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Biogeography and phylogeny of the genera Australoheros, Crenicichla, and Geophagus from the southeastern Brazil.
Two new species of the genus Crenicichla from the upper rio Uruguay basin are described, Crenicichla hadrostigma and C. empheres. Both are included in the C. missioneira species group along with C. missioneira, C. minuano, C. tendybaguassu, C. igara, and C. jurubi, all occurring in the upper and middle rio Uruguay drainage. Crenicichla hadrostigma is distinguished by the conspicuous ocellated posttemporal blotch, absence of a humeral spot and lateral band, and the presence in males of nine to 16 narrow vertical bars extending from the dorsum to a horizontal line that passes through the lower edge of pectoral axilla. Crenicichla empheres is distinguished from the other species of the missioneira-group by the presence of six to eight horizontally elongate dark blotches along the middle portion of the body, slightly below the upper lateral line, absence of a lateral band, presence in males of numerous dark and irregularly arranged spots on nape, back, and sides of body, and isognathous mouth. A key to the species from rio Uruguay basin is presented.