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Bradybaeninae of Shandong
The genus PseudiberusAncey, 1887, in Shandong, China, distributed in the mid to the south mountainous areas of the province, represents the largest terrestrial mollusks in this region. By molecular phylogenetic inference and genetic distance comparison based on ITS2 + 16S sequences, P. tectumsinense tectumsinense (Martens, 1873), P. tectumsinense zenonis (Gredler, 1882), P. tectumsinense anderssoni (Odhner, 1925) and P. tectumsinense depressus (Yen, 1935), are confirmed to be subspecies under P. tectumsinense (Martens, 1873). Pseudiberus tectumsinense pingi, new subspecies, is proposed to be new based on shell morphology, anatomy, and evidence of molecular phylogeny. Pseudiberus futtereri (Andreae, 1900) is removed from the species list of Shandongese Pseudiberus. The proximal accessory sac, observed in all the anatomically known Pseudiberus from Shandong, is described for the first time in dart sac apparatus from the bradybaenine snails. The variations and patterns of the proximal accessory sac among Pseudiberus tectumsinense subspecies and P. chentingensis distributed east to the Taihangshan Mountain Chain are examined. The close relationship among Shandong's Pseudiberus might be indicative of their rather recent evolutionary divergence, which was possibly driven by allopatric isolation of populations confined to refugial habitats like isolated mountain tops surrounded by extensive flood plains.
The type specimens of the species described by Yen (1935) in the genera Cathaica Möllendorff, 1884 and Pseudiberus Ancey, 1887 have been re-examined and are illustrated for the first time in colour and at a high resolution. A total of 12 holotypes and 28 paratypes are considered. These types are all deposited in the Tianjin Natural History Museum (the former Musée Hoangho Paiho), China. The current status of the type specimens, including the type status, the labels, and the coding systems are detailed. Photographs of dorsal, ventral, and apertural views of the shells and close-ups of the protoconchs are provided.
Three new synonyms are recognised among recently described camaenid taxa from China. Two subspecies of the newly described Bradybaena changchunensis Sun, Zeng et He, 2017 are to be referred to B. virgo (Pilsbry, 1927), and the newly described Nesiohelix meiqiui Ge et He, 2017 is referred to Aegistohadra delavayana (Heude, 1885). Differences in the method of whorl counting are a major cause of this confusion. A further confusion over B. virgo was also revealed by this study.