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Assessment of Diversity of Ascomycetous Fungi in several potential protected territories in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Short preliminary check-lists are presented as a result of last year mycological investigation on the territory of three protected areas in the Sarajevo Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Vrelo Bosne Nature Monument, Bijambare Protected Landscape and Skakavac Nature Monument). Among all findings some are more closely presented and discussed. Their ecology, phenology, local and regional or global distribution pattern, as well as main threats and additional conservation activities are especially highlighted and noted. Recommendation of adequate conservation activities within the territories of the protected areas are proposed to the local authorities and managements.
Karst as a geological phenomenon and karst poljes as the largest depressions in the Dinaric Alps represent one of the most important and most diverse relief units globally. The diversity of karst poljes in the Dinaric Alps is one of the most significant worldwide and one of the most heterogeneous, too. In this study, by using the most relevant variables and delimitation criteria, all recognized Dinaric karst poljes were divided and classified into 30 well differentiated groups and organized in nine main biogeographical regions. During the process of classifying the Dinaric karst poljes, for some of the most important parameters recognizable patterns were defined or established for each group. The mycobiota of 10 Dinaric karst poljes classified into six groups have been intensively studied in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia during various research sessions. All results were evaluated by using standardized variables and a corresponding binary grading scale in order to classify poljes according to their importance for mycobiota. Based on the “cumulative ecological score” (CES), the ratio of the CES/number of all recorded species and the CES/number of research days ratio, the mycologically most important karst poljes were identified. A brief description of specific habitat types of top evaluated poljes is given together with recommendations for the implementation of proper conservation measures in these areas. Several rare and very vulnerable species of ascomycetes, like Mollisia uda, Patinella hyalophaea, Podostroma leucopus, Scutellinia peloponnesiaca and Lamprospora leptodictya, were recorded in the investigated poljes. Some of the species which were found during the present study, represent the only known records in the Dinaric Alps and their conservation status has never been assessed before. Recommendations for the protection of these species, based on IUCN criteria, are presented.
The book gives a review of IFA - Important Fungus Area paradigm. Its concept and methodology are upgraded, mainly considering the evaluation principles and criteria for system to become better tailored for mycobiota and its specificities. The enhanced and systemically defined IFA system and its procedures are explained, tested, and applied to the whole territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina relying on newly created database including the assessed species with bioindicator values. They are a result of a preceding intensive and long-term inventory of ascomycetous fungi and its habitats conducted by the authors in a number of localities on a national scale. The main goal of a redefined presented IFA system is to achieve more objective and systematic solutions in nature conservation, primarily focusing on objective assessment on endangered fungi as well as on bio-indicated valuable and/or endangered habitat types, but also to position the conservation of fungi as a functional part of a general nature conservation system. The system is proposed as a practical model also for other countries with comparable situation. According to the presented enhanced IFA system, three new IFA areas are determined, while all previously defined areas are either confirmed or widened in this study. The present IFA system spatially and functionally consists of nine defined standardised areas, representing the whole palette of bioclimatic zones from meso-Mediterranean area to the alpine and continental-montane zone of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Continental peri-Pannonic and colline zones are not evaluated. A review of each IFA area is given by its geographical position and extent, its geological and bioclimatic features as well as its vegetation. A brief history of conservation of each IFA area (if any previously conducted) is given and its bio-indicated values in terms of necessities of conservation are provided on the basis of the IFA's habitat type(s) quality, rarity, endangerment and its importance for fungi. The endangered habitat types as well as flora, fauna, and mycobiota known to the authors are enumerated for each IFA. In total, 42 most important recorded ascomycetous species (endangered and/or rare as well as bio-indicative species) are presented at the end of each IFA chapter by macro- and micro-photographs, short description of distinctive morphological and ecological features, and data relevant for nature conservation. The IUCN status for each species with corresponding criteria is included. To better depict biodiversity, more than 100 additional species are also illustrated. One new combination (Hydnocystis colomboi) is proposed, while 67 species are reported as new to mycobiota of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Results from bryomycological field studies in the Mediterranean part of Bosnia and Herzegovina are reported in the paper. Five bryophilous taxa of ascomycetes have been recorded on few locations around the city of Neum and on the Klek peninsula. Three of them are new for the mycobiota of Bosnia and Herzegovina – Octospora gemmicola, Lamprospora miniata var. parvispora and Lamprospora miniatavar. ratisbonensis. Macromorphology and micro-characters with ecology, phenology and distribution patterns for eachspecies are presented and briefly discussed.
During last three years several short mycological field research have been organized in the Mediterranean part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most of the research activities have been conducted within boundaries of planned protected territory Mediteranetum Neum-Klek. All registered findings clearly indicates that Mediterranean mycobiota in Bosnia and Herzegovina is quite diverse and that this small territory should be properly protected and managed in the future. Existing revision studies about biological values of this area does not mention or consider fungal diversity at all, although solid number of different kind of scientific papers and exposures have been published recently. All published results should be included in the following revision process and should represent strong and important arguments for formal protection of the Neum-Klek bay area.