added 2 research items
Biophysics, Cosmos and Biosphere
According to E. Liberman et al, a living cell is a very complex biocomputer with 1011 elements. They think that a hypersonic molecular computer with a clock frequency of 1010 Hz operates in a cell, which processes information . R. Penrose and S. Hameroff proposed a hypothesis about the connection between consciousness and quantum mechanical oscillations in the microtubes of the cell cytoskeleton, creating the “theory of quantum neurocomputing”. But, as R. Penrose himself admits, this is not enough, since for the global coordination of all kinds of thought processes, “coherence on a scale much larger than individual microtubules or even entire cytoskeletons is necessary. There must be a substantial quantum entanglement between the states maintained within individual cytoskeletons in many neurons, that is something like a collective quantum state covering vast areas of the brain” . Note that the Penrose-Hameroff hypothesis is very close to the concept of E. Liberman. In the works of S.P. Sit’ko et al a new direction arose “physics of the living”, which developed in connection with the use of microwave resonance therapy (MRI) as a part of quantum medicine. Manifestations of the natural characteristic frequencies of the human body in the millimeter range of electromagnetic waves were found, and experimental results were obtained on the restoration of the state of health of patients when exposed to low-intensity electromagnetic radiation of the millimeter range, about 50 GHz, on biologically active points of a person (BAP). A model of the electromagnetic nature of Chinese meridians was developed, which has direct experimental confirmation, as well as the concept of a coherent quantum electromagnetic frame of a living organism . In the experimental works of Jiang Kanzheng, the presence of the electromagnetic component of living organisms was shown and the effect of transferring genetic information from one biological species to another was demonstrated. In this case, the frequency of electromagnetic waves was also about 50 GHz. According to his method, information was “read” from the DNA molecule of a representative of one species and affected the embryos of another. Kanzheng treated 500 chicken eggs with the bioelectromagnetic field of the duck. 480 chicks hatched, in which the following changes were recorded: 25% had membranes on their paws; 80% had a flat duck head shape; in 90%, the position of the eyes changed . Apparently it was an experimental discovery of the phenomenon of control of epigenetic processes of activation of expression and methylation of chicken embryo DNA by means of microwave electromagnetic radiation, which was modulated by the structure of duck DNA, reflected in the characteristics of the electromagnetic framework of duck embryos. V.P. Kaznacheev and L.P. Mikhailova shown the role of electromagnetic fields in the transmission of biological information in the cell-cell system. Thus, independent studies by a number of authors show the existence of an electromagnetic framework of a living organism, starting with a cell, with resonant frequencies in the 50 GHz region, to which the oscillations of DNA, the cellular cytoskeleton, considered as a hypersonic biocomputer, are also tuned. Moreover, these frequencies are close to the frequency of the Cosmic Microwave Background, which equals to 56 GHz. We propose a formula of electromagnetic-cellular resonance as an expression of the combined concept of Lieberman-Sit’ko-Kanzheng-Hameroff-Penrose-Bukalov ωem = ωcel ≈ ωCMB, which takes into account the relationship between the biosphere and the Universe . References: 1. Liberman, E.A., Minina, S.V., Shklovsky-Kordi, N.E. Biosystems 2 (1989): 135-154. 2. Penrose R. Shadows of the Mind. — Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1994. 3. Sit’ko, S.P., Gizko, V.V. Journal of Biological Physics 18 (1991): 1-10. 4. Jiang Kanzheng, J.V. “Collection of materials on non-traditional aspects of natural science”. – Tomsk, 1992. 5. Bukalov, A.V., Gromozova, E.N. “Cosmic influences on the biosphere and human health…” Proc. of XIII Internat. Conf. on Applied Biophysics, Bionics and Biocybernetics (2018): 12.
As is known, even single-celled organisms have very complex behavior. According to A.R. Luria, the behavior of the amoeba gives researchers the impression that the amoeba “hunt” or that they “run away from danger” . And the behavior of ciliates S. roeselii is described by a model of artificial neural networks, which contains input neurons. They receive all the information necessary for training and transfer it to the hidden layer, which performs some calculations that go to the neurons of the next layer. The most accurate prediction of the behavior of ciliates is provided by a model with three layers of neurons, while the ciliates have none . Probably, instead of them, molecular structures work inside the cell, which are not inferior in complexity to neural ones. Therefore, it is obvious that the paradigm of decision making by neural structures cannot be applied to unicellular organisms. However, attempts are made to explain the behavior of a unicellular organism by a similarity in construction with a single neuron. This creates a vicious paradoxical circle. Probably, the origins of the psyche and consciousness begin in a single cell. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that the cell is not only a unit of living, but also an integral unit of primary mental processes. A sign of self-awareness is the ability to associate oneself with the reflection in the mirror, to recognize oneself in it. In addition to humans, this property is possessed by a number of vertebrates, as well as red ants . Animals use the reflection in the mirror to look at their own body and marks on it, or their actions. Research on the electrophysiology of the brain of insects shows that they have a subjective experience, the presence of an internal image of the world around them, which is associated with a certain level of consciousness. Therefore, the old paradigm that consciousness is only a product of the large brain with 85 billion neurons is clearly outdated [3, 4, 5]. After all, an ant has only 250 thousand neurons. This number is 400 times less than that of a cat, and 340 thousand times less than that of humans or cetaceans. If we proceed from the principles of information theory, then it is necessary to consider a logarithmic dependence in which the degree of self-awareness Ψ of a living being will be proportional to the natural logarithm of the number of neurons or synapses Z: Ψ k∙ln(Z). In this case, a conditional unit of consciousness Ψ=1 is obtained for an individual neuron (or cell), and the volume of human consciousness, at k=2, exceeds the consciousness of the ciliate by approximately Y=2∙ln(8.5∙1010)=50 times, or somewhat more. Then the volume of self-awareness in ants is less than a human by about 25 logarithmic units, or degrees of consciousness, and 12 units less than that of a cat. In turn, in cats and dogs, the volume of consciousness is, on average, 13 times less than that of a human. Based on the observational data, these are quite realistic estimates. We propose to design and conduct experiments to test this hypothesis. For example, to compare the real computing power of unicellular and multicellular organisms, the number of parameters taken into account when solving the problem, the volume of random access memory, etc. Of particular interest is the development of an analogue of the mirror test for unicellular organisms, for example, chemical, tactile, etc., in order to test the possibility their self-identification, that is, the presence of a cellular phenomenon of self-awareness. References: 1. Luria, A.R. General Psychology Lectures. - SPb.: Piter, 2006. - 320 p. 2. Dexter, Joseph P. et al. “A Complex Hierarchy of Avoidance Behaviors in a Single-Cell Eukaryote” Current Biology 24 (2019): 4323-4329. 3. Tricot, M. and Roger Cammaerts. “Are ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) capable of self recognition ?” Journal of science 5 (2015): 521-532. 4. Bukalov, A.V. “On the levels of consciousness and self-awareness of living organisms” Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics 3-4 (2019): 45-50. 5. Bukalov, A.V. “On the nature of consciousness and psyche” Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics 3-4 (2016): 5-41.
The problem of coincidence of the space values, ones of which are dynamic and others are considered permanent, to the present tense has not found the satisfactory decision. This problem in cosmology names “cosmic coincidence” and connects with that in expression for density of the Universe energy the density of matter and density of dark energy have close values. The decision of this problem they usually connect with the Antropic Principle or with the conception of the plural Universes by Everett. According to the strong Antropic Principle the Universe should be such that at some stage of evolution there would be a human in it. Our researches show that the biosphere of the Earth, its mass and other parameters are closely connected with the space parameters. These connections are easily explained, if to consider the biosphere as uniform, integral, synergetic, non-equilibrium structure, formed and evolving in a resonance with the evolution of the Universe. Thus the epoch of occurrence of life and especially a reasonable life (the observers) is related to the space coincidence of dynamic variable, depending on time, and stable values. Therefore time of occurrence and existence of observers is picked out. As the Universe history is a history of phase transitions, we can conclude that occurrence of live substance, biosphere and reasonable observers in a zone of “a space resonance” is an indicator of the new stage of the Universe evolution and new phase transition with appearance of a new phase of matter in the form of live and reasonable beings. In any really existent universe, whatever set of constants it possessed, the occurrence of life and reason is inevitable in the certain phase of its evolution, although their forms can quite differ from known to us.
It is known that the usual values of the biological degree of order, or the quantity of information in alive organisms, do not provide to make difference between the alive and lifeless structures. If one uses the thermodynamics criteria , as it was pointed out by L. Blumenfeld, an alive organism has no difference compared with a piece of rock of the same weight. Nevertheless, it is clear that the important difference between the alive and lifeless matter really exists. Thus, it has to be described in the more general formula for the evaluation of information or the degree of order for the alive organism compared with the lifeless matter. The Blumenfeld value, based on the Shennon formula, deals only with the thermodynamics aspect and does not refer to the dynamics aspects of the life processes, which provide the difference between the alive and lifeless matters. Thus the alive organism investigation needs the consideration of the dynamics degrees of freedom, namely those ones, which provide the “alive” state for biological matter. What are these degrees of freedom? According to the Blumenfeld approach the biological ordering, or the information quantity in energeti-cal equipment, for a cell, which includes the 1010÷11 aminoacid residuals, makes up: I=kT lnw=kT ln(N!)=kT ln(1010÷11!) ≈ kT lnN = = kT•1010÷12bit =10-9÷11J. For a human organism, which includes ~ 1025 aminoacid residuals, this formula gives only I== kT ln(1025!) ≈ kT•1025•ln1025≈ 1026kT≈ 106Дж, under T=300K. Thus the alive matter does not differ by its ordering compared to any mineral of the same weight . But this reasoning and the mentioned formula have an essential deficiency, which was not noted by anybody till now. They are valid only for a biological structure, consisted of the immovable molecules, i. e. for static “freezed” organism. But the alive organisms are the unbalanced dynamics structures and have the space and time degrees of freedom. All the biological processes are correlated in space and time. Therefore for the adequate description of the alive character it is necessary to consider the processes operations not only in space but also in time. The operated time interval or the minimal interval Δtk, dividing the observed events in alive organism, can be obtained from the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in connection with the thermodynamics ordering limit (E³kT) ΔE•Δt=ħ/2, ΔkT•Δtk≥ħ/2, Δtk≥ħ/(2kT), under T=300К Δtbio=Δtk=1.27•10-14sec, ωbio=2π/t=4.94•1014Hz. Thus the formula for the alive organism information quainty is changed by following one: İ ≈ I / Δtk = kT lnw / Δtk. Is*= IkT •It=kT lnwkT Δtk lnwt= ħ lnwkT lnwt= ħ ln ws*. Since w=P! ≈ PP, the connected microstates quantity in the action space makes up: ws=(Pt•PkT)!. Thus it is more correctly to describe the information quantity in the acton space by the following formula: Is= = kT•Δtk ln((Pt•PkT)!)= ħ lnws. In this case the degree of order of alive matter is determined by the in-formation quantity, passing through this matter under the checking and operation processes, as well as by the time interval, when the current biological process is considered and checked. The process-es’ checking is produced on the level of a small groups of atoms, which form the RNA nitrogen bases or the peptid fragments. Thus the space accuracy of the physical-chemical processes checking in alive cell is about Δ L≤10-8÷9m, the checked volume is ΔV1≤10-24÷27m3. Taking the cell diameter as ΔLcell≈10-5÷6m, the cell volume Vcell≈10-15÷18m3, we obtain for a cell Vcell/ V1≈109÷11 checked volume clusters, which coincides with the nucleotides number or the molecule residuals. For the checking of the all aminoacid residuals with molecular mass ~ 150, which total number in a cell is ~ 1010, it is necessary to fix or check these molecules within a cell with a volume V´= V/1010 ≈ 10-25m3 in the time intervals, compared with the ones for the thermal vibrations under the temperature T=300K: Δtk≥ħ/(2kT)=1.27•10-14s. Therefore for the checking of the all 1010÷11 aminoacid residuals in a cell the information flow has to make up: P(I)= İ = 1010÷11 / Δtk≈1024÷25bit/s. For Δtk it corresponds to the ener-getical equivalent: Eeq= İ•Δtk = (kT•lnw / Δtk)•Δtk ≈ 10-10J•Δtk/ Δtk =10-10J. For a cell per one second Ėeq≈ ≈10-10J•1013÷141/s=103÷4J/s. The energetical equivalents of ordering for the different biological objects are given in the table. In particular, it follows that the energetical equivalent for the support of the space-time ordering of the biosphere alive matter, avaluated by power, prevails approximately by eight orders compared with the solar emission energy and by twenty orders compared with the part of the mentioned energy, receipt-ed in the Earth biosphere (~1014J/s): Pbio=Ėbiosphere eq ≈ 1034÷35J/s ≈ 108P0 ≈ 108ĖΘ = 3.9•1026J/s ≈ ≈ 1020 Ė´Θbio. Our result corresponds to the B. Kadomtsev evaluation  of the energy quantity, neces-sary for the checking of the gas molecules in air: in the 1cm3 of air there are approximately 1019 cm3 per one molecule. Under the every molecule fixing in the volume, not less than Vo, the gas entropy configuration part is not less than N ~ 1019. Under this state fixing it will have the information I~S~1019. Under this system checking with its correction per the time intervals τ~L/cS~10-11s, where L~10-6 is the mean distance between molecules, cS=300m/s is the sound speed, i. e. for the gas movement opera-tion it is necessary to have an information flow by the order 1030s-1, which is converted into entropy. This quantity is 1010 times more compared with the solar energy flow per 1 cm2 (4•1019 bit/cm2•s). Thus Kadomtsev made a conclusion that if somebody should like to check this process, “he has to possess the spirit potential in order to support the ordered molecules movement by the chaosation of the information flow which is like the solar flow density per one kilometer. Thus B. Kadomtsev at al. considered the ordering sources existence for the separate molecules great quantity as an unproba-ble. Nevertheless, such a source of ordering and equipment energy can be pointed out: it is the Universe vacuum energy, which determines its evolution and dynamics. The whole energy of the observed Universe vacuum makes up (under Ωvac≈0.7): Evac = 0.7•MUc2 = 0.7•5.7•1053kg•9•1016m2/s2= 3.59•1070J. Basing on this energy, acting during t0=1/H0=4.48•1017s , we obtain the energy flow, which possesses the power PU= Evac/t0 = 0,8•1053J/s, and determines the dynamics of the Universe material structures. It follows that the alive matter exists due to the chaosing of the flow of the vacuum energy, which is unobserved till now but really acting. It is the unlocal process on the whole Universe level because the vacuum fields are not localized, their action is unlocal and integral. Thus it is easy to value the Universe biomass quantity. The maximal quantity of biospheres, equal to the Earth one, cannot exceed the following: =PU / Pbio ≈ 1018÷19. Under this condition the alive cells quantity in Universe makes up: Ncel≈ PU / Pc≈1049. Therefore that is the vacuum energy forms synergetically the biological and others Universe structure by the provision of their energetical and metrics ordering [2, 3, 4]. Namely the gravitation and vacuum, as it is believed at present time , determine the dynamics and evolution of the whole Universe
The fallacy of the often postulated connection between the passage of time and the process of increasing entropy is shown. An obvious counterexample to this popular hypothesis is the existence and functioning of living organisms living in time with almost unchanged thermodynamic parameters. It is also shown that the application of the second law of thermodynamics to macroscopic subsystems of the Universe as a whole encounters difficulties, since the existence of a hierarchy of nonequilibrium systems determines the growth or decrease of entropy depends on the scale of isolation and consideration of such systems. In particular, the ordering of such a subsystem as the biosphere of the Earth is constant, or increases in time. Therefore, in addition to the well-known laws of thermodynamics, on the basis of the works of I. Prigogine, Yu. Klimontovich, G. Haken, A. Bukalov and others, a new law of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed as a generalization: in highly nonequilibrium open, synergetic systems, their average ordering it is either constant or increases, provided that the incoming flow of energy, information and substance, and the ability of the system elements to function and interact, are maintained. The article published in the journal “Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics” http://physics.socionic.info.
The existence of a neural structure associated with manifestations of self-awareness makes it possible to raise the question of the possibility of detecting the connection of neural structures with the socionic information model of the psyche. An analysis of this problem leads to an understanding of the necessity of the existence of special 8 (16) neural structures that correspond to the psychological functions of C. Jung or to the functions of the information metabolism of A. Augustinavičiūtė. Apparently, such structures can be detected by methods of neurophysiology. The article published in the journal “Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics” http://physics.socionic.info.
As we have shown in the course of many years of daily experiments, the reaction volutine metachromatic inclusions in cell pellets (Chizhevsky-Velhover bio-astronomical effect), correlated with the rhythm indicators of solar activity and directly proportional to the flux of galactic cosmic rays. We have found the effects of shielding reaction metachromasia in the steel and permalloy. The next step was to study the effect of aluminum shielding. Culture tubes in a thermostat yeast was shielded with aluminum foil in different variations: №1-one layer of foil; №2-two layers; №4-four layers. Tube №4x shielded continuous 4-layer wrap. Experiments have also used an aluminum cylinder with a diameter of 8.5 cm and a thickness of 1 mm. Fixed color reaction volutine granules daily for 44 days. It has been found that aluminum shields, in contrast to all other materials that promote their metachromasia phenomenon. None of the variants was not shielded by the absence of reaction, while in the control 33% of cases, it is absent. The greater the layers of aluminum foil, the more pronounced was the color change color volutine granules. A comparison of the data with previously published results of the screening of yeast steel, permalloy, water, paraffin, lead [Gromozova E.N., Bogatina N.I. Grigoriev P.E.et al., .. Metachromatic volutine granules Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a shielding./ Process bіoіndikatsії ta ekologії.-2011.-V.15, №2.] Allows us to speak about the ability of aluminum to escape the impact of electromagnetic nature of the unknown factor that greatly influences the biological processes. Only in the presence of aluminum shields 100% metachromasia happening. The special role of aluminum shields as a stimulant of biological processes in their connection with some astrophysical and geophysical events was found earlier [AV Bukalov. Proc. Conf. "Space and Biosphere"-2011, 2013], and was considered by many authors [Lupichev N.L, 1990, Kaznacheev V.P, Trofimov A.V, 2004], and others. Strengthening metachromasia usually cause stress state of the cell. Therefore, we can assume that the aluminum shields, interferes with the normal interaction of cells with the surrounding space, and probably weakens or blocks some specific field exposure that causes a reaction cell. To understand the nature of the observed effects further studies are needed.
Space factors affecting the biosphere of the Earth are considered. The biological, medical and social consequences of such impacts are described.
Hierarchical plurality of quantum structures of mankind as view Homo Sapiens Sapiens de-termines also mankind evolution as single whole. Numerous resonances between frequencies of quantum structures of mankind and the separate person feature stages of historical development of a noosphere as reason spheres by V. I. Vernadsky, proportional to growth of the population of the Earth.
New stage of human biological evolution as Homo sapiens sapiens species Decoding of human genome will inevitably results in operating with DNA-code and in creation of different variants of Homo sapiens, which could considerably distinguish from initial species.
Properties of the quantum superfluid bodies of the alive organisms, consisting of easy elementary particles and interacting with atom-molecular structure of biological organism are described. It is shown, that existence and features of functioning of quantum bodies remove known problems of low probability spontaneous, or casual, synthesis of biological molecules: RNA, DNA and peptides. It is described the probable mechanism of assem-bling of primary biological molecules under control of the quantum structures setting and dissymmetry of alive, that essentially reduces time, necessary for the origin of alive organisms. The distant effects of quantum bodies are considered, and new approach to the description of process of quantum measurement is offered.