post-secondary education (OR = 0.82, p < 0.05), higher fat (ORs = 0.67-83, p's < 0.05) and omega-3 egg intake (OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) as well as moderate intakes of fruits/vegetables and calcium/high vitamin D sources (ORs = 0.71-0.743, p's < 0.05) predicted a lower likelihood of depression. For men, chronic conditions (ORs = 1.36-3.65, p's < 0.001), chronic pain (OR = 1.86, p < 0.001), smoking (OR = 1.17, p < 0.001), or chocolate consumption (ORs = 1.14-1.72, p's < 0.05) predicted a higher likelihood of depression. Conclusions: The odds of developing depression were highest among immigrant women. Depression in middle-aged and older adults is also associated with socioeconomic, physical, and nutritional factors and the relationships differ by sex. These results provide insights for mental health interventions specific to adults aged 45-85.
Background: Psychological distress increases mortality risk; there is little knowledge about its prevelance and contributory factors in older populations. Methods: Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging baseline data (2010-2015) were analyzed to examine the relationship between Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale-K10 and immigrant status (recent/mid-term,<20 years; long-term, ≥20 years; Canadian-born). Covariates included socioeconomic and health-related variables. Stratified by sex, two series of multinomial logistic regression were used to calculate the likelihood of having mild distress (20 < K10 score ≤24) and moderate/severe distress (K10 score >24). Results: Respondents (n = 25,700) were mainly Canadian-born (82.8%), 45-65 years (59.3%), earning <C$100,000/year (58.2%), and had a post-secondary education (78.4%). For women, psychological distress was associated with being a recent/mid-term immigrant(OR=1.76, 99% CI 1.09-2.83), marital status (widowed/divorced/separated, OR=1.62, 99% CI 1.19-2.20), lower education level (<secondary school; OR = 1.95, 99% CI 1.32-2.88), lower intake of fruit and vegetable (≤ 2/day; OR=1.50, 99% CI 1.05-2.14), higher waist-to-height ratio (>cut-off; OR=1.32, 99% CI 1.02-1.70), and higher nutritional risk (ORs = 2.16-3.31, p's <0.001). For men, psychological distress was associated with under-nutrition (grip strength<cut-off, OR=1.57, 99% CI 1.14-2.16). For men and women, psychological distress was associated with age (>56 years, ORs=0.19-0.79, p's<0.01), lower income (≤C$149,000, ORs = 1.68-7.79, p's<0.01), multi-morbidities (ORs = 1.67-4.70, p's<0.01), chronic pain (ORs = 1.67-3.09, p's<0.001) and higher intake of chocolate (≥ 0.6 bar/week, ORs=1.61-2.23, p's<0.001). Limitations: Cross-sectional design prohibits causal inferences. Conclusions: Nutritional factors, immigration status, social, and health-related problems are strongly associated with psychological distress among midlife and older adults.
Karen M Davison
added a research item
Webinar Link: https://pho.adobeconnect.com/_a1158264515/p946frhp1lov/?proto=true The co-occurrence of various health-compromising behaviours such as low physical activity, sedentary activities, substance use, poor sleep quality and unhealthy diet highlight the need to use systems science approaches to better understand and promote mental health. With an emphasis on current evidence about the various relationships between eating behaviours and mental health, this presentation discusses risk and protective factors connected to nutritional and mental health promotion. Additionally, it highlights how multiple mental health-compromising behaviours may be mediated by an ever-changing system that encapsulates factors such as social engagement, built environments, mass media, as well as health and social policies that impact population mental health. The presentation highlights current best practices and systems approaches, examples of comprehensive strategies that foster both healthy eating and mental health promotion that are applicable to public health practice.
Karen M Davison
added a research item
Because successful integration post-immigration is critical to Canada’s population health, national data were analyzed to examine mental health, food insecurity (Household Food Security Survey Module), and diet quality (e.g., nutrient intakes) between foreign-born immigrants and native-born Canadians. After controlling for sociodemographic and health covariates, immigrants were more likely to report poor mental health, food insecurity, and poor diet quality (ORs 1.038–1.080); consume less carbohydrates, vitamin B1, and iron (ORs 0.814–0.996); and have higher intakes of fat, fiber, and vitamins B6 and B9 (ORs 1.003–1.420; all p’s<0.05). These results can help to advance policy developments to help mitigate the ‘healthy immigrant effect’.
Pat Vanderkooy
added 2 research items
In 2014, a national initiative aimed at defining a research agenda for nutrition and mental health among diverse stakeholders was completed and included insights from more than 300 registered dietitians. This study explores the data from dietitians based on their years of practice, mental health experiences, and community of practice in relationship to identified mental health and nutrition research priorities. Analysis of numerical data (n = 299) and content analysis of open-ended responses (n = 269) revealed that respondents desired research for specific mental health conditions (MHCs), emotional eating, food addiction, populations with special needs, and people encountering major life transitions (e.g., recovery from abuse, refugees). Findings from the quantitative and textual data suggested that dietitians want research aimed at addressing the concerns of those in the community, fostering consumer nutrition knowledge and skill acquisition, and developing services that will impact quality of life. Subgroup analysis indicated that dietitians: (i) in early years of practice want information about specific MHCs; (ii) living in smaller towns and rural areas want data about the cost benefits of dietetics practice in mental health; and (iii) who also had additional stakeholder roles (e.g., service provider) selected priorities that address gaps in mental health services. This study highlights opportunities to tailor nutrition and mental health research that advance dietetics practice.
Karen M Davison
added a research item
Background: To address nutrition-related population mental health data gaps, we examined relationships among food insecurity, diet quality, and perceived mental health. Methods: Stratified and logistic regression analyses of respondents aged 19-70 years from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 were conducted (n = 15,546). Measures included the Household Food Security Survey Module, diet quality (i.e., comparisons to the Dietary Reference Intakes, Healthy Eating Index), perceived mental health (poor versus good), sociodemographics, and smoking. Results: In this sample, 6.9% were food insecure and 4.5% reported poor mental health. Stratified analysis of food security and mental health status by age/gender found associations for poor diet quality, protein, fat, fibre, and several micronutrients (p-values < 0.05); those who were food insecure tended to have higher suboptimal intakes (p-values < 0.05). After adjustment for covariates, associations in relation to mental health emerged for food insecurity (OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.45-1.71), poor diet quality (1.61, 95% CI 1.34-1.81), and suboptimal intakes of folate (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.17-1.90) and iron (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.23-1.88). Conclusions: Population approaches that improve food security and intakes of high quality diets may protect people from poor mental health.
Scott Mitchell
added 2 research items
Learning Outcome: The participant will be able to describe the process of developing a research agenda for nutrition and community mental health that engages stakeholders with experiential understanding of the system. Background: Nutrition and mental health research tends to be directed by clinicians, scientists , and funding agencies. The evidence suggests, however, that collaborative engagement of various stakeholders with experiential understanding of the system can better inform research activities. The aim of this project was to develop a collaborative framework to guide research relevant to nutrition and community mental health.
Scott Mitchell
added a research item
Objective To develop a national nutrition and mental health research agenda based on the engagement of diverse stakeholders and to assess research priorities by stakeholder groups. Design A staged, integrated and participatory initiative was implemented to structure a national nutrition and mental health research agenda that included: (i) national stakeholder consultations to prioritize research questions; (ii) a workshop involving national representatives from research, policy and practice to further define priorities; (iii) triangulation of data to formulate the agenda; and (iv) test hypotheses about stakeholder influences on decision making. Setting Canada. Subjects Diverse stakeholders including researchers, academics, administrators, service providers, policy makers, practitioners, non-profit, industry and funding agency representatives, front-line workers, individuals with lived experience of a mental health condition and those who provide care for them. Results This first-of-its-kind research priority-setting initiative showed points of agreement among diverse stakeholders ( n 899) on research priorities aimed at service provision; however, respondents with lived experience of a mental health condition (themselves or a family member) placed emphasis on prevention and mental health promotion-based research. The final integrated agenda identified four research priorities, including programmes and services, service provider roles, the determinants of health and knowledge translation and exchange. These research priorities aim to identify effective models of care, enhance collaboration, inform policy makers and foster knowledge dissemination. Conclusions Since a predictor of research uptake is the involvement of relevant stakeholders, a sustained and deliberate effort must continue to engage collaboration that will lead to the optimization of nutrition and mental health-related outcomes.
Karen M Davison
added a project goal
Details available at: www.dietitians.ca/mentalhealth