added a research item
Abstract The study was conducted in South Omo Zone Benatsemayworedachalikebele from 2019-2021 G.C in the title “Evaluation of different spacing and demonstration of Becium grandflorum /“Tebeb”/ bee forage in South Omo Zone, Ethiopia” with the objec�tive of evaluate the effect of different spacing on canopy cover, plant height, branch number and flower number and adaptabil�ity of Becium grandflorumbee forage. Beciumg randflorum cutting laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications by four different spacing (2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m). The record parameter results were plant height 1.11m, 0.99m, 1.24m and 1.27m with treatments 2m, 2.5m, 3m and 3.5m spacing respectively, number of branches per plant were 17.33, 13.33,20 and 21.66 with treatments respectively, canopy cover were 1.39m, 1.29m, 1.7m and 1.5m with treatments respectively and number of flowers per plant were 15567, 14043, 19753 and 20083 with treatments respectively were recorded. All parame�ters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, canopy cover and number of flowers per plant were not statistically sig�nificance (p<0.05). The highest flower number, branches per plant and plant height was recorded in treatment 3.5m whereas the lowest flower number, branch per plant, plant height and canopy cover was recorded in treatment 2.5m. However the recorded parameter results were not statistically significance treatment 3.5m and treatment 3m spacing were recommended for Becium grandflorum cutting plantation with sufficient soil moisture and good soil condition. Keywords: Becium grandflorum; DebubOmo; flower number; spacing
The study was conducted in West and East Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region to determine the occurrence of honeybee diseases, pests and predators. Questionnaire survey and laboratory diagnostic methods were used for the study. In the questionnaire survey, 384 respondent beekeepers were interviewed. Similarly, for laboratory work 194 honeybee colonies sampled in apiary sites and backyard beekeeping management system were examined for the presence of honeybee pests, external parasites and disease pathogens. Descriptive, frequency and chi-square (x 2) test with SPSS version 20 were used. Affecting honeybee colonies were ants (17.4%), wax moth (16.7%), birds (16%), praying mantis (12%) honey badger (12%), bee lice (10.9%), small hive beetle (10.6%), wasp (4.8%), snake (2%) and lizards (1%). The major beekeeping constraints were absconding (22.8%), scarcity of bee forage (11.9%), agro-chemical application (11.8%), drought (11.2%), lack of technical skill (poor honeybee colony management) (10.6%), honeybee diseases (10.2%), scarcity of water (9.7%) and lack of credit (8.1%) and high costs of improved inputs for beekeeping (3.4%). During internal and external hive inspection pests and predators were observed. In the laboratory diagnosis results, colony level prevalence of Varroa mite, bee lice, Nosema apis and amoeba was 78.35%, 11.34%, 51.03% and 98.72%, respectively with different risk factors at chi-square test. Their statistical significance was tested at P<0.05 variation in overall prevalence which is varroa mite statistically significant at P<0.05 in colony management type and location. Hive type, study location and Amoeba was statistically significant at P<0.05 in study location.
The study was conducted in West and East Gojjam Zones of Amhara Region Ethiopia to determine commonly used agro-chemicals and timing of applications, their effects on honeybee by itself and beekeeper farmers used cultural practices to minimize agro-chemical side effects on honeybee; Questionnaire survey methods, key informants interview and focus group discussion were used for the study. In the questionnaire survey, 384 respondent beekeepers from 4 Woredas, 20 Kebeles (376 male and 8 female) were interviewed. Descriptive, frequency with SPSS version 20 were used. The majority of farmers spray herbicides before blooming in August and insecticides at diseases and pests observed in October, November and December. Surprisingly, almost all respondents interviewed (98.7%) have confirmed that they know the negative effects of agro-chemicals on the health status and life of the honeybee. Apparently pesticides have been causing considerable damage by killing honeybees and causing yield decline due to miss use of agrochemicals. 90.9% of the non-beekeepers who use agro-chemical had no willingness to use non-chemical or alternative mechanisms to control pests and weeds. The main reported reason for the non-beekeepers not informing others about their plan to apply agro-chemicals is their laziness and jealousy; only 8.1% of respondents have willingness to use non-chemical or cultural weed and pest control mechanisms to save honeybee colonies as well as to keep their farmlands as organic. Overall the level of cooperation between beekeepers and non-beekeepers with regard to responsible use of agro-chemicals is very weak and certainly not considerate of mutual benefits and environmental protection. Essential to capacitate beekeepers in terms of technical knowledge and skills to better manage and need concerted action to develop appropriate agro-chemical application modalities that minimize side effects on honeybees and economic losses would be recommended.
The study was conducted in Malle and Benatsemay Districts of South Omo Zone with the objectives of assessing livestock production system constraints and appropriate technology need identifications through better understandings of the existing condition in specific agro-ecology for the study area. A total of 80 pastoral and agro pastorals were participated on key informants' group discussion 20 participants in each selected PAs. According to the key informants' discussion with in each group we had summarized the consensus ideas of the participants in group discussion. Despite of these there were some common and serious constraints on the aspects of livestock production system in each study Pas such as shortage of feed/due to high No of livestock and their trampling indigenous forage seed sources are lost/,Shortage of water animal diseases/long distance traveling for water and feed searching/, Storage and processing material problem for dairy products, Poor genetic makeup of the breed, high environmental temperature, poultry disease/bacterial, viral and parasitic, honey quality and productivity problem and toxic honey bee forages, seasonal price fluctuation, lack of market information and brokers problem and others constraints were identified during problem assessment study. According to discussion male house hold headed make decision in disposal of large and small animals but, all family members are responsible for disposal of their products. Introduction Livestock is an important economic sector in Ethiopia which contributes to economic development. Ethiopia holds the largest livestock population in Africa, estimated at about 55.0 million heads of cattle, 27.3 million sheep, and 28 million goats, 1.1 million camels , 51.3 million chicken, 1.96 million horses 6.95 million donkey and 0.36 million mules (CSA, 2014).).Livestock contribute up to 20% to Ethiopian GDP and Lively hood of 60-70% of the population. However, the productivity of the livestock resources and the benefits obtained from the sector does not commensurate with the high livestock population. Dairy sector is a major contributor to economic development, especially among the developing countries. Therefore it is imperative, identification of prevailing situation and understanding of the existing livestock production system constraints and opportunities for further research in the area and to devise appropriate development interventions. Therefore this study is initiated with objective of assess constraints and opportunities in livestock production systems; understand pastoral and agro pastorals indigenous technical knowledge, identifying users technology need, post-harvest handling and marketing system.
The cross sectional assessment study on dairy production system and its constraints and opportunities was conducted in Hamer woreda of south omo zone with objective of assessing dairy production system, milk and milk products handling, processing and marketing systems. A total of 180 despondence households from six peasant association with 30 respondents per each peasant association were purposely selected and interviewed by using purposive sampling method. The primary data were collected through structured questionnaires form household pastoralists and focus group discussions and secondary data was collected from zonal and woreda pastoral office. In the study area around the 35%, 29 %, 35.5 %, 52 % and 28.4 % of cattle feeding, watering, dairy milking and selling of live animal activities in the study area was accomplished by house head and son whereas 45% and 64.8 % cleaning of the barn and churning of milk was performed by the wife. On the other hand, around 55.56 % and 26% respondents reported selling the milk and milk product carried out by females (wife and daughter). Pertaining to educational status around the 83.88 % of pastoralists were illiterate which unable to read and write, 10.55 % were learned the elementary school (1-4) and 4.44% grade between 5-8 and 1.11% learned grade 9 and 10 formal education. On the other hand, around 25 %, 19.44 %, 15.56% and 40 % respondent replied that the main source of income in the study area was generated from the sale of live animals, sale of animal product, live animal, crop and honey, sale of forest and forest products and mixed sale of different commodity. Similarity, around the 30 .55%, 15 %, 4.44%, and 50 % of respondent in the study area reported that they obtained milk from local dairy cow, goats, camel and both local dairy cattle and goat as milk source for human nutrition. In the study area different milking cow management attentions were implemented. Around, 36.4% respondents were replied that they have not provided any supplementary feed for their milking cows in addition to grazing on the natural pasture. However, around 63.6% of the respondents were replied that they allowed supplying feed sources for their milking cows like cutting of green grass, crop residue as supplementary feed source. On the other hand, 45.2% of the respondents were allowed their milking cows grazed with other animals in the grazing area and 32.9% respondents replied that they separately fed the milking cows from the other animals and also followed cut and carry system at home. Traditional hand milking is the only type of milking practiced and proper sanitary milking and handling practices were not followed and Docha used for milking, while Dolla and Kill used for storage and kill for milk churning and Shorka for marketing milk and milk products. The majority of the respondents around 88.2%, sell milk and milk products nearby dimeka market which the whereas around 4.2% of the respondents sell milk and milk products at home level to government workers who provide extensional and other service to communities. On the other hand, also around 0.7% sells milk and milk product to hotels at dimeka town and the rest 6.9% of the respondents sell to both at home and nearby market. A total of interviewed respondent around 33.33, 17.77, 16.67, 11.11, 8.33, 7.22, and 5.55% reported that the dairy cattle production in the study area was challenged and constrained by critical feed shortage dairy cattle diseases, recurrent drought, poor veterinary service, the lack of introduction improved dairy breed, lack of knowledge in milk and milk by product processing and lack of market channel respectively.