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The study aimed to evaluate the effect of protein and energy supplementation on the biochemical blood parameters in Holstein cows. The effect of energy and protein supplementation used corn and soybean meal was evaluated on biochemical blood profile in three groups of Holstein cows raised in small stakeholder farmers in Yogyakarta from February to May 2020. Thirty multiparous Holstein cows were allocated to three treatment groups, namely T0 in which the cows fed by the basal diet from the local farmer as well as the T1 (3.5% energy and protein supplementation) and T2 (5% energy and protein supplementation), in which the cows were fed by added energy and protein supplementation. The diets designed for the treatment groups were different from the basal diet by adding two additional ingredients which were soybean meal and corn meal in purpose to depress the stress from adaptive feeding. The results showed that the treated cows (T1 and T2) had significantly higher serum concentrations of glucose (T1 = 2.12 0.49 mmol/L, T2 = 1.86 0.40 mmol/L) rather than T0 (0.98 0.48 mmol/L). The total concentration of serum protein and urea in treated cows was significantly lower than those with the basal diet. Total serum protein and urea in T1 were 0.69 1.37 mmol/L and 7.21 1.99 mmol/L, respectively; which they were 0.63 0.06 mmol/L and 7.69 3.07 mmol/L in T2, compared to the T0 which were 0.82 0.05 mmol/L and 7.69 3.07 mmol/L, respectively. There was no significant difference in blood cholesterol among all treatment groups. In conclusion, the supplementations that varied in the proportion of energy and protein intake affected some biochemical blood profiles, such as glucose, protein, and blood urea nitrogen.
The exfoliative cytology of the vaginal was evaluated in Saanen goat during the estrus cycle. Vaginal smear is a simple technique to determine the stages of estrus cycle and it is a useful tool in determining optimum to identify the stages of estrus phase. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of exfoliative vaginal cell during the stages of estrus cycle using vaginal smear techniques in Saanen goat. Twenty Saanen goat with weigh 45-55 kg, age of 3-4 years and had a period of estrus 19-22 days in dry period were used. All goats were in natural estrus cycle without synchronization. A vaginal smear and vaginal pH were collected from swabbed vaginal epithelium in does. The result showed the proportion of vaginal cell was significantly different in each phase of estrus cycle. The result showed the proportion of superficial cell was dominated in estrus phase which was 88.0312.87 Also, the highest pH values were significantly higher in estrus phase rather than in the other phases. In conclusion, the dominant proportion of superficial cell and a high vaginal pH value that occurred in folli ABSTRACT The Vaginal smear is an application which used for estrus identification and already reported in some animals . Estrus behavior could be discovered either by extrinsic behavior or the exfoliative vaginal cytology cells. The vaginal smear was used to ascertain the physiological and health status as well as an instrument for endocrine bioassay, . Exfoliated cells in the vaginal epithelium have ensued from estrogen enhancement which causes the dense of the vaginal wall. As the outermost layer, the epithelium budges further from the vascular supply and exfoliated became keratin cells and easy to lose from the duct. The vaginal epithelial cells were identified relate with the location in the vaginal mucosa as parabasal, intermediate and superficial cells . The vaginal smear was utilized to assess the endocrine condition also to identification the reproductive phase in female. The phases of estrus cycle caused pH alterations under the effect of estrogen. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to identify morphologic characteristics of the epithelial cells and pH values from the vagina during estrus cycle that not being studied before in Saanen goat.
The objective of this study was to determine effect of different rumen undegraded protein level on feed consumption, nutrient digestion, body weight and body condition score in early lactating dairy cattle. Ten Friesian Holstein cows were divided into two groups (five animals were used as control and another group as treatment object). Diets were forages and concentrates with ratio of 60:40, DM basis. The cows feed after parturition until 100 days of lactation. The control group concentrate diets containing Crude Protein (CP) 18.55%, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 56.94% and Rumen Undegraded Protein (RUP) 5.10 CP%, while the treatment group concentrate diets containing Crude Protein (CP) 18.83%, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 58,91% and Rumen Undegraded Protein (RUP) 6.17 CP%. Drinking water was given by ad libitum. The comparison results between the two conditions (control and treatment) were tested using independent t-test analysis. Results indicated that nutrient intake and digestion (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract), body weight and body condition score were not significant. The conclusion is supplementation with different rumen undegraded protein level on early lactating dairy cattle could not increase feed consumption, nutrient digestion, body weight and body condition score.
Background and objective: Extended lactation has been implemented to increase milk yield in limited case. There is need further investigation in term of milk composition, fatty acid profile and milk flavour as recommendation for further implementation. Materials and methods: The study lasted from July-September, 2017, used thirty lactating Etawah Crossbred goats in small farms of Sleman, Yogyakarta. Samples were collected from normal period and extended lactation which lasted for 2-3 months and longer than 10 months, respectively. The data on milk yield, composition, physical quality, fatty acids profile, sensory properties and nutrient consumption were measured on samples of 14 consecutive days. Assessments were done in Faculty of Animal Science and Integrated Research Laboratory, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test and were processed with SPSS programme version 16. Results: Extended lactation did not affect milk yield and nutrient consumption of goat but caused higher content of milk fat, protein, total solid, acidity, caprylic, capric and total short-chain fatty acids in compared with normal lactation (p<0.05). The average values were 5.33, 4.40, 15.85, 0.30, 1.99, 9.10 and 12.13% vs. 3.75, 3.64, 13.55, 0.26, 1.69, 7.09 and 9.76% of total fatty acids in milk, respectively. Fatty acid profile did not associate with milk flavour. Conclusion: Composition, acidity and short chain fatty acids content in milk of extended lactation were higher than in normal period but did not change milk flavour.
The knowledge of the reproductive physiology of estrus cycle is important for animal management. The stage of the estrus cycle was predicted through the morphologic, endocrine and secretary changes occurring in the ovaries and the tubular genitalia during the estrus cycle, which had been associated with the level of steroid sex hormone. Vaginal smear is a simple technique to determine the stages of estrus cycle and it is a useful tool in determining optimum standing heat in does. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of exfoliative vaginal cell during the various stages of estrus cycle using vaginal smear techniques in Ettawa-Saanen grade does. Thirteen healthy Ettawa-Saanen grade does with average weigh 35-40 kg, age of 3-4 years and had period of estrus 16-18 days in lactating period were used. All does were in natural estrus cycle without synchronization. A vaginal smear and vaginal pH were collected from swabbed vaginal epithelium in does. Smear was stained with 3% Giemsa and observed microscopically. Progesterone level of the collected blood serum from vena jugular was assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All data were collected on day 0, 3, 12 and 15 of estrus. Period of estrus was predicted from the last three periods of the earlier recording of estrus cycles. The result showed the proportion of vaginal cell was significant different in each phase of estrus cycle. Proportion of parabasal, intermediate, and superficial epithelium cell in the particular period of estrus cycle were 0; 8.2375 ± 6.1301; 91.7624 ± 6.1302 in estrus phase, 2.29± 6.87; 38.56 ± 31.39 ; 59.14 ± 34.37 in met-estrus phase, 83.22±17.66; 15.08±14.91 ; 1.70 ± 3.75 in diestrus phase, 9.56±18.13; 70.57 ± 31.86; 19.87±26.77 proestrus phase respectively. The vaginal pH showed in estrus phase were 7.17 ± 0.54, in met-estrus were 6.17 ± 0.30, in diestrus phase were 5.79±0.43, and in proestrus phase were 5.92±0.4.74. Progesterone levels showed in estrus phase were 0.083±0.15, in metestrus phase were 0.084±0.11, in diestrus phase were 0.23±0.11 and in proestrus phase 0.23±0.11. In conclusion dominant proportion of superficial cell, a high vaginal pH value and the lowest level of progesterone that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination.
The efforts to improve and optimize productivity of dairy cows require sufficient availability of nutrients, especially high energy in the early period of lactation. Increasing energy intake in dairy cows can be conducted by increasing the density of energy. The research aimed to evaluate dietary protected feed supplement on milk production and quality, including: fat, protein, and lactose content of Friesian Holstein dairy cow milk. Protected feed supplement was produced from sardine fish oil, through saponification and microencapsulation protection methods. The experiment consists of two treatments i.e. P0: basal diet (control) and P1: basal diet + 3 % protected feed supplement. Each treatment was repeated 15 times. Data were analyzed by independent samples t-test analysis. Results showed that supplementation of protected sardine fish oil had no effect on lactose content, but increased milk yield production (p<0.01), milk fat content (p<0.05), and protein content (p<0.05).
Eight Etawah cross bred does were divided into two groups based on body condition score (BCS). Group I (BSC 2, body weight 25-30 kg; n = 4), and Group II (BSC 3, body weight, 35-40 kg, n=4). All does received intravaginal controlled internal drug release devices (CIDR) for 10 days, and a prostaglandin F2α at 48 h before CIDR removal. Estrus detection was carried out using vasectomized buck. Vaginal epithelium was taken to determine estrus cycle. Blood samples were taken every 3-6 hours, started from moment of CIDR removal until the end of estrus. The results showed vaginal histological indicated estrus occurred at the hours of 25 to 60 and 30 to 70 post CIDR removal in BCS 2 and 3, respectively. Progesterone peak of BCS 2 and BCS 3 were 0.18±0.31 and 0.48±0.31 ng/mL on the hour 0 post CIDR removal. Estradiol -17ß peak of each group was 53.25±35.08 and 89.91±92.84 pg/mL at 48 post CIDR removal. LH surge only occurred on BCS 3 groups, the LH concentrations were 9.9± 9.1; 4.5± 4.0; and 18.2± 9.1 ng/mL at 45, 48 and 51 hours post CIDR removal, respectively. It was concluded that the BCS had effects on vaginal histological changes and LH surge.