Project

Balsaminaceae Information Center

Goal: My main idea is collecting and sharing all possible information on Balsaminaceae (Impatiens and Hydrocera). Oldest and still most important part of this project is Balsaminaceae Literature Database, hopefully in future becoming fully searchable database of literature dealing with all possible aspects of Balsaminaceae family.
I am gradually adding further files and updates, so check this project regularly. Most advanced versions of available data are accessible via file entitled "Most_updated_files_24.06.2022".
Collaborations, additions, corrections and comments are welcomed.

Updates
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Reads
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Project log

Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I found observation of rare form of I. capensis, while identifying balsams on iNaturalist:
Flower almost completely lacks yellow pigment and is generally creamy with less or more purple spots.
I remember several similar observations from past, one repeated in two consecutive years in the same place. While I. capensis is generally very variable, this form seem to be very rare.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Volkmar Weiss was looking for source of pale violet forms of I. edgeworthii observed in Germany.
I just found such form on iNaturalist: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/129813396
Plant has all necessary attributes of I. edgeworthii. Observation comes from Anakar Valley, Swat, N Pakistan.
More pictures of I. edgeworthii: https://www.korina.info/arten/buntes-springkraut/
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Description of new balsam was published:
Biju P., Sindhu A., Augustine J., Josekutty E.J., Anil Kumar V.N.S. 2022. Impatiens thulunadensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from northern Kerala. Annales Botanici Fennici 59: 207-212.
Very little information is available at the moment (authors do not posted abstract on RG, paper is still not visible on journal page). I will add more information if I get it.
Full text will be of restricted access.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
NE India still harbours plants not found earlier by botanists. Rajib Gogoi with coauthors published new, interesting finding from Manipur:
Gogoi R., Sherpa N., Tham B.B.T., Meitei L.R., Singh H. 2022. Impatiens ecalcarata Collett & Hemsl. (Balsaminaceae) – A new addition for the Flora of India. Nelumbo 64,1: 64-67. DOI: 10.20324/nelumbo/v64/2022/169891
I. ecalcarata was earlier known from parts of SE Asia. Newly found locality moves boundary of its distribution for several hundred kilometres to northwest. Interestingly, plants from Manipur have bigger flowers than material from Myanmar and Laos.
Name I. ecalcarata was used in 1905 for North American taxon, now known as I. ecornuta.
Full text not yet accessible, will be posted in future on journal page.
By the way, I would like to thank for recent inputs and recommendations from @Subir Bandyopadhyay and Tapas Chakrabarty
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I noticed interesting alert from Google Scholar:
Jeevith S., Arigela R.K., Singh R.K., Kabeer K.A.A., Rajasekar C., Kunhikannan C. 2022. The checklist of Impatiens Riv. ex L. (Balsaminaceae) in Nilgiri and Palani Hills of southern Western Ghats (India). Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis Studia Naturae, 7. Retrieved from https://aupcstudianaturae.up.krakow.pl/article/view/9334
There is some confusion with title - in original information it is going as in title of this update, but in text as is first part of update. Authors report 38 species, 36 from Nilgiri and 11 from Palani Hills.
Main advantage of this paper is high number of good pictures of balsams from abovementioned area. However, authors show particular blindness in choice of references, using own papers of lesser importance (Borah D., Singh R.K., Taram M. 2022. Impatiens pasighatensis (Balsaminaceae), A new species from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Indian Forester 148,2: 233-235. DOI: 10.36808/if/2022/v148i2/156569), instead of one of monographs, when reporting main centers of balsam distribution in India (Bhaskar V. 2012. Taxonomic Monograph on Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae) of Western Ghats – the key genus for endemism. Centre for Plant Taxonomic Studies, Bangalore.; Gogoi R., Borah S., Dash S.S., Singh P. 2018. Balsams of Eastern Himalaya - A Regional Revision. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp 1-210 or Gogoi R., Sherpa N., Rai S. 2021. Wild Balsams of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalaya - A Pictorial Handbook. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata and Directorate of Cinchona and Other Medicinal Plants, West Bengal. 268 pp.) or one of two recently published checklists od balsams in India, when dealing with number of taxa in India (Gogoi R., Upadhyay A.K., Rathakrishnan N.C. 2020. Balsaminaceae in Flowering Plants of India. Vol. 1. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata (India); p. 204–223. or Prabhukumar K.M., Hareesh V.S., Gogoi R., Sabu M. 2022. Family Balsaminaceae – An Indian Scenario. In: Seethalakshmi K.K., Haridasan K., Nair M.C., Rekha Vasudevan A. (eds.) Conspectus on Realms of Biodiversity. Pp. 151-184.). They cite unrelevant here Singh R.K., Borah D., Taram M. 2021. Typifications, new combinations and new synonyms in Indian Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 61: 1-27. DOI 10.2478/biorc-2021-0001, dealing with Himalayan taxa and later heavily criticised (see one of my earlier updates), as well as almost all papers of third author having something in common with balsams. By the way, both of abovementioned checklists give much higher numbers of taxa for India, than 242 given by authors.
Another example, when some people can't separate personal conflicts from science...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Pictures of several balsams from Madagascar were recently posted on iNaturalist and identified:
Madagascar has very rich and very peculiar balsam flora, about 260 species, many still not formally described. About half of this number belong to Trimorphopetalum section, including plants with spurless flowers.
More information on Madagascanian Impatiens:
Rahelivololona M.E. 2018. Balsaminaceae in Madagascar and the Comoro Islands: Systematics, Evolution, and Biogeography. PhD Thesis, Universität Koblenz-Landau. 319 pp.
Rahelivololona E.M., Fischer E., Janssens S.B., Razafimandimbison S.G. 2018. Phylogeny, infrageneric classification and species delimitation in the Malagasy Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). PhytoKeys 110: 51–67. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.110.28216
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I informed quite recently on observation of I. glandulifera from NE China. I contacted Shuai Peng to get more data. Today he contacted me, sending picture of Himalayan Balsam from undisclosed locality, which he get from other person. I also asked for translation of information from recent Chinese checklist of balsams (thanks!). And there it is: Mohe city in northernmost part of Heilongjiang province. Two known Chinese localities of the species are less or more 1000 km apart. As I. glandulifera is present in Russian cities Blagoveshensk and Khabarovsk, it could be spreading along Amur river and its tributaries.
I would like to thank to Robin Hide . While I have paper mentioned by him, I appreciate any efforts helping in making Balsaminaceae Information Center bigger and better.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just found interesting observation of Impatiens walleriana from Kathmandu, Nepal:
Observer informed me that plant was found as volunteer on roadside. Temperature rarely drops below zero in Kathmandu, even in winter. This way tropical African plant could escape from culture, and with further increase in temperatures, even naturalize in lower altitudes along Himalaya.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new paper:
Wakhidah A.Z. 2022. Ethnobotany of Bedaka: Face Brightening Concoction from Sahu Tribe, West Halmahera, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ethnobiology 5,1: 8-18. DOI: 10.46359/jte.v5i1.103
authors report cosmeceutical use of herbal concoction among tribal inhabitants of eastern Indonesia. I found that one of herbs used in this concoction is Impatiens balsamina, locally called "laka" and well known from its antibacterial properties (see some of my earlier updates).
It is amazing how quickly local communities are discovering useful plants!
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published checklist:
Ji L., Xie Y., Li Z., Xu T., Yang B., Li B. 2022. A checklist of wild vascular plants in Jiangxi Province, China. Biodiv Sci, 2022, 30(6): 22057.
authors report occurrence of 18 balsams in Jiangxi province (SE China). It is six more species than reported in Flora of China from 2007. This increase nicely show progress in knowledge on Balsaminaceae in China in last dozen or so years, after publication of Balsaminaceae for FoC.
Full text in Chinese and appendices available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Li X., Li Y., Luo C., Wei C., Huang M., Qu S., Huang H. 2022. Cloning and Expression Analysis of LWD Genes in Impatiens uliginosa. Chinese Journal of Tropical Crops, 43(6), 1152. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-2561.2022.06.007
authors looking for new ornamental plants with improved colors, investigated expression of IuLWD1 and IuLWD2 genes. The expression level of both genes was positively correlated with flower color (white, rosa, red, deep red) and highest in deep red variant.
Interestingly, Flora of China describes I. uliginosa as plant with red flowers. It is however unclear if color variants investigated in abovementioned study are occuring in natural populations, or result of culture.
Full text of article in Chinese is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Janssens S.B., Taedoumg H., Dessein S. 2022. Impatiens smetsiana, another example of convergent evolution of flower morphology in Impatiens. Plant Ecology and Evolution 155 (2): 248–260. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.89701
authors describe new species, I. smetsiana, related to I. kamerunensis, I. filicornu, and I. nzabiana, but morphologically similar to I. erecticornis from Central East Africa.
Similarity of these two taxa is interesting example of convergent evolution, making delimitation of Impatiens taxa even more difficult.
Full text is open access from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Today less serious update - I was rather surprised finding observation of cultivated Impatiens walleriana from Seward, Alaska:
In local climate this tropical species could thrive four months at most, from end of May to first frosts in September.
On the other hand, I remember from earlier correspondence cultivation of I. glandulifera in Darwin, N Australia. I. glandulifera needs cold stratification and record low for Darwin is 10,4 Celsius...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just found these interesting pictures, additions to future version of Impatiens portraits.
Impatiens joachimii, one of two African species with petal extension entering lower sepal:
Impatiens uzungwaensis:
Impatiens volkensii:
There was observation with habit and habitat of this gigantic balsam, here flowers in detail are photographed.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Invasive plants do not stop - I just found fresh observation of Impatiens parviflora from Ingushetia:
Ingushetia is small autonomous republic in Northern Caucasus. Ingushetia became fourth territorial entity in Northern Caucasus invaded by Impatiens parviflora. Small Balsam was known from neighbouring Northern Ossetia since 1990 and later found in Adygea and Karachay-Cherkessia.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Impatiens is so vast and taxonomically difficult genus that we still have only partial knowledge on it, even on such basic features as length of life cycle, geographical and altitudinal distribution or chromosome numbers of particular taxa. This complexity and incompleteness of available data were reasons of my long term interest in balsams. About three weeks ago I have got invitation to serve as Guest Editor of Special Issue of Diversity journal, provisionally titled „Recent Advances and Future Perspectives for Balsaminaceae Research”. I see this issue as opportunity to show state, recent results and gaps in our knowledge. After some consultations and preparations, today website for this Special Issue has been set up. As Diversity celebrates recent increase in IF and Citescore, Ms. Tina Fu, Assistant Editor, promised vaiwer for featured papers. More information: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/diversity/special_issues/58751Z78K1
Feel free to contact me personally if interested.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I found observation of Hydrocera triflora from northern part of Hainan, S China, where the species has northern limit of its distribution:
It is difficult to find if the plant is completely wild, or result of protective measures, as Hydrocera is endangered in China:
Wang J., Fu R., Ren J., Huang S., Lu D., Ling D., Qi H. 2019. Culture technique in vitro of an endangered aquatic plant Hydrocera triflora. Jiangsu Agricultural Sciences 47(3):110-113.
or even treated as regionally extinct:
Qin H., Zhao L., Yu S. et al. 2017. Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment. Biodiv. Sci. 25,7: 745-757. DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017156
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I found web site dealing with floras of Middle Eastern countries: Plants of the Middle East https://www.plantsofthemiddleeast.com/checklists/index.htm
It covers Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, UAE and Yemen. Three countries have only initial iformation given: Iraq, Syria and Yemen. As majority of these countries have very dry and hot climate, no Impatiens is native in area. Interesting is absence of Israel in list of countries, but source of information for Palestine is Flora of Israel online… Only I. balsamina is naturalized/invasive in Oman – see one of my earlier updates. The species is present also in Yemen:
Thulin M., Al-Gifri A., Hussein M.A., Gabali S. 2001. Additions to the Yemen flora. pp. 137-153 in: Friis I. & Ryding O. (eds) - Biodiversity Research in the Horn of Africa Region. Proceed. 3rd Intern. Symp. On the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea at Carlsberg Academy, Copenhagen, August 25-27, 1999.
Impatiens balsamina and I. walleriana are cultivated in UAE:
Byalt V.V., Korshunov M.V. 2020. Preliminary list of cultivated plants in the Fujairah Emirate (UAE). Vestnik Orenburgskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta 2020, 4 (36): 29-116.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just added file with most updated files containing information on Balsaminaceae. New files (Scapigerous Impatiens) and files updated since earlier version are marked in red. This is probably last more serious update till autumn, due to field work.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Saravanan T.S., Kaliamoorthy S. 2022. Two new epiphytic species of Impatiens L. (Balsaminaceae) from the southern Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa 552,1: 107-114. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.552.1.10
authors report two new epiphytic balsams. Impatiens keralensis is new scapigerous taxon, allied to I. modesta and I. mohana. Impatiens kurichiarmalayana is similar to I. mankulamensis and I. panduranganii, which are small annual and litophytic plants.
Full text is of restricted access from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new paper:
Abera Daba, Mekuria Tadesse, Selamawit Negassa Chawaka & Gezahegn Berecha 2022. Weed species composition and abundance in the main coffee production systems and regions of Ethiopia, South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 39:1, 41-55, DOI: 10.1080/02571862.2021.1987536
authors mention Impatiens balfourii as frequent weed of coffee plantations in Ethiopia.
Unfortunately, article do not include any illustration of the species. I am unable to find any source confirming presence of I. balfourii in Ethiopia, so I presume this is misidentification...
Full text available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I found observation of Impatiens repens from what looks like spontaneous occurrence:
This valuable ornamental and medicinal species, endemic to Sri Lanka, was at one moment presumed extinct, but later rediscovered in wild:
Jayasuriya A.H.M. 1995. National Conservation Review: The Discovery of Extinct Plants in Sri Lanka. Ambio 24,5: 313-316.
More information on the species:
Herath H.M.I., Wijesundara D.S.A. 2010. Large-scale in vitro propagation of Impatiens repens Moon. a critically endangered medicinal plant in Sri Lanka. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 85 (3): 211-214.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I have got this new paper from Tapas Chakrabarty and Rajib Gogoi (thanks!):
Baro D., Bawri A., Deka J., Borthakur S.K. 2022. Extended distribution and assessment of conservation status of Impatiens exilis Hook. f. (Balsaminaceae) an endemic species of Eastern Himalaya. Plant Science Today (Early
authors report occurrence of Impatiens exilis Hook. f., earlier known from Nepal, Bhutan, as well as Sikkim and West Bengal states in India. This observation could be also low altitudinal limit for this species – plant was found at 500 m altitude, when Gogoi et al. (2021) give 800-1400 m. Nice pictures should help in identification of this species in the field. Full text is accessible from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of causes of gastric ulcers and carcinoma. Helicobacter easily produce antibiotic-resistant strains, making treatment of these serious gastrointestinal problems difficult. In new paper:
Nha Hoa Phan, Bao Yen Pham 2022. Inhibitory effects on Helicobacter pylori of methanol extracts from plants collected in Lam Dong province. Vietnam Journal of Science and Technology 64,5: 36-39. DOI: 10.31276/VJST.64(5).36-39
Vietnamese authors report anti-Helicobacter activity of Impatiens langbianensis extracts.
Full text in Vietnamese accessible from journal page.
Earlier similar activity was found in I. balsamina and particular compounds isolated from this plant:
Wang Y.C., Li W.Y., Wu D.C., Wang J.J., Wu C.H., Liao J.J., Liu C.K. 2011. In vitro activity of 2-methoxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone and stigmasta-7,22-diene-3b-ol from Impatiens balsamina L. against multiple antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine eCAM. 2011: 704-721.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Impatiens noli-tangere was included in lists of ancient forest species from Belgium (Hermy et al. 1999) and Poland (Dzwonko & Loster 2001). In new paper:
Jabs-Sobocińska Z., Affek A.N., Matuszkiewicz J.M. 2022. The list of ancient-forest plant species revisited – Field verification in the Carpathian ancient and recent forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 512, 120152. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120152
authors found that in NE Carpathians (Polish part of Bieszczady and Sanok-Turka Mountains) I. noli-tangere is occurring more often in recent (after period of agricultural use) than ancient forests. Many of species more common in recent forests in NE Carpathians are therophytes, like I. noli-tangere. Annual Impatiens taxa are predominantly autochorous, throwing seeds from exploding capsules. Maximal distance is about 2 m for I. parviflora and I. capensis, 5-6 m for I. glandulifera. Seeds of these species have, however, additional ways of spread, like floating on water surface, dragged with mineral deposits in water courses, or collected as food by rodents. These additional ways of spread could be cause of interregional differences in their frequency in ancient/recent forests.
Full text freely available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In paper:
Demir İ., Gökdaş Z., Türer N.İ.E. 2020. Changes in Seed Germination during Storage of Flower Seeds: Species Differences. International Journal of Agriculture and Wildlife Science (IJAWS), 2020, 6(3): 416 - 422. DOI: 10.24180/ijaws.743002
authors found that decrease in I. walleriana seeds germination was 9% after 12 months of storage in temperature 25 C and ca. 6% of seed moisture and 21% after 24 months of storage in temperature 5 C and the same seed moisture. These results, while interesting, don't give a clue which temperature is better for long term storage of I. walleriana seeds. Impatiens walleriana seeds are losing germination capacity quickly.
Full text is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Kamil Najberek with colleagues published new article:
Najberek K., Solarz W., Gąsienica-Staszeczek M., Olejniczak P. 2022. Role of enemy release and hybridization in the invasiveness of Impatiens balfourii and I. glandulifera. J Plant Res (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-022-01398-5
dealing with enemy release hypothesis and putative hybridization between I. balfourii and I. glandulifera. They did not find stronger enemy release in case of more invasive I. glandulifera, nor hybridization between these taxa.
Full text of paper available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just added file with most important data sources on Balsaminaceae of particular geographical areas. There are several important additions, marked in red - see also my recent updates on checklists of Chinese and Indian balsams. Third part of Impatiens of Nepal is not published yet, but I don't want to wait for this paper, as there will be several months of field work for me. Enjoy!
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
File with most important sources on Balsaminaceae of particular areas, version 5.0
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just added new version of Literature Database, with about 7700 references. This is about 200 references more than in earlier version.
As always, additions and corrections are hearthily welcomed.
In following weeks I will be busy with field work, but I am planning some formal updates.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
Exclell file with about 7700 references dealing with Balsaminaceae
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just found this poster:
Negrea B.-M., Stoilov-Linu V., Dănilă A.-M., Stoian C.-A., Făgăraš M.M. 2022. Evaluation of the invasive potential and factors that contribute to the spread of the species Impatiens balsamina L. and Reynoutria japonica Houtt. in the basin of the Bistrita river, Romania. Poster, Present Environment and Sustainable Development Conference, Iasi, 2022.
Impatiens balsamina is known from several European countries as casual alien, so I checked this poster with interest, looking on potential information on first case of more advanced naturalization of this species in Europe. It was however false start – small picture in right bottom corner of poster clearly show I. glandulifera… More information on alien plants in Romania:
Sîrbu C., Oprea A. 2011. Plante adventive în flora României. Editura "Ion Ionescu de la Brad", Iasi. 734 pp.
This source mention I. balsamina as casual, I. glandulifera and I. parviflora as invasive.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Rivkin L.R., Johnson M.T.J. 2022. The impact of urbanization on outcrossing rate and population genetic variation in the native wildflower, Impatiens capensis. Journal of Urban Ecology 8, 1: juac009, https://doi.org/10.1093/jue/juac009
authors found that despite high rate of outcrossing in urban populations of I. capensis in Toronto, genetic diversity was lower than in rural populations. This phenomenon could have negative effects on long-term survival of I. capensis in cities. This is bad news for pollinators living in big cities...
Earlier study, done in Ottawa:
Barker C.A., Sargent R.D. 2020. Pollination Services to Impatiens Capensis (Balsaminaceae) Are Maintained across an Urbanization Gradient. International Journal of Plant Sciences 181(9): 937-944. https://doi.org/10.1086/710488
was more optimistic, finding that „pollen limitation was not consistently higher in heavily built-up urban areas”.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just found interesting paper on fatty acids in Balsaminaceae:
Puri R., Choudhary A.K., Barman P., Mishra G., Geeta R. 2022. Two unusual conjugated fatty acids, parinaric acid and α-eleostearic acid, are present in several Impatiens species, but not in congener Hydrocera triflora. Physiol Mol Biol Plants (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-022-01194-4
Authors studied fatty acids of 18 Impatiens taxa and Hydrocera triflora. They confirmed presence of parinaric acid and α-eleostearic acid in several Impatiens species. Interestingly, these fatty acids are absent in Hydrocera triflora. Authors propose parinaric acid and α-eleostearic acid as chemotaxonomic markers of Impatiens. New, apparently not yet formally described balsam, Impatiens ganjumensis is mentioned as one of studied species.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Zhong J., Zhao L., Li T., Zhang S., Chen Y., Ding M. 2022. Molecular Identification and Sequence Analysis of Begomoviruses Infecting Impatiens balsamina. Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 2022, 49(5): 1136-1144. DOI: 10.16420/j.issn.0513-353x.2021-0221
authors report finding of recombinant begomovirus attacking Impatiens balsamina in Yunnan. Majority of its genome (94,9%) comes from Ludwigia yellow vein Vietnam virus and remaining part from Ageratum yellow vein China virus.
Full text is of restricted access from journal page.
By the way, next version of literature database will be delayed till weekend.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Salinas M., Hakim G., Gandolfo E., De Lojo J., Giardina E., Di Benedetto A. 2022. Response of the ornamental bedding plant Impatiens walleriana to plug cell volume on a floating system during nursery. Ornamental Horticulture, 28(2), 266-275. DOI: 10.1590/2447-536X.v28i2.2461
authors propose use of floating system of horticultural production, where plugs with plants float in fertilizer solution. Impatiens walleriana reacted with better growth in floating system regardless plug volume. One of causes of this improved growth is more developed root system, reaching to fertilizer solution outside the plug.
Full text of article is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Najberek K., Olszańska A., Tokarska-Guzik B., Mazurska K., Dajdok Z., Solarz W. 2022. Invasive alien species as reservoirs for pathogens. Ecological Indicators, 139, 108879. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108879
Kamil Najberek and coauthors report data on role of invasive plants as sources of pathogens, parasites and herbivores in Europe. They mention three different species for I. capensis, 10 for I. glandulifera and 14 for I. parviflora. Some of these pathogenic taxa could attack plants important for human wellbeing.
Full text of paper is available from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Marozas V., Preikša Ž., Koike T., Watanabe T. 2022. Impact of nitrogen pollution disturbances on forest vegetation and fungi near a fertilizer factory. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 22: 52-58. DOI:10.14943/EJFR.22.52
authors report changes in diversity of different plant groups along transect adjacent to fertilizer factory. Nitrophilic species, among them Impatiens parviflora were more abundant closer to factory, where nitrogen pollution was stronger.
Full text of article is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Interactions between different organisms could take very various forms. Majority of viruses are pathogens. I found interesting preprint, showing discovery of benign or even beneficial one:
Zheng Y., Zhang D., Wang H., Wei Y., An H., Gou J., Fang S., Wang X., Zhang S. 2022. Molecular characterization of a putative alphapartitivirus from Impatiens balsamina L. Research Square DOI: 10.21203/rs.3.rs-1533276/v1
Authors report recovery of „two double stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) that likely represent the genome of an alphapartitivirus tentatively named impatiens cryptic virus 1 (ICV1)”. They found it common in I. balsamina in China. Plant partitiviruses could confer selective advantages to their host plants.
Full text of preprint is available from Research Square and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Today I found that total number of observations posted on iNaturalist exceeded 100 000 000.
I also checked that more than 100 000 of these observations are observations. According to iNaturalist data there are 290 species represented, circa 30% of whole balsam flora of the world.
I am moderately optimistic about further development of iNaturalist - at the moment the platform need help of professional botanists - some observations of widespread taxa are waiting really long for verification. On the other hand some common taxa have so many observations that verification of all this material is simply boring. Now is time of Impatiens parviflora and unidentifiable North American vegetative material. Later in season - from approximately July there will be hundreds of I. capensis and I. glandulifera observations. Impatiens walleriana, I. hawkeri, I. balsamina in hundreds all season long. But... I just found that Impatiens jacobdevlasi from Sri Lanka, subject of one of my recent updates, has its first observation on iNaturalist!
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Several plants are used as remediation agents, among them balsams. I found one more example of such use:
Rahna K., Arathi T., Delse P.S., Satheesh G. 2021. Assessment of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in paddy fields and development of phytoremediation system in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India. Poll Res. 40,1: 148-152.
Authors found that among 10 tested plants Impatiens walleriana has highest ability to remove cadmium from polluted soils.
Full text of paper is accessible from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In interesting paper:
Li J., Zhao Q., Li W., He J., Xu X. 2022. Distinct kin strategies of the legume soybean and the non‐legume balsam by accomplishing different nitrogen acquisition and rhizosphere microbiome composition. The Plant Journal, 110(1): 103-113. DOI: 10.1111/tpj.15656
authors show that Impatiens balsamina is able to recognize if its neighbour is also its relative. I. balsamina siblings decreased root biomass and increased uptake rate of nitrate and potential nitrification rate. Plant kinship affected soil bacterial communities by enriching specific groups (Nitrospira).
Full text is accessible from journal page.
Similar studies were done for I. capensis:
Murphy G.P., Dudley S.A. 2009. Kin recognition: competition and cooperation in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). American journal of botany 96(11): 1990-1996.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Tanaka N., Aung M.M., Vermeulen J.J. 2022. Impatiens katjae, a New Species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from Central Myanmar. Novon A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature 30: 56-60. DOI: 10.3417/2022725
Nobuyuki Tanaka and coauthors described new balsam, I. katjae from Mandalay Region, central Myanmar. New species is similar to I. oblongata, but has much smaller flowers, 2-flowered axillary inflorescences, much paler pinkish-white flowers, two lateral sepals, and a spurless lower sepal.
Full text is of restricted access, accessible from journal page.
This is second new Impatiens described from Mynamar since publication of monograph: Ruchisansakun S., Suksathan P., van der Niet T., Smets E.F., Saw-Lwin, Janssens S.B. 2018. Balsaminaceae of Myanmar. Blumea 63, 2018: 199–267. https://doi.org/10.3767/blumea.2018.63.03.01 Picture of I. oblongata for comparison p. 236.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Impatiens parviflora is rather rare invader in Asiatic Russia, but it is slowly spreading in this region:
Verkhozina A.V., Anisimov A.V., Beshko N.Y., Biryukov R.Y., Bondareva V.V., Chernykh D.V., Dorofeev N.V., Dorofeyev V.I., Ebel A.L., Efremov A.N., Erst A.S., Esanov H.K., Esina I.G., Fateryga A.V., Fateryga V.V., Fomenko V.A., Gamova N.S., Gaziev A.D., Glazunov V.A., Grabovskaya-Borodina A.E., Grigorenko V.N, Jabborov A.M., Kalmykova O.G., Kapitonova O.A., Kechaykin A.A., Khapugin A.A., Kholodov O.N., Khoreva M.G., Kin N.O., Korolyuk A.Y., Korolyuk E.A., Korotkov Y.N., Kosachev P.A., Kozyr I.V., Kulagina M.A., Kulakova N.V., Kuzmin I.V., Lashchinskiy N.N., Lazkov G.A., Luferov A.N., Malov D.N., Marchuk E.A., Murtazaliev R.A., Olonova M.A., Ovchinnikova S.V., Ovchinnikov Y.V, Pershin D.K., Peskova I.M., Plikina N.V., Pyak A.I., Pyak E.A., Salokhin A.V., Senator S.A., Shaulo D.N., Shmakov A.I., Shumilov S.V., Smirnov S.V., Sorokin V.A., Stepantsova N.V., Svirin S.A., Tajetdinova D.M., Tsarenko N.A., Vasjukov V.M., Yena A.V., Yepikhin D.V., Yevseyenkov P.E., Wang W., Zolotov D.V., Zykova E.Y., Murashko V.V., Krivenko D.A. 2022. Findings to the flora of Russia and adjacent countries: New national and regional vascular plant records, 4. Botanica Pacifica 11(1):129-157. DOI: 10.17581/bp.2022.11114
Authors inform on occurrence of I. parviflora in Tyumen city, Tyumen Region, SW Siberia. The plant is observed since 2018 and growing in various ruderal habitats (gardens, near fences, on roadsides), but also naturalizing and increasing its cover in birch forests and Acer negundo thickets. These new localities reduce gap between Ural localities (Irbit, Yekaterinburg and Chelyabinsk) and localities in West Siberia (Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo) to 1000 km.
Full text of paper is accessible from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In following paper:
Arigela R.K., Kabeer A.A., Murthy G.V.S. 2021. Endemic flowering plants in Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu, India. NeBIO 12(2): 1-20.
authors list ten balsam species: I. campanulata, I. dasysperma, I. fasciculata, I. goughii, I. leschenaultii, I. phoenicea, I. tangachee, I. tanyae, I. tomentosa, I. viscida and illustrate eight of these. Additional information include details of distribution in India and Tamil Nadu.
Illustrative material for some balsams is scarce, so this paper, accessible from journal page and RG is nice source of pictures.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Padullés Cubino J., Těšitel J., Fibich P., Lepš J., Chytrý M. 2022. Alien plants tend to occur in species-poor communities. NeoBiota 73: 39–56. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.73.79696
authors conclude that invasive species occur in species poor communities more often than expected by chance. Among included species were Impatiens parviflora (in forests and grasslands) and I. glandulifera (in grasslands only).
There is one important question: is presence of invasive species cause or effect of observed phenomenon?
Full text is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I recently informed on studies of best methods of explant sterilization for this beautiful balsam from Thailand. The same group of authors published new article:
Samala S., Kongton K., Yenchon S., Petchsri S., Suwannakong Y., Rotchanajinda W., Chareonsap P.P. 2022. Effect of auxins and cytokinin on micropropagation of Impatiens sirindhorniae Triboun & Suksathan in vitro. Acta Horticulturae 1339: 217-226. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1339.28
further studying best combination of plant hormones for effective micropropagation.
Both methods of explant sterilization and data on concentrations of plant hormones could be very useful in future – in another newly published paper:
Nupan B., Thipwong J., Samala S., Rotchanajinda W. 2022. Phytochemical and biological activities of extracts from Impatiens sirindhorniae Triboun & Suksathan. Acta Horticulturae 1339: 389-398 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1339.49
authors found that I. sirindhorniae has higher antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-xanthine oxidase activity than commonly studied and used I. balsamina.
Both papers are of restricted access from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In last two days I informed on two most rich balsam floras of the world (China and India). So what is going on with balsams of other regions? Dr. Shinobu Akiyama published two parts of „Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) of Nepal”, third part should be published shortly. During 2nd International Symposium on Impatiens Research, Prof. @Eberhard Fischer informed that his group is working on monograph of continental African Impatiens. His further plans include revision of Madagascanian balsams (probably third richest balsam flora in the world, ~260 taxa). Number of Impatiens taxa in temperate Eurasia, Americas, as well as Australia and Oceania is low and new data connected mainly with naturalized taxa; publication of Balsaminaceae for Flora of North America is still pending. This way among regions with rich balsam floras, SE Asia is waiting for modern synthesis of Balsaminaceae flora. Here only Myanmar has recent monograph (Ruchisansakun et al. 2018).
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I have got chapter dealing with Indian balsams from Rajib Gogoi (thanks!):
Prabhukumar K.M., Hareesh V.S., Gogoi R., Sabu M. 2022. Family Balsaminaceae – An Indian Scenario. In: Seethalakshmi K.K., Haridasan K., Nair M.C., Rekha Vasudevan A. (eds.) Conspectus on Realms of Biodiversity. Pp. 151-184
Authors Prabhukumar K.M. from National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, Hareesh V. S. , Rajib Gogoi and @Sabu Mamiyil described basics of Balsaminaceae and produced most updated checklist of Indian Balsaminaceae, including 326 taxa (302 species and 24 subspecies or varieties). This way India has second richest flora of Balsaminaceae in the world (after China – see update from yesterday). Unfortunately, I found some errors: Impatiens chinensis is mentioned as occuring in Europe (it is not), what is called I. chungtiensis should be I. chungtienensis, Impatiens cymbifera is not endemic for India, as it is known from Nepal (see Grey-Wilson 1989 and my update on I. cymbifera group). But this checklist could be nice basis for development of broader database, including also altitudinal limits and other features.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Recently, reading paper with description of I. liupanshuiensis (see one of my earlier updates), I found information on surprisingly high number of Impatiens taxa living in China – 340!
I finally found this paper posted as preprint (?):
Yuan T., Li M., Ren L., Huang R., Chen Y., Bai X. 2022. A dataset on the diversity and geographical distributions of wild Impatiens in China. Biodiversity Science DOI: 10.17520/biods.2022019
In this version authors mention 352 taxa, including 18 varieties, 1 subspecies and 1 form. This is clearly most rich balsam flora in the world. Datasets include list of taxa, as well as geographical and altitudinal distribution of balsams in China.
During brief review I noticed several taxa recently synonymised with other taxa (I. mengtszeana, I. monticola, I. sunkoshiensis, I. taronensis) as well as alternate names (falcifer/falcifera) treated as separate taxa. Interestingly, authors included I. glandulifera from lowland locality – I suppose in NE China – see one of my earlier updates, but missed I. balsamina or I. walleriana, mentioned in some sources as naturalized.
Despite all these errors and different points of view, this is most complete list of Chinese Impatiens till date. Text in Chinese is disadvantage for non-Chinese readers. Publication of English version of this list would be very important for studies of Chinese balsams.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In paper published just today:
Wang Z., Wu P.-P., Liu C.-C., Guo K., Yu S.-X. 2022. Impatiens nushanensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa 545 (2): 186–196. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.545.2.7
authors describe new species of balsam from Yunnan. The new species, morphologically most similar to I. purpurea, it has however four lateral sepals and deep purple distal lateral united petal. According to phylogenetic analysis it is closely related to I. rectangula and I. cyathiflora.
Full text of the paper is accessible from RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Akhter C., Reshi Z.A., Ganie A.H., Dar G.H., Khuroo A.A. 2022. Unique arrangement and temporal separation of essential organs promotes cross pollination in Impatiens edgeworthii Hook. f.: an endemic
species of Western Himalaya. Botanica Pacifica 11,1: 1-7. DOI: 10.17581/bp.2022.11111
authors investigate details of pollination biology of this Himalayan species. However, what they describe as „unique arrangement” (stamens fused in the upper part), while uncommon in other plant groups, is phenomenon well known in many Impatiens taxa and included in characteristics of family (Fischer 2004) and genus (Grey-Wilson 1980, Chen et al. 2007).
I was rather surprised by fact that rich literature dealing with pollination biology of Impatiens from Western Ghats (Sreekala et al. 2008, Ramasubbu et al. 2011, Kulloli et al. 2012 for example) was completely neglected.
Also pollination syndromes in Impatiens were recently studied much deeper – see my earlier updates (Abrahamczyk et al. 2017, Ruchisansakun et al. 2021).
This way abovementioned paper, while important for details of pollination biology in Impatiens edgeworthii, left me with some insufficiency.
Full text of the paper is accessible from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Unexpectedly I found another preprint with description of new balsam:
Cheek M. 2022. A new, Critically Endangered species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from the coastal plain of the Republic of Congo. bioRxiv 10.1101/2022.05.05.490806
New species, called Impatiens moutsambotei, belongs to I. macroptera aggregate and is most similar to I. floretii from Gabon. The species is known from single, 30 years old collection and could be already extinct...
Full text is accessible from bioRxiv.
In recent years several species with restricted distribution were described from continental Africa (I. nzabiana, I. akomensis, I. pinganoensis, I. wuerstenii and several taxa from I. purpureoviolacea complex).
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Balsams with verticillate leaves and rather flat, solitary flowers, as well as long filiform spurfrom Indonesia (I. platypetala), New Guinea (I. hawkeri) and adjacent areas seem to be related. According to Grey-Wilson (1980) I. hawkeri are polyploids with chromosome numbers 2n= 32, 48, 66, whereas Java and Celebes forms (presumably I. platypetala) have 2n= 8, 16 (Arisumi 1978). Taxonomy of this group is still waiting for solution.
Today I would like to compare abstracts of two papers, published 44 years apart:
Soehendi R., Kartikaningrum S., Wegadara M., Ratule M.T., Thamrin M., Marwoto B. 2022. Interspecific hybridization of Impatiens sp. Acta Hortic. 1334: 37-46. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2022.1334.5
Impatiens aurantiaca [Impatiens platypetala Lindl. subsp. aurantiaca(Teijsm. ex Koord.) Steenis]
is limited in flower and leaf color variation. This species is usually crossed with the New Guinea Impatiens (I. hawkeri Bull.) to obtain interspecific hybrids with more variation in flower color and leaf characters. The objective of the current research was to increase color variation in interspecific hybrids of I. hawkeri crossed with Impatiens aurantiaca. Three different colors of I. hawkeri (female parents) were crossed with three different colors of I. aurantiaca (male parents). Fresh pollens from I. aurantiaca were applied when the stigmas of I. hawkeri were fully extended. A total of nine populations were obtained from the crossing. Results showed that the orange color of flowers from I. aurantiaca is a dominant character that is inherited by the progenies in the crossing. The white-flowered progenies were only obtained when two white-flowered parents are crossed. A wide variation of flower color is obtained when the red-colored parent is crossed with a white-colored plant. Additionally, dark foliage is dominant over green foliage. Most of the progenies obtained from the crossing were found to be sterile.
Arisumi T. 1978. Hybridization among diploid and tetraploid forms of New Guinea, Java, and Celebes Impatiens spp. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 103,3: 355-361.
Interspecific hybrids were synthesized by intercrossing diploid and tetraploid of Impatiens spp. from New Guinea (2x = 32), Java (2x = 16) and Celebes (2x = 8). Breeding analysis of the intra- and interploidy crosses showed that the species functioned as diploids in relation to each other. Diploid by tetraploid crosses produced little or no seed, and with few exceptions the triploid seedlings were sterile. All but 2 of 43 selfs and reciprocal crosses among tetraploids produced viable seed. Amphidiploid and autotetraploid seedlings were pollen and seed fertile. Allotetraploids composed of 2 or 3 genomes in various unequal combinations and those with 4 genomes were pollen and seed sterile or nearly so. Most of the 3 and 4 allopolyploids were ornamentally inferior to the diploid and amphidiploid hybrids. New Guinea flower colors were recessive to those of Java and Celebes. The hybrid phenotypes were midparental for most traits, and in some cases exhibited dosage effects. Some hybrids were superior to both parents in certain ornamentally important attributes.
Results of paper by Arisumi are commercially used to produce modern hybrids, which are more heat- and sun-tolerant than traditional New Guinea Impatiens.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Impatiens balsamina is one of most thoroughly studied balsams, particularly as medicinal plant.
I am often checking review articles during my literature searches. I just found one from Indonesia:
Kusumawati A.H., Kholillah S., Farhamzah, Samsudin A., Apriana S.D., Permadi A.M., Adawiah I., Hasnimar 2022. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Impatiens balsamina (L.): literature review article. Bacterial Empire 5(2): e334. DOI: 10.36547/be.334
Authors found 12 papers, published between 2011 and 2021, dealing with antiacne and antifungal activity of I. balsamina.
I was however massively disappointed after finding almost exclusively Indonesian papers in literature, when after 10 minutes of search in my database I found several papers from other countries (India, Thailand and China - examples below) dealing with similar subjects:
Jain B. 2011. Antimicrobial Activity of Seed Extract of Impatiens balsamina Linn. Current World Environment 6,2: 299-300.
John A.S., Koperuncholan M. 2012. Antibacterial activities of various solvent extracts from Impatiens balsamina. International Journal of Pharma and Biosciences 2012,3: 401-406.
Sakunphueak A., Panichayupakaranant P. 2012. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of naphthoquinones from Impatiens balsamina. Nat. Prod. Res. 26,12: 1119-1124.
Zeng R., Su B., Chen J., Zhang A. 2012. Studies on the Antimicrobial Characteristics of Extracts from Impatiens balsamina L. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis 2012-02
Ma H.-M., Zhang Y-H., Chen X.-L. 2012. Bacteriostasis of Different Extracts from Impatiens Balsamina L. Stem on Bacteria. Journal of Henan Agricultural Sciences 41,1: 126-128.
True review article require much more studies...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly posted preprint:
Cheek M., Darbyshire I., Onana J.M. 2022. Impatiens banen sp. nov. & I. etugei sp. nov. (Balsaminaceae), threatened lowland species of the Cross-Sanaga Interval, Cameroon. bioRxiv 10.1101/2022.05.01.490166
authors describe two new balsams from wet rocky habitats. Impatiens banen is similar to I. burtonii and I. mannii, but has bicolored, white and pink-purple lateral united petals. Impatiens etugei is similar to I. mackeyana and I. letouzeyi, but has opposite leaves, flowers white inside and dorsal petal has a pair of lateral projections. Both new taxa are geographically restricted to W Cameroun.
Full text of preprint is availalble from bioRxiv. I will inform when these taxa will be validly published. Due to increasing tendency to posting preprints with descriptions of new taxa I will add "a vestibule" to my list of balsams of XXI century.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
With beginning of field season and increasing numer of observations of balsams on iNaturalist I will have less time for regular updates. I am still waiting for third part of Akiyama’s paper on balsams of Nepal, to update some of my files (Most important sources…, Impatiens of Nepal…).
I hope to be able to add next version of literature database before end of May, other projects are time and help dependent - more time and help I get, more files will be ready in reasonable future.
Today I am going for another short break, but balsams are always with me…
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Among flood of new observations of jewelweed seedlings I found interesting one from China: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/111393204
Notice interesting coloring :-).
I suppose this plant is I. compta or I. nasuta - there are some differences in shape of lower sepal and leaves. Any opinion of my visitors and followers?
I am unable to match these observations with proper taxon. Again, could anybody help?
I am trying to keep number of waiting observations below 1000, but with spring rush in activity I am not sure how long I will be able to do so. iNaturalist need more identifiers!
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In article:
Mehmud S., Kumar Das K.K., Roy H. 2020. Morpho-taxonomic study and distributional note on two less known species of Assam. Tropical Plant Research 7(2): 512–516. DOI: 10.22271/tpr.2020.v7.i2.062
authors inform on presence od Impatiens pulchra in Assam as newly confirmed.
At the moment portal Plants of the World Online synonymizes several taxa, among them I. mengtszeana and I. monticola with I. pulchra. This way distribution of I. pulchra could be more broad than shown by POWO - see: Panday S., Sinha B.K., Karmakar P. 2014. Impatiens monticola (Balsaminaceae): A new distributional record for India. NeBIO I An international journal of environment and biodiversity Vol. 5, No. 6, December 2014, 31-33. - observation of I. monticola from Mizoram, or recently discussed obserwation of this taxon from Vietnam: Nguyen C.H., Averyanov L.V., Egorov A.A., Nguyen L.V. 2021. Impatiens monticola (Balsaminaceae), a newly recorded species for the flora of Vietnam. Botanicheskiy Zhurnal 106(10):1036-1040. DOI: 10.31857/S0006813621100082
Interestingly, there is picture of the species in recently discussed paper on balsam pollinators (Kato et al. 2020).
It means that I. pulchra is distributed from Nepal in the west, across majority of NE India, Myanmar, SW China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam...
Another database (balsam phytogeography) should be done, but for one person team it is impossible...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new article:
Diana P., Febriani H., Hutasuhut M.A. 2022. Vegetation Analysis of Invasive Plants in Batang Gadis National Park Resort 7 Sopotinjak. Agrinula: Jurnal Agroteknologi Dan Perkebunan, 5(1), 1-9.
authors mention Impatiens hawkeri as invasive in Sumatra, Indonesia.
Article lacks any illustrative material, so it is impossible to prove this statement. Impatiens hawkeri and its hybrids are commonly used as ornamentals in many areas worldwide. Impatiens platypetala, morphologically similar to I. hawkeri, is native in Indonesia and adjacent regions and used in hybridization with I. hawkeri to produce more heat- and sun-tolerant hybrids/cultivars.
Escape of I. hawkeri or its hybrids from culture seem to be possible in tropical zone, particularly in mountainous areas with high rainfall - I found observations of possibly escaped I. hawkeri ifrom several places in South and Central America. It could have negative consequences for genetic integrity of I. platypetala by hybridization.
Comments and observations of invasive behaviour of New Guinea Impatiens will be hearthily appreciated.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just added file with list of all known to me taxa of scapigerous Impatiens. This particular group is inhabiting Western Ghats (I. acaulis is reaching to Sri Lanka). There are 40 species and two varieties included. Despite rather low number of taxa, identification of scapigerous balsams is very difficult. Several new taxa were described after publication of Bhaskar's monograph. I hope to develop this small database in future, adding more useful information.
By the way, I would like to thank Champika Bandara for help with Sri Lankan literature on Balsaminaceae. His help enable me to prepare further databases when time allows.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
List of 40 scapigerous Impatiens species and two varieties, including publication where taxa were described and geographical distribution of particular taxa as help for studying this difficult group of balsams almost endemic to Western Ghats
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I am going home for Easter and for some break.
I will take my laptop to work on some details of next version of literature database and on Impatiens cymbifera group - here I have some positive answers :-). I also found some promising details on existing pictures of these taxa.
Next update not earlier than April 24th.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In paper published just today:
Bandara C., Bandara Herath S., Gopallawa B., Attanayake A. 2022. Impatiens jacobdevlasii (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Knuckles massif of Sri Lanka. Phytotaxa 543(3):181-187. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.543.3.2
Champika Bandara with coauthors described new balsam, similar to I. truncata, having however bilobed upper lateral petal.
As far as I know, this is first new Impatiens species described from Sri Lanka, since Grey-Wilson C. 1980. The Impatiens appendiculata complex in Ceylon. Studies in Balsaminaceae: 4. Kew Bull. 35(1): 203 - 211.
Full text is of restricted access from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Digging as always for new information on balsams I found this interesting paper:
Zonneveld B.J.M. 2019. The DNA weights per nucleus (genome size) of more than 2350 species of the Flora of The Netherlands, of which 1370 are new to science, including the pattern of their DNA peaks. Forum geobotanicum (2019) 8: 24−78. DOI 10.3264/FG.2019.1022
Six balsam species (I. balfourii, I. capensis, I. glandulifera, I. noli-tangere, I. parviflora, I. tricornis) and one hybrid (I. balfourii x I. parviflora) were included. Hybrid I. balfourii x I. parviflora has highest DNA content among all studied balsam taxa. There is one error – I. capensis has numer of chromosomes given as 14, whereas other sources give n= 10, 2n= 20. I. capensis Thunb., now known as I. hochstetterii Warb. has n= 7, 2n= 14.
Full text of paper is available from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Impatiens balsamina is one of most thoroughly investigated medicinal plants. Still yet Chinese authors found something new about best extraction methods of medicinal chemicals from this plant:
Yali X., Nianwu H. 2022. Optimization of Extraction Process and Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Coumarins from Impatiens balsamina. Guangxi Forestry Science 51,1: 99-105. DOI: 10.19692/j.issn.1006-1126.20220115
Optimal conditions were: extraction temperature 60 °C, extraction time 90 min, solid-liquid ratio 140 and ethanol concentration 70%.
Full text in Chinese accessible from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In earlier paper of Czech authors:
Aldorfová A., Knobová P., Münzbergová Z. 2020. Plant–soil feedback contributes to predicting plant invasiveness of 68 alien plant species differing in invasive status. Oikos 129, 8:1257-1270. doi: 10.1111/oik-07186
Impatiens glandulifera and I. parviflora were included. Invasive species, among them balsams had more positive plant-soil feedback than non-invasive plants. Particularly plant-soil feedback for seedling establishment was good predictor of invasive status. Authors concluded however, that other features, for example specific leaf area, are better predictors of plant invasiveness.
Full text readable on journal page. I was able to download only earlier preprint.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just added a file with analysis and research proposal dealing with Impatiens cymbifera group. Three taxa were described by Grey-Wilson in 1989. Recently Akiyama reduced one of these taxa to synonym of I. cymbifera. In my opinion I. gorepaniensis should be separate taxon, I however don't have resources to go to Nepal, Sikkim and adjacent areas to collect material. I would like to invite both professional botanists and amateur naturalists working in Himalaya for collaboration in collecting materials, which could confirm or reject recent synonymisation.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
Analysis and research proposal dealing with Impatiens cymbifera group
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new and important paper:
Aldorfová A., Dostálek T., Münzbergová Z. 2022. Effects of soil conditioning, root and shoot litter addition interact to determine the intensity of plant–soil feedback. Oikos 2022: e09025. doi: 10.1111/oik.09025
authors report detailed studies of plant-soil feedback of seven balsam taxa (I. bajurensis, I. devendrae,
I. racemosa, I. scabrida, I. scullyi, I. sulcata and I. tricornis) coming from Nepal Himalaya.
They included not only effects of shoot litter, but also rarely studied effects of root litter. Plants were cultivated in soil conditioned by growth of the same balsam species, as well as in unconditioned soil as control. Full text is accessible from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Spring on northern hemisphere is clearly visible on iNaturalist, with increasing number of seedling observations. These observations have little value for identification of particular species (cotyledons of many balsams are similar), could however be interesting for phenological studies.
In last days some interesting material from Africa was posted by Bart Wursten - at least two taxa from I. purpureoviolacea complex - I. purpureoviolacea and I. ludewigii. I asked Bart Wursten (thanks!) to check my identifications of I. burtonii and this way dozen or so observations of this African species were confirmed :-). Also new interesting observations of balsams from China and Indonesia were added, but these are still out of my reach...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new, important paper @Jens Georg Peter Diller with coauthors:
Diller J.G.P., Drescher S., Hofmann M., Rabus M., Feldhaar H., Laforsch C. 2022. The Beauty is a beast: Does leachate from the invasive terrestrial plant Impatiens glandulifera affect aquatic food webs? Ecology and Evolution 2022;12:e8781. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.8781
found „that leachate from I. glandulifera significantly reduced population growth rate of the water flea Daphnia magna and the green alga Acutodesmus obliquus”, important species of freshwater food web. Their results clearly show „that allelochemicals from I. glandulifera not only reduce biodiversity in terrestrial habitats but also pose a threat to freshwater ecosystems”.
Full text is open access from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Digging for new information I found interesting web page:
Author presents information on balsams from SW India, with pictures of 22 species and some general information on the genus and particular species. Page dealing with balsams is part of much bigger project on botany of Western Ghats.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Horticulture is always looking for more sustainable use of available resources and reduction of costs. In new paper:
Gutiérrez A., Orden L., Postemsky P., Iocoli G., Mockel G., Marinangeli P. 2022. Agrowaste compost as a component of substrates for ornamental plants. Horticultura Argentina 41 (104): 7-18. http://id.caicyt.gov.ar/ark:/s18519342/mqwusrfaa
Argentinian authors found that addition of ¼ compost to peat-perlite mixture results in good substrate for I. walleriana production. The peat perlite/compost 8/2 treatment is more economical and sustainable option than commercial substrate due to the reduction in the use of peat and the recovery of wastes.
Full text available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Krokaité E., Janulioniené R., Jociené L., Rekašius T., Rajackaité G., Paulauskas A., Marozas V., Kupčinskiené E. 2022. Relating Invasibility and Invasiveness: Case Study of Impatiens parviflora. Front. Ecol. Evol. 10:845947. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2022.845947
authors found surprising lack of a relationship between genetic variation of I. parviflora and neighboring species.
They proposed „further studies of molecular, ecological, and geographic relationships of I. parviflora […] across a broader range from Western Europe to Eastern part of Eurasia”. I think this is very interesting idea, as I. parviflora is invading areas with very diverse climates, vegetation and level of human influence. Full text of paper is available from RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published paper:
Luo C., Huang W., Yer H., Kamuda T., Li X., Li Y., Rong Y., Yan B., Wen Y., Wang Q., Huang M., Huang H. 2022. Complete Chloroplast Genomes and Comparative Analyses of Three Ornamental Impatiens Species. Front. Genet. 13: 816123. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2022.816123
complete chloroplast genomes of I. balsamina and I. walleriana are announced and analysed. Complete chloroplast genome of I. hawkeri, published in earlier paper (Luo et al. 2020) is analysed as well.
Full text of article is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Last year I informed on two papers on I. oxyanthera. Authors from China West Normal University published new one:
Zhong N.D., Wang L., Xiao J., Wang Q. 2021. Effect of pollen source on reproductive success of Impatiens oxyanthera under warming conditions. Chin. J. Plant. Ecol., DOI: 10.17521/cjpe.2021.0169.
Reproductive success of I. oxyanthera decreased with increasing temperature. It was also higher in heterozygous crosses than in self-crosses. However, difference between heterozygous and self-crosses was diminished when maternal plants were growing in higher temperatures.
I was able to reach only abstract of this paper.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
According to:
Nehring S., Kleinbauer I., Dullinger S., Essl F., Klingenstein F., May R. 2010. Climate change threats to biodiversity in Germany and Austria the potential distribution of alien plants. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2010). Biodiversity and Climate Change: Achieving the 2020 Targets. Abstracts of Posters Presented at the 14th Meeting of the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 10-21 May 2010, Nairobi, Kenya. Technical Series No. 51. Montreal, SCBD: 57-59.
Impatiens parviflora could thrive now in 60,21% of quadrants (cell size ca. 35 square km) and I. glandulifera in 55,53%. Only four more plants can grow in 50+ % of quadrants, all well known invasives: Lupinus polyphyllus, Robinia pseudacacia, Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea. Authors state that future climate changes will increase invasion risks.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I am digging for details on balsams from Korean Peninsula and Japan, as situation there is not so simple as shown in my recent update. There are forms with untypical flower color, subspecies with different shape of lower sepal and petals. I hope to prepare a file with descriptions of these balsams, but I don't have access to big part of literature; some texts are in Japan/Korean.
I am also trying to keep number of unreviewed balsam observations on iNaturalist below 1000, but this is difficult task - in last weeks many interesting, but difficult observations were posted, particularly numerous from China.
Today I had interesting exchange on African Impatiens purpureoviolacea. I was surprised by deep purple flower color: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/109763755, when compared with pictures in paper by Fischer et al. 2021, where rosa flowers were shown. Bart Wursten informed me that he observed this color form in other places. There is apparently more variability in I. purpureoviolacea than shown in abovementione paper...
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I recently informed on this paper:
Kato M., Kawakita A., Goto R., Okamoto T., Kobayashi C., Imada Y., Nakase Y., Nishioka T., Chanthavong B., Keothumma K., Kosaka Y. 2020. Community-level plant–pollinator interactions in a Palaeotropical montane evergreen oak forest ecosystem. Journal of Natural History 54(33-34): 2125-2176. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2020.1837977
After I found one obvious error in identification of balsams there, I asked Keooudone Souvannakhoummane (thanks!) for help, as I don’t feel familiar enough with balsams of Laos.
In his opinion only I. chinensis, I. commellinoides and I. rubricolor were correctly identified.
What was called I. ernestii in abovementioned paper is I. rubrostriata, I. longiloba – I. drepanophora, I. mengtszeana – I. pulchra, I. tigrina – I. kamtilongensis, I. violaeflora – I. rubricolor.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
It was described not so long ago: Watanabe M., Serizawa S. 2009. Impatiens ohwadae, a new species of Balsaminaceae from Japan (in Japanese). Shidekobushi 1:61–70. I don’t have access to description.
When comparing pictures of I. ohwadae and I. textorii, I saw glabrous peduncle and proportionally smaller lower united petals, as well as paler flower color in I. ohwadae. Both have spirally involuted spurs.
I still wonder if these taxa are different enough to be separate species?
It is apparently recognized by Japanese botanists:
Ishihama F., Takeda T., Oguma H., Takenaka A. 2010. Comparison of effects of spatial autocorrelation on distribution predictions of four rare plant species in the Watarase wetland. Ecological Research 25, 6: 1057-1069.
Murayama-Takeshita K., Watanabe M., Fujii N. 2020. Phylogenetic Position, Divergence Time and Ancestral Distribution of Impatiens hypophylla Makino (Balsaminaceae). Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 71,2: 129–146. doi: 10.18942/apg.201919
I. ohwadae is genetically closer to I. textorii than to other Japanese balsams.
Obata K., Akiba Y. 2009. Locality of Impatiens ohwadae M. Watanabe et Seriz. in Ibaraki Prefecture. Bulletin of Ibaraki Nature Museum 2009, 12: 23-26.
http://jpnrdb.com/search.php?mode=map&q=06030752851 – map of distribution; Gunma, Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama prefectures.
Name I. ohwadae is absent in International Plant Name Index.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just found an error in my file with Impatiens portraits and digged in literature to correct it.
Impatiens furcillata should have small and rather pale, pinkish white with yellow spots, flowers and curved, not involuted spur:
Ji S.-J., Kim Y.-Y., Oh B.-U. 2010. Taxonomic review of Impatiens furcillata Hemsl. (Balsaminaceae). Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 40: 43-49.
Impatiens hypophylla, endemic to Japan, should have whitish flowers with red/purple spots and spur with thickened tip:
Akiyama S. 1998. A taxonomic note on Impatiens hypophylla Makino and I. microhypophylla Nakai (Balsaminaceae). Mem. Nation. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) 30: 43-56.
Impatiens textorii, in majority of cases have big, purple flowers and spirally involuted spur:
Chen Y.L., Akiyama S., Ohba H. 2007. Balsaminaceae. In Z.Y. Wu and P.H. Raven (eds.), Flora of China. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Vol. 12, pp. 43-113.
Hope this will help with identification of these balsams.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In newly published experimental study:
Vargo M., Faust J.E. 2022. Modeling the Effect of Temperature on the Flower Development Rate of Hybrid Impatiens. HortTechnology 32,1: 16-20. DOI: 10.21273/HORTTECH04919-21
authors provide predictive model of flower development time for three cultivars of SunPatiens – hybrids of I. hawkeri with higher tolerance to full sun and higher temperatures. With increasing economic importance of these hybrids, this model could be very useful tool for commercial growers, enabling acceleration or delay of flower development by rising or lowering average daily temperature.
Full text is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In paper published last year:
Ayasov Kh.G., Akhmedov E., Khidirov S. 2021. Effects of certain mineral fertilizers on the biological mass of Indigofera Tinctoria and Impatiens Balsamina plants. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 939: 012082, 2nd International Conference on Energetics, Civil and Agricultural Engineering 2021 (ICECAE 2021) 14th-16th October 2021, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/939/1/012082
authors found that fertilized plants of Impatiens have higher biomass and much higher dry mass – even 4,5 times higher than control plants. I don’t think high biomass or dry mass is the best estimate of fertilization efectivness in case of medicinal plants. There should be studies how fertilization change levels of active substances and this aspect is completely omitted in this study.
Full text is available from IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science web page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In paper published last year:
Axmanová I., Kalusová V., Danihelka J., Dengler J., Pergl J., Pyšek P., ... & Chytrý M. 2021. Neophyte invasions in European grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science 32(2): e12994. DOI: 10.1111/jvs.12994
authors report very limited success of non-native balsams in European grasslands: I. glandulifera occurred in 0,3% of all plots and I. parviflora in 0,2%. More invaded by I. glandulifera were wet habitats – 1,2%; 283 of 304 colonized plots. Both taxa are better known as components of ruderal and forest vegetation, I. glandulifera also from river and stream banks. Two more Impatiens taxa were reported in this study: I. balfourii from France and Spain, as well as I. capensis from United Kingdom and Poland.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
There is little information on status of Balsaminaceae in Chile. Earlier I found one article:
Macaya-Berti J. 2015. Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) cultivados en Chile. Chloris Chilensis. Año 18 N° 2. URL: http: www.chlorischile.cl
Now I found web page with Illustrated encyclopedia of alien plants cultivated in Chile:
Macaya-Berti J., Teillier S., Serra M.T. undated. Enciclopedia ilustrada de las especies de plantas exóticas que se cultivan en Chile. https://www.chlorischile.cl/enciclopedia macaya/index enciclopedia.htm
This work include eight balsam species: I. auricoma, I. balfourii, I. balsamina, I. glandulifera, I. hawkeri, I. niamniamensis, I. sodenii and I. walleriana. In description of I. glandulifera there is first mention of its naturalization, confirming data from iNaturalist reported in recent updates. In description of I. walleriana plant on top picture belongs to I. hawkeri.
I will add this encyclopedia to my file Most important sources... 5.0, but I am waiting for publication of third part of paper on Impatiens of Nepal.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Chen et al. (2007) give only Xinjiang province (NW China) as place of native occurrence of this Central Asiatic species. Surprisingly, Plants of the World Online show Manchuria (NE China, roughly Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning provinces) as part of native distribution of I. parviflora, which I suppose is not true. However, Impatiens parviflora is known as introduced plant from neighboring part of Russia (Vladivostok, Blagoveshensk, Chabarovsk), very close to Chinese border. This way it could quickly become unwanted guest in this part of China.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Finally, after many perturbations, our new paper was published today:
Singh H., Sharma A., Adamowski W. 2022. Impatiens glauca Hook. f. et Thomson—A little known Himalayan species with augmented description and a new spurless variety. Phytotaxa 539,3: 280–286. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.539.3.7
Impatiens glauca grows from Himachal Pradesh to west Nepal. Flowers of this species were unknown for science until 1993! My collaborators, Harsh Singh and Ashutosh Sharma collected some new data on morphology of I. glauca, based on observations of living specimens, as well as good illustrative material.
Full text is (unfortunately) of restricted access from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In one of my recent updates I stated that information on occurrence of I. glandulifera in Hunan province and whole China is untrue. I was wrong - today I found observation from Heilongjiang province, NE China: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/81151924
where juvenile plants of this species were observed last year, less than 1 km from Chinese border, between Jiangdoncun in China and Pogranicnyj in Russia. Since 2019 Himalayan Balsam is known from Kamen-Rybolov, close to Russian part of Lake Khanka: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/33741686. This locality could be starting point for further invasion, threatening transboundary nature reserve.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
There is interesting situation with Kashmir balsam in Mexico - there are more than 20 observations of this species on iNaturalist with Reseach Grade status; spread across several Mexican states, oldest of these observations from 2012, but I am unable to find any publication including this species.
When preparing my 2009 paper on I. balfourii I had no data even on cultivation of the species in Mexico.
However, René Josué Monzalvo-López informed me that one of his correspondents observed spontaneous populations of Kashmir balsam in Veracruz since 1980'.
This sounds very promising for serious digging... We will surely try to find more data.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Our paper dealing with Impatiens glauca will be ready soon :-), but it still don't have proper DOI and pagination. I will edit information on this paper after we will get file from the journal. Then I will add another update.
I am unable to focus on big things now, due to war in Ukraine. There will be delays in promised analyse of I. scabrida group, etc. But there is progress in collecting literature - another hundred papers or so added to main database, in correspondence - there will be some surprises for my visitors and followers.
By the way, I am quite often finding new interesting papers sooner via RG than getting alerts from Google Scholar.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added a research item
Augmented description of Impatiens glauca based on observations of living material is given, as well as description of a new spurless variety. Global distribution, ecology, photographs and conservation status are also provided in detail. Abortive inflorescences are illustrated for first time.
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I just learned a lesson: always double check new information - I checked I. ernestii in checklists, floras and databases (https://padme.rbge.org.uk/laos/, Flora of China, IPNI, POWO) and there is no such species :-(. Closest name is I. ernstii Hook.f. from Sichuan and NE Yunnan, but it has different shape of lower sepal and long spur. So there is apparently error in paper discussed yesterday. What is called I. ernestii is at least similar to I. rubrostriata with whitish flowers, massive lower sepal, thick, short spur and very delicate rosa/purplish venation on lower sepal and petals.
A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR https://padme.rbge.org.uk/laos/ mentions I. rubrostriata, so this is probable solution. By the way, this checklist lists 37 balsam species, 35 native and two introduced: I. balsamina and I. walleriana.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
I found a paper:
Kato M., Kawakita A., Goto R., Okamoto T., Kobayashi C., Imada Y., Nakase Y., Nishioka T., Chanthavong B., Keothumma K., Kosaka Y. 2020. Community-level plant–pollinator interactions in a Palaeotropical montane evergreen oak forest ecosystem. Journal of Natural History 54(33-34): 2125-2176. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2020.1837977
including pictures of eight balsams from Laos: I. chinensis, I. commellinoides, I. ernestii, I. longiloba, I. mengtszeana, I. rubricolor, I. tigrina, I. violaeflora and some details on their pollinators. For I. ernestii this is first known to me picture.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Second of new balsams from Guizhou announced in my November update was published:
Yuan T.-H., Chen Y., Yu S., Ren L.-Y., Huang R.-X., Li M.-J., Bai X.-X. 2022. Impatiens liupanshuiensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Guizhou, China. PhytoKeys 192: 37–44. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.192.77269
The new species is similar to I. xanthocephala in its yellow flowers and extremely small basal lobes of lateral united petals.
In November it was just sent to journal and named I. retrovexilla. Under review it changed its name to I. liupanshuiensis.
And these changes are good illustration of my opinion why preprints and descriptions under review should not be posted on RG – these make more noise than give information.
Full text is available from journal page.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
Dipankar Borah , Rajeev Kumar Singh and Momang Taram published description of new balsam from Arunachal Pradesh:
Borah D., Singh R.K., Taram M. 2022. Impatiens pasighatensis (Balsaminaceae), A new species from Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India. Indian Forester 148,2: 233-235. DOI: 10.36808/if/2022/v148i2/156569
At first glance I. pasighatensis seem to be clearly different from typical forms of I. arguta to which it was compared. Both taxa have four lateral sepals and incurved spurs (I. arguta more rapidly, I. pasighatensis more gradually). However, in earlier paper, published last year:
Singh R.K., Borah D., Taram M. 2021. Typifications, new combinations and new synonyms in Indian Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 61: 1-27. DOI 10.2478/biorc-2021-0001
the same authors synonymised I. arunachalensis, similar to their new species in recurved upper lateral petals with dark red patches, with I. arguta.
Original description and pictures of I. arunachalensis for comparison in:
Hareesh V.S., Joe A., Gogoi R., Sabu M. 2017. Impatiens arunachalensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from northeastern India. Phytotaxa 305 (1): 047–051.
What more, they synonymised also I. spirifera, having only two lateral sepals and spirally involuted spur with the same I. arguta, completely obscuring circumscription of this taxon.
Descriptions and pictures of I. arguta and I. spirifera in:
Gogoi R., Borah S., Dash S.S., Singh P. 2018. Balsams of Eastern Himalaya - A Regional Revision. Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata. pp 1-210
Describing new species only on morphological basis in this situation seem premature.
Separate species or not, what is called by authors I. pasighatensis, is beautiful plant.
Full text is not available yet from journal page, but posted on RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In very fresh paper:
Fu C., Chen X., Li T., Zhou A. 2022. Characterizing the complete chloroplast genome of the Impatiens davidii (Balsaminaceae). Mitochondrial DNA Part B 7,3: 466-467. DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2022.2048211
authors publish announcement of complete chloroplast genome of I. davidii, balsam species from SE China.
Full text is available from journal page.
This sequence was stored in BOLD database when I was preparing my file in December 2021.
I just updated my file - there are several sequences present which were not officially published. I suppose there will be further announcements published in next months.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
In new paper:
Pusz W., Patejuk K., Kaczmarek-Pieńczewska A. 2022. Mycobiota of infected organs of small balsam (Impatiens parviflora DC.) seeds in Wigry National Park. Progress in Plant Protection DOI: 10.14199/ppp-2022-005
authors present results of studies on mycobiota attacking Impatiens parviflora in NE Poland. They found 52 taxa of fungi; most widespread was Alternaria alternata.
This surprisingly high number of parasitic fungi do little in slowing down its invasion.
Full text in Polish is available from journal page and RG.
 
Wojciech Adamowski
added an update
After publication of new descriptions I always try to update my file Balsams of XXI century. Yesterday I added Impatiens bijieensis as first species of balsam published in 2022.
I am however unsure how to treat "last" species published in 2021, I. godfreyi. I found it as pre-proof in December; there is information that this pre-proof was available online 9.12.2021. Final version with pagination is included in tome 15, published in 2022:
Singh Richard P.S., Karuppusamy S., Ravichandran V. 2022. Impatiens godfreyi (Balsaminaceae), a new species of Balsam from southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity 15,1: 138-144. DOI: 10.1016/j.japb.2021.12.001
Is pre-proof valid publication?
By the way, I am nine species ahead of International Plant Name Index; oldest not included record is five years old. This again shows how difficult is collecting complete data.