Project

ArtsEqual: The Arts as Public Service: Strategic Steps towards Equality

Goal: Six research groups in the ARTSEQUAL project reinterpret the traditional position of the arts in Finland by regarding them as a basic service that should be available equally for all and that contributes to well-being across a wide range of life domains. From the perspectives of equality and well-being, the project produces new knowledge on how already existing arts services can be developed in order to enhance citizen creativity and communal engagement. The research groups will apply systems thinking in order to comprehend the social impacts of the arts, and analyse how participatory artistic and arts-educational interventions in schools, basic arts education and in social and health services impact well-being. The project will propose policy recommendations to support political decision-making and consolidate new arts services. The project is carried out in close collaboration with ministries, regional state administration, municipalities, and NGOs.

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Heidi Westerlund
added a research item
This theoretical inquiry approaches the challenge of reflexivity in the music education profession from the perspective of a collective and social understanding of memory. While memory is typically understood as being an individualistic, psychological, and cognitive phenomenon, in this paper we argue that the perspectives of collective and social memory may be of critical assistance to music teachers and music teacher educators who are facing the problem of increasing diversity. Teachers experience mounting pressure to include a wider selection of available material from the diverse musics of the world in their curriculum. We suggest that understanding the politics of memory–how memory shapes the future and reveals our reflexive capacity in terms of our bonds to, or freedom from, the past–provides new tools and perspectives for considering diversity. Furthermore, we propose that in order to make a difference, the politics of memory require an agonistic engagement in pluralistic societies, with multiple, even conflicting, relationships to memory and time, place, and space. The article argues that a critical politics of memory is not just about combining the past and present, but about re-imagining, re-negotiating, re-working, and re-generating the collective futures of the school, its educational context, and broader society.
Eeva Siljamäki
added 3 research items
This systematic literature review aims to identify and critically examine the prevailing general trends of music education research that addresses issues of improvisation from 1985 to 2015. The study examined the main features of studies with impact that focus on musical improvisation and have been published in peer-reviewed music education journals. Data were organised on the basis of the following: 1) General publication features; 2) Topic; 3) Methodological approach; 4) Participant features; 5) Type of improvisation; 6) Definition of improvisation; 7) Findings; 8) Suggestions for practice. The study also takes a close look at the construction of the discourses through which improvisation has been framed in the field of music education, providing insights on how such discourses create particular pedagogical visions of improvisation. To this end, we have created a map of the different visions of improvisation pedagogy that the studied works point towards. These visions have been clustered in the following five categories: (i) from rupture of certainties to creative problematisation; (ii) return to the “natural” beginning—in search of humanness; (iii) improvisation as a learning tool; (iv) conserving and enlivening traditions; (v) improvisation as an impetus for creativity. The map proposed in this study is meant as a possible representation of the general trends that underpin music education research focusing on improvisation. This map can also be seen as a “tool” through which music educators can situate their practice and reflect on their particular ways of working with improvisation, possibly envisioning alternative ways forward.
This instrumental case study explores and theorizes on the educational potential and value of free collaborative vocal improvisation, a process that enables equal access to music regardless of musical skills. The focus of the article is on the musical activities of an adult choir in Finland that applied tenets from improvisational theatre to facilitate the social and musical processes of free improvisation. This study applies an ecological perspective to understand how improvisation can offer asylum—a physical or conceptual safe space within which an individual can flourish socially and musically—and explore how it is sought, constructed, and supported, and what opportunities it can afford to those participating in it. The analysis shows how the participants used various techniques for seeking asylum, both in and away from their shared social space, when they encountered the inherent discomforts of improvisation. Depending on the social ecology of each situation, the musicking activities provided the participants with the resources to construct both social and musical agency as well as experiences in playful collaborative musical learning and wellbeing. The present study calls for an ecological framework for music education and improvisation that supports musicking in a safe and playful learning environment with a focus on social processes, and which could be considered the starting point for music education at all ages.
This review explores how improvisation has been studied and approached in music education research in Finland. A mapping of visions of improvisation pedagogy (VIP) by Siljamäki and Kanellopoulos (2020) is employed as the frame for analysing how the phenomenon of improvisation has been approached in research articles published in FJME between 1985–2015 as well as latest doctoral research in Finland. The results brought about the manifoldness of improvisation approaches in the selected articles and the foci ranged widely, which is in line with international research literature. More research could be conducted on improvisation experiences amongst school aged children, as well as both collaborative and vocal improvisation. The VIP was found useful for exploring and understanding the manifoldness of the phenomenon of improvisation and viewing improvisation from the perspective of diversity instead of juxtaposing distinctive methods or ways of approaching improvisation. The VIP is suggested for deployment of pedagogues, practitioners and music educator students for understanding the diversity of approaches to improvisation and the conflictual potential of these approaches as well as the construction of visions for improvisation pedagogy in pedagogical moments. Furthermore, more research on developing improvisation pedagogy and taking into account the unique aspects of improvisation is suggested.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Proactive coping styles may help students deal with their study workload and stress in healthier ways. In this explanatory mixed methods study, data were gathered among professional students in higher music education in Finland and the United Kingdom about their experiences of workload, stress, and proactive coping. Bivariate analyses were used to explore prevalence of study workload, stress, and seven proactive coping styles among genders, levels of degree, genre groups, and study programs, and investigate whether stress is predicted by study workload and proactive coping styles. Music students' lived experiences were analyzed to find the determinants of their workload, stress, and coping. Results indicate significant differences between genders and study programs and specific concerns for music students, such as working alongside studying and physical and psychological problems. Higher music education institutions can utilize this evidence to better support music students in their studies and professional careers.
Marja-Leena Juntunen
added 2 research items
Tämä artikkeli kokoaa yhteen ArtsEqual-hankkeen Arts Education for All -ryhmän tutkimustuloksia niiltä osin kuin tutkimukset ovat tunnistaneet eriarvoistavia mekanismeja ja käytäntöjä taiteen perusopetuksessa (TPO) ja antavat ehdotuksia niiden purkamiseksi. Synteesin aineistona on käytetty ryhmän tutkimusjulkaisuja (31 kpl). Analyysin teoreettisen viitekehyksen muodostavat sosiologi Göran Therbornin tasa-arvoon liittyvät ajatukset. Synteesin perusteella TPO:ssa vaikuttavat eriarvoistavat mekanismit ovat ensisijaisesti ulos sulkevia ja osin etäännyttäviä. Eriarvoistavia mekanismeja ovat saavutettavuuden alueellisten ja fyysisten esteiden, vaihelevien sisäänoton käytäntöjen ja sosioekonomisen eriarvoisuuden lisäksi ulos sulkevat pedagogiset valinnat, yhdenvertaisuusohjeistusten toteutumattomuus, asenteet sitä kohtaan, kenelle TPO:n katsotaan kuuluvan, sekä kulttuuriset tekijät, kuten käsitykset taiteista feminiinisenä harrastuksena. Eriarvoisuuden mekanismit rajoittavat etenkin sellaisten ryhmien kuin saamelaisten, kehitysvammaisten ja muuten erityistä tukea tarvitsevien, poikien sekä sosioekonomisesti heikommassa asemassa olevien osallistumista taiteen perusopetukseen. Tutkimusten esiin nostamia keskeisiä keinoja purkaa eriarvoistavia mekanismeja ja käytäntöjä ovat institutionaalinen monialainen ja sektorirajat ylittävä yhteistyö, matalan kynnyksen toiminta, taloudellisten esteiden purkaminen, eri ryhmille räätälöity opetustarjonta, kulttuuri- ja sukupuolisensitiivinen pedagogiikka, opetuksen yksilöllistäminen ja mukauttaminen, yhdenvertaisuutta tukevien ohjeistusten ja niiden toimeenpanon jatkuva seuranta ja päivittäminen sekä asennemuutos sitä kohti, että taiteen perusopetuksen halutaan ”oikeasti” kuuluvan kaikille.
Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan ArtsEqual-tutkimushankkeen (2015–2021) ryhmän Basic Arts Education for All (Taiteen perusopetusta kaikille) tutkimuksia ja niiden tuloksia. Ryhmän toiminta on keskittynyt saavutettavuuden, yhdenvertaisuuden ja inkluusion kysymyksiin taiteen perusopetuksen (TPO) kontekstissa. Työn taustalla ovat aikaisemmat havainnot puutteista saavutettavuuden ja yhdenvertaisuuden toteutumisessa TPO:ssa sekä ajankohtaiset yhteiskunnalliset haasteet, jotka liittyvät suomalaisen yhteiskunnan ja väestörakenteen muutoksiin tällä vuosituhannella.
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
This article (written in Finnish) summarizes research work conducted over six years within the ArtsEqual research initiative, and within the Arts@School team (one of the six teams of ArtsEqual). It is parallel published here: https://taju.uniarts.fi/handle/10024/7426 Print version is published in Finnish Journal of Music Education. 24(2), 104-126. https://sites.uniarts.fi/fi/web/fjme
Eeva Siljamäki
added a research item
mprovisation is increasingly valued in music educational contexts and beyond, however it has not yet gained an established position in music education research and practice. This dissertation addresses the need to recognize the wide variety of affordances that improvisation can offer music education. By utilizing a socio-ecological research framework, this dissertation aims to contribute to the theorizing of improvisation as a social practice and pedagogical approach, as well as to unwrap how improvisation can contribute to the quality of human life on multiple levels. The socio-ecological perspective allows us to explore improvisation as social action with the goal of understanding the complex and transformational processes by which learning occurs and musical agency and identity are constructed in relation to the social environment. By untangling these social aspects, as well as addressing the significance of the quality of social interaction, this work points out that there is a need to recognize the conditions that either support or hinder the social participation and diversity of learners, and furthermore their wellbeing and equality. This is an article-based dissertation with an instrumental multi-case study design, and aims to identify the plural and holistic affordances that improvisation can offer to music education. The three sub-studies provide insight into and diverse perspectives on exploring the phenomenon of improvisation: 1) a collective case study contextualizing the research literature in music education; 2) an empirical case of an arts intervention choir; and 3) an empirical case of an improvisation choir. In both adult choirs, the researcher was positioned as an insider and the quality of the social interaction and the pedagogical atmosphere were supported by applying a mindset stemming from applied improvisational theatre. Interviews, observations, and researcher diaries were analyzed as empirical material in the choir cases. The findings from the sub-studies were interpreted within a socio-ecological framework, drawing on Tia DeNora’s sociological and social psychology perspective on the interrelation of wellbeing and music, as well as anthropologist Christopher Small’s conceptualization of musicking as a social and relational process. The first sub-study explores approaches to improvisation and maps visions of improvisation pedagogy in music education scholarly research by visualizing the multitude of possible approaches and pedagogical practices associated with the practice. The study highlights the need to develop opportunities for learners to engage in a variety of approaches to improvisation, and also conceptualizes the values, tensions, and beliefs underpinning the teaching of improvisation that can induce tensions and conflicts. The second sub-study, also the first choir case, explores university students’ narrations of their experiences of an arts intervention choir project and of social anxiety in university contexts and beyond. The findings show that the experimental project combining choral singing and improvisation with health care expertise from the Finnish Students Health Services offered the participants a safe environment and social space for developing interaction skills and coping with social anxiety. The case highlights the significance of the quality of social interaction in education, and of recognizing each student as an individual with specific needs in learning. The third sub-study, and second choir case, examines the affordances of the collaborative, vocal, and bodily improvising practices of a free improvisation choir for adults with mixed skills. The improvised musicking afforded the participants resources for constructing both their social and musical agency, as well as the opportunity to explore playful collaborative musical learning and thereby their deeper wellbeing. The case thus exemplifies how, when meeting the conditions of a safe learning environment, free improvisation can enhance equal participation in music regardless of one’s prior cultivation of musical skills and knowledge – and thus, overall equity. This dissertation advocates that more emphasis could be placed on the reciprocal co-construction of musical learning environments that, firstly, support an experience of safety, participation, and exploring capabilities when encountering the inherent uncertainty of improvisation; and, secondly, that provide each learner with the opportunity and capacity to perceive their potential avenues of conduct as social, creative, and improvisational agents of their own future wellbeing and learning within their social ecology. By extending the understanding of improvisation from being regarded solely as a musical practice to being fully perceived as a social practice and pedagogical approach, we will be able to support the constructing of learning environments with more emphasis on individual and emotional development through holistic (embodied), reciprocal, playful, and free (welcoming all kinds of sounds) expression, and the acknowledgement of individual affordances of music and music making for each learner, as well as the true meaning of equity.
Sari Karttunen
added a research item
A collection of articles on the ethics of community art, edited by Lea Kantonen and Sari Karttunen.
Liisa Jaakonaho
added a research item
Background Arts-based practice and research in care has increased significantly. There is a need to examine the ethical issues arising from this complex phenomenon, conceptualised as boundary work. Method To support interdisciplinary understanding in artistic and arts-based work, we collaboratively explored three arts-based research projects implemented in diverse care and healthcare contexts. The ethical issues related to boundary work were negotiated through reciprocal, in-depth reflection. Results Arts-based and artistic research allows embodied, sensitive, and sensible encounters to emerge, in which the boundaries between artistic agency, professional positions, and even notions of evidence may be challenged. The notion of vulnerability emerges as a central ethical feature of boundary work. Conclusions Articulating ethical concerns in artistic-pedagogic boundary work and research can promote a more nuanced understanding of power relations in cross-sectoral practices. It may help develop services that support the agency and holistic well-being of individuals and communities.
Marja-Leena Juntunen
added 6 research items
In this article, we describe the agency development in one student with special needs through Dalcroze-based music-and-movement activities. The case study was conducted in the context of classroom music education in a special school. The data were produced via a teaching experiment (from August 2015 to March 2016), in which a group ( n = 13) of 15- to 16-year-old students participated in added lessons (one lesson per week) provided by the first author. The lessons included a variety of Dalcroze-based activities, such as singing with movement, quick reaction and follow exercises, movement improvisation, body percussion exercises, dances, and relaxation exercises. The data consist of video-recordings of the lessons, a research diary, and interviews with teachers, teaching assistants, a therapist, and a specialist of special education. During the teaching experiment, the case student’s agency developed from being a passive outsider to being an active participant and leader. The change in agency was noticed also outside the classroom. The study suggests that using music-and-movement in a music classroom offers possibilities for nonverbal embodied interaction and thereby opportunities for the development of students’ agency and autonomy foremost by developing their body and social skills. On a more general level, the article contributes to developing such music education theory and practice that acknowledges the significance of experience in learning music and in embodied interaction, where individuals interact and make sense of the world through nonverbal communication. In addition, this study highlights the strength of such education in supporting the development of the whole human being.
Finnish Journal of Music Education, vol. 22 (https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/313923/FJME_Vol22_nro1_2_NETTI.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y). As provided by Finnish law, the aim of compulsory schooling is to secure adequate equity in education throughout the country. In recent years, however, there have been signs that music education in primary schools may not be living up to the aim of equity (Suomi 2019; Vesioja 2006). The concern about music education provision in grades 1–6 is shared by many countries around the world. In this study, we examined the variation in how teachers (N = 133) experience their ability to support pupils in realising the objectives for music eduction in the national curriculum and how principals (N = 82) describe the organisation of music education in their schools. Data was generated through an online survey in Swedish-speaking primary schools in Finland and analysed with both quantitative and qualitative methods (descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, regression analysis, qualitative content analysis). The findings suggest that there is a wide and significant variation in how the music curriculum is realised across primary schools and classrooms. About a third of the variance could be attributed to the following predictors (in descending order of importance): the teacher has good knowledge of the national curriculum for music; the teacher has taken singing lessons in addition to formal teacher education (for grades 1–2); the teacher has participated in ensemble, band or orchestra courses in addition to formal teacher education (for grades 3–6); there are sufficient resources for music education in the school; and the teacher has studied music in the liberal adult education system (for grades 1–2). We conclude that the national aim of equity in education is currently not realised with regard to music education in Swedishspeaking primary schools in Finland and suggest that the responsibility for improving the situation needs to be shared between institutions for teacher education, national and municipal policy-makers, school leaders, individual teachers, and teacher teams.
Sari Karttunen
added a research item
This article urges a reconsideration of professional responsibility in arts education, moving beyond an emphasis on narrow technical expertise and strict disciplinary boundaries in order to respond to the needs of complex late modern society. We reconsider ‘professionalism’ in arts education as a site of struggle that requires ‘systems reflexivity’ to engage in the transformation of wider society. By presenting three cases, conceptualised as social innovations in the arts education system in Finland, we illustrate how multi-professional collaboration and systems entrepreneurship, flexible institutional boundary-crossing, and performing social categories in professional education of artists help tackle exclusion and inequalities. We also argue that a degree of activism may be necessary for the field to expand its sense of professional responsibility beyond ‘what is’ towards ‘what could be’.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
Music education policies worldwide are required to abide by the obligation to operate on the basis of equity, which is also an issue of social justice, and legal and political human rights. Yet, the complexity of issues of equity and justice remains largely unrecognised in music education, particularly in relation to the specific, more vulnerable groups of students, such as those with dis/abilities. This doctoral dissertation examines educational equity and discrimination in Finnish music education system, both as part of basic education and Basic Education in the Arts, while expanding the discussion to international music education contexts. The Finnish education system as a whole is grounded in the ideal of educational equity, indicating that everyone should have access to high-quality education and educational outcomes regardless of factors specific to individual circumstances and background. However, this education system has also imposed discriminatory practices regarding who gets to study music, in what ways, and to what extent, overlooking certain groups of students, such as people with dis/abilities. To advance equity in music education, the research examines how practice-led policy changes can be achieved through an innovative music notation system called Figurenotes and the accommodation of teaching as context-sensitive. Through these interlinked cases, the dissertation analyses discrimination and equity policy efforts in relation to normative assumptions about ability in music education. Theoretically, the project centres on educational equity, teacher autonomy and the broad concept of policy through the lens of ableism and disablism. The doctoral dissertation consists of four studies published in international peer-reviewed journals and a published policy recommendation based on their findings. Two of these studies are empirical, based on the data collected through semi-structured expert interviews and analysed using qualitative data analysis methods. The first empirical study introduced the Figurenotes system as a pedagogical approach and an education policy vehicle. The second study examined a policy change in the Finnish music education system initiated by the development and application of Figurenotes. The other two studies are theoretical and draw on concepts and theories from the fields of music education, sociology, and legal studies, as well as sociocultural disability studies. The first theoretical study examined the wide use of Western standard music notation from the standpoint of educational equity and teachers’ autonomous decision-making. The second theoretical study considered the potential of reasonable accommodation (Non-Discrimination Act 1325/2014 of Finland; United Nations, 2006) to prevent discriminatory practices through the local curriculum and teachers’ actions in relation to music notation. The findings of the empirical studies indicate that the use of Figurenotes has raised awareness of inequity at the institutional level and encouraged efforts to address this problem through a public policy process. The findings also suggest that the extensive use of Western standard music notation is a mechanism that creates inequities in music education, particularly by limiting the musical learning of students who have difficulties in musical perception when working with written graphic symbolic representations. From a theoretical point of view, a key contribution is the examination of the concept of reasonable accommodation and its applications to the field of music education to promote educational equity. Based on the studies, it is argued that teachers must be guided to achieve policy analysis skills and understanding to recognise, analyse, and accommodate cultural frameworks–such as pedagogical and musical conventions–that impact music educational equity in practice in support of the National Curriculum Framework and local curriculum. Keywords: Dis/ability; educational equity; Figurenotes; reasonable accommodation; teacher autonomy; Western standard music notation
Kai Lehikoinen
added 2 research items
This chapter investigates how the artists navigate multiple and at times conflicting identities within the challenges of working in unfamiliar transprofessional contexts. It also investigates the expanding professionalism of artists in the transprofessional realm of artistic interventions in organisations. Ariane Berthoin Antal argues that artists’ professional identities and also responsibilities are geared towards some fundamental values in the arts, and that it is vital for artists to maintain such values as they collaborate with other professions. To exemplify expanded work in transprofessional contexts, our attention now turns to the experiences of four artists—a theatre director, a performance artist, a dancer, and a dramaturg—who took part in the pilot programme at Uniarts. It is imperative in higher arts education to discuss critically the relationship between professionalism in more traditional artistic practice and the expanding professionalism of hybrid artists in new transprofessional domains.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Jääskeläinen, T. (2021). Tuition fees, entrance examinations and misconceptions about equity in higher music education. Nordic Research in Music Education, 2(1), 4-19, https://nrme.no/index.php/nrme/article/view/2803 Abstract: The increasing participation rate in higher education has raised its own issues, such as how to fund the growth while retaining the quality of education. In Finland, it has been argued that the tuition-free higher education policy increases equality. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, establishing a system of tuition fees supported by an income-contingent loan system for students has also been argued to increase equality. In Australia, students also face high tuition fees for higher education, as well as a support system focused on domestic students. In addition to tuition fees, entrance examinations also play a crucial part in higher education systems. In order to examine inequalities in higher education from the students’ point of view, tuition fees are scrutinised in connection with equality, and entrance examinations in relation to cultural reproduction. Comparing examples of higher music education institutions in Finland, the United Kingdom, and Australia shows that there are large differences between the tuition fees charged for domestic and international students, as well as between countries. Entrance examinations in higher music education are similar in these countries, but may include inequalities based on long traditions in the field of music, especially in classical music. By revealing misconceptions about equity in higher education, it is possible to have a critical debate about the role of tuition fee systems as they are connected with the economics of higher education, and about entrance examinations as reproducing social class inequalities. This discussion may contribute to the redefinition and reformation of more equitable and just education systems, and promote equality in general in society.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
This article illustrates how a social innovation, Figurenotes, has contributed and can contribute, through conceptual change, to the advancement of equity in Basic Education in the Arts (BEA), Finland’s publicly funded system of extracurricular music education. BEA has traditionally been characterised by structures and pedagogical practices–such as the use of Western standard music notation–that influence the accessibility of music studies. The theoretical framework for this interview study consists of change-theoretical concepts: namely, social innovation, multiple streams, and policy windows. The findings are presented at two levels. First, the innovation process of Figurenotes is described to explain social innovation development. Second, three different strands of discourse on the concept of special music education expose the educational policy change generated by this innovation. The findings suggest that the use of Figurenotes has raised awareness of inequity in the institutional agenda and has encouraged this problem to be addressed through the public policy process. The opening of this policy window is critically discussed in relation to the establishment of the field of special music education, and in relation to inclusion and equity policies as well as exclusion.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added 2 research items
Reasonable accommodations in music education are individual and context-dependent policies that are planned and implemented together with the person who has a disability. Reasonable accommodations are required by the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities , as well as equity legislations in several countries. This ArtsEqual policy recommendation offers research-based insights and practical examples for enacting reasonable accommodation in music education. It utilises Finnish music education system as a context, but the perspectives presented can be applied in a variety of education systems internationally as well as among other art forms. The policy recommendation is directed at local authorities, institutions and individual teachers.
Tämä ArtsEqual-toimenpide suositus on suunnattu kunnille, oppilaitoksille ja yksittäisille opettajille yhden vertaisuuden edistämiseksi peruskoulun, lukion ja taiteen perusopetuksen musiikinopetuksessa. Musiikkikasvatuksessa kohtuullisilla mukautuksilla tarkoitetaan muutoksia, joilla mahdollistetaan vammaisen henkilön osallistuminen opetukseen tai toimiminen opettajana. Toimenpidesuositus avaa kohtuullisten mukautusten käsitettä ja tarjoaa käytännön esimerkkejä kohtuullisten mukautusten toteuttamiseksi musiikkikasvatuksessa. Suosituksessa esitettäviä näkökulmia voidaan soveltaa myös muissa oppimisympäristöissä ja muilla taiteenaloilla.
Liisa Jaakonaho
added a research item
Kappaleessa kuvaan Taideyliopiston kansainvälisille taidepedagogiikan opiskelijoille opettamaani taidealojen erityispedagogiikan kurssia; sen sisältöjä, tausta-ajatuksia, mukana olleiden opiskelijoiden esiin tuomia näkökulmia sekä omaa pedagogista ajatteluani yliopisto-opettajana. Lähestyn taidealojen erityispedagogiikkaa näkökulmana, joka voi avartaa pedagogista ajattelua riippumatta siitä, työskennelläänkö ”erityisryhmien” tai ”erityistä tukea tarvitsevien” oppijoiden kanssa. Moninaisuuden ja inkluusion kysymykset taiteen yhteydessä ovat ajankohtaisia yhteiskunnallisia kysymyksiä siitä, kuka saa mahdollisuuden harrastaa ja opiskella taidetta tai toimia taiteen tekijänä, miten taide määritellään ja minkälaista taidetta tuetaan ja arvostetaan. Taideyliopiston uuden strategian toimenpiteissä mainitaan yhdenvertaisuuden edistäminen, erityisen tuen tarpeiden huomioiminen, inklusiivisten käytäntöjen luominen ja palveluiden saavutettavuuden ja esteettömyyden varmistaminen. (Taideyliopisto, 2020). Nähdäkseni näiden toimenpiteiden toteuttamisessa ja yhdenvertaisen yliopistoyhteisön kehittämisessä tarvitaan keskeisesti erityispedagogista tietoa ja osaamista.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
The purpose of the policy brief on arts in hospitals is to encourage the health service system to take into account the cultural contexts of health and to integrate culture and the arts into the promotion of health and well-being. The policy brief offers 17 recommendations to be implemented in hospitals and other health care institutions to strengthen the cultural well-being of people. The policy brief is in Finnish. An English translation will follow in due course. Please contact for more details.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
This theoretical article focuses on reasonable accommodation in education by offering conceptual tools that could prove beneficial in resolving policy concerns for equity in music education. Providing reasonable accommodation entails making necessary and appropriate modifications that may include depending on the circumstances, physical or interaction-related changes. From the perspective of teacher autonomy, this article focuses on two aspects of reasonable accommodation: (a) its definition and (b) its implications for music education practice. Responsibility for reasonable accommodation is considered in the context of Finnish music education through three illustrations that address matters such as music notation and instrument selection. We conclude that the concept of reasonable accommodation offers students and teachers tools to prevent disadvantageous musical and pedagogical conventions from being enforced at the level of the local curriculum and through teachers' actions, potentially resulting in inequities and discrimination.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Tämä artikkeli perustuu omaan kokemukseeni opettajaksi kasvamisessa taidealojen yliopistopedagogiikan koulutuksen kautta. Artikkelin keskeisenä teemana on ihmisoikeuskasvatuksen sisällyttäminen osaksi taidekasvatusta. Ihmisoikeuksia tarvitaan demokraattisen yhteiskunnan rakentamiseen ja ylläpitämiseen sekä siellä toimimiseen yhdessä. Demokraattinen yhteiskunta ei toteudu itsestään vaan edellyttää asiasta muistuttamista ja ihmisoikeuksien aktiivista harjoittamista samalla tavalla kuin minkä tahansa taidon oppiminen ja ylläpitäminen. Tämän vuoksi ihmisoikeuksien tulisi kuulua kaikkiin kasvatusprosesseihin mahdollisimman varhaisesta iästä alkaen ja eri koulutusasteilla osana valmistautumista elämään moniarvoisessa ja demokraattisessa yhteiskunnassa. Esittelen artikkelissa ihmisoikeuskasvatuksen materiaaleja ja esimerkkejä taideteoksista taideopettajien opetuksen tueksi. Käytännöllisenä ihmisoikeuskasvatuksen esimerkkinä on lasten ja nuorten aktivoiminen vihapuheen vastaiseen toimintaan. Viimeisen vuosikymmenen aikana erityisesti digitaalisten laitteiden käytön yleistyminen yhä nuoremmilla lapsilla on nostanut esiin ongelman vihapuheen leviämisestä verkon kautta. Pohdin taiteiden potentiaalia toimia vastapuheena ja vastanarratiiveina vihapuheen vastaisessa aktiivisessa toiminnassa. Oleellista on ymmärtää, että vaikka ei itse olisikaan joutunut vihapuheen kohteeksi, on tärkeää aktivoitua tuottamaan ihmisoikeuksia edistävää vastapuhetta, jotta passiivisuus ei mahdollista vihapuheen laajenemista ja normalisoitumista yhteiskunnassa. Tässä artikkelissa esittämäni materiaalit ja esimerkit auttavat taideopettajaa pääsemään alkuun ja tarjoavat mahdollisuuden olla opiskelijoiden kanssa edistämässä ihmisoikeuksia ja siten rakentamassa tasa-arvoisempaa yhteiskuntaa ja maailmaa taiteiden avulla.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
The popularised article focuses on art as a means to strengthen personal resilience in times of hardship and change. Experimenting with several solution options that are central to artistic activity can help an individual to think flexibly about their situation and thus find alternative solutions to their problems. In the arts, uncertainty is often associated with creating something new. In art-making, we curiously approach something that is not yet known. Thus, artistic activity can strengthen courage and patience as well as tolerance of uncertainty and failure. Art does not increase resilience automatically, however, but requires a personal artistic relationship. Its development starts with the encounter of art and active participation in the arts. High-quality pedagogical interaction is needed for a positive personal art relationship to begin and develop. Art at schools and basic arts education has a key role to play here. Better integration of participatory arts activities into health and social care services is a way to strengthen people's resilience and, more generally, cultural well-being.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
In this article, we consider Western Standard Music Notation (WSMN) as a normative communication system that, through representing certain cultural frameworks, may pose obstacles to musical learning, particularly in general music education. To focus this examination, we discuss different critical aspects of what we call the “notation argument”: Because the skills of decoding WSMN are useful in learning certain kinds of music, they are useful in learning any musical tradition. Against this, we claim that, like any symbolic system, WSMN can have a variety of functions, not all of which may be pedagogically meaningful in given teaching-learning situations. WSMN may especially limit the musical learning of students who have difficulties in musical perception when working with written graphic symbolic representations. Emphasizing the development of literary notation skills in music education may thus hinder the progress of some learners, excluding them from curricular contexts where developing musical skills should arguably be deemed a right for everyone. We suggest shifting the theoretical focus from the pedagogical justification of applying WSMN and other notation systems to how social justice can be realized in music education through teaching accommodation guided by context-sensitive pedagogical tact.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added 2 research items
This article aims to contribute to the current theoretical and practical understanding of music educators' pedagogical tact through a theoretical lens of embodiment within a children's hospital. Embodied pedagogical tact as a form of practitioner knowledge can effectively serve as a means for music educators, working along healthcare professionals, in the interdisciplinary field of health-care. The article argues that intertwining pedagogical tact with an epistemological view that relies on the mind-body connection, enables music educators to operate in complex educational situations in paediatric wards. It is concluded that bodily reflections may serve as key competencies beyond musical skills for the educator in navigating through emotional arousal, while supporting the well-being of children and their families in a tactful, sensitive manner.
Suomen Akatemian Strategisen Neuvoston Tasa-arvoinen yhteiskunta -ohjelmasta rahoittama ja Taideyliopiston koordinoima ArtsEqual-tutkimushanke (2015–2021, ks. www.artsequal.fi) on kiinnostunut siitä, kuinka taide ja taidekasvatus voivat lisätä yhteiskunnallista tasa-arvoa ja kuinka taiteen ja taidekasvatuksen saavutettavuutta voidaan edistää. Tässä artikkelissa raportoitava kyselytutkimus on tuotettu osana hankkeen toimintaa, ja se tarkastelee oppilaitosten taiteen perusopetuksen saavutettavuuden lisäämiseksi tekemiä toimia. Taiteen perusopetusta antavien oppilaitosten rehtoreille osoitetun kyselyn tavoitteena oli kerätä tietoa ja nostaa esiin toimenpiteitä, joiden avulla taiteen perusopetuksen oppilaitoksissa on edistetty opetuksen saavutettavuutta viimeisen viiden vuoden aikana (2013– 2018). Kyselyn tarkoituksena oli myös tunnistaa ja tarkastella saavutettavuutta mahdollistavia ja estäviä tekijöitä laaja-alaisesti ja monipuolisesti. Kysely koski sekä taiteen perusopetusta että oppilaitoksen muuta toimintaa. Oppilaitosten suurimmaksi haasteeksi saavutettavuuden lisäämisessä koettiin taloudellisten resurssien puute, mikä liittyy paitsi oppilaspaikkojen määrään myös erityistä tukea tarvitsevien oppilaiden opettamiseen. Myös opettajaresurssi oli haaste näiden oppilaiden kohdalla. Vastauksista tuli ilmi, että opettajien erityispedagogiseen (täydennys)koulutukseen on lisätarvetta. Oppilaitokset ovat täyttäneet velvollisuutensa tasa-arvo- ja yhdenvertaisuussuunnitelmien osalta hyvin, joskin toistaiseksi vain pieni osa on tehnyt esteettömyys- ja saavutettavuuskartoituksia ja arvioinut esteettömyyden ja saavutettavuuden toteutumista. Yli 80 % oppilaitoksista on kuitenkin edistänyt yhdenvertaisuutta, pyrkinyt estämään kiusaamista ja ottanut huomioon oppilaiden erityistarpeet ja yksilölliset tekijät.
Anne Pässilä
added 2 research items
This chapter focuses on a Kaleidoscopic Pedagogy (KP) as a conceptual frame of arts based method (ABM) applied to a discussion and collective imagining of democratic forms of being with young people, artists, art pedagogues and researchers. Background of KP is a problem identified by one of the founding theorist of critical pedagogy Henry A. Giroux (2014a) which is that democracy has been sullied as a concept – as a ´service` - and no longer offers the promise of emancipation (Giroux, 2014b). The discussion therefore is about understandings of democracy: what it might look like and how it would feel to be in it according to young people themselves.
This chapter focuses on the use of Kaleidoscopic Pedagogy in an introductory course of Management and Leadership offered to students considering key concepts and frames of thinking in the field for the first time. We start by introducing the context of the intervention, describe the course and its background and the course facilitators together with some information about the participants. Particular emphasis is placed on the way the course was framed to bring a sense of present day management reality in to the heart of our use of arts based methods through ongoing collaboration with the experience R&D manager who is part of the course team. Next a consideration of the underlying assumptions and values of the course, embedded in the concept of Kaleidoscopic pedagogy and principles of learning informing it. This is followed by a thick description of a selection of the arts based methods and materials used together with a consideration of the values and purposes underlying these. The impact and experiences of learning during the intervention are then discussed from the students’ perspective and the academic/tutors’. In the closing section focus is placed on lessons learned about Kaleidoscopic Pedagogy for practitioners.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Jääskeläinen, T. (forthcoming). Individual becomes collective becomes individual: Collective Memory-Work as a reciprocal and continuous learning process for hybrid artists. In R. Hamm (Ed.) Special Issue “Collective Memory-Work”. Other Education: The Journal of Educational Alternatives, 9(1). Abstract: Collective Memory-Work is a method that aims to question and change the general ways of thinking that lie behind our theoretical assumptions. One of the principal ideas in memory-work is that individual persons actively participate in their own formation as social beings and parts of existing social structures. In this way, the individual becomes the collective. The Collective Memory-Work approach was originally developed within a feminist framework, but it has been widely adapted to more general contexts, including the arts. In this article I reflect on my experiences as a learner in the light of memory-work’s potential for, and challenges in, bringing the individual into the collective and then back from the collective to the individual. At the same time, I present the role of arts in my experiences of using the memory-work method. Finally, I discuss the potential of Collective Memory-Work as a reciprocal and continuous learning process for hybrid artists, enabling them to develop their identity as artists and introduce their artistic methods and products into collective learning processes in order to meet the growing needs for creativity, collaboration, change, and well-being in society.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
Tässä kirjan luvussa esittelen sitä viimeaikaista yhteiskunnallista ja poliittista muutosta, joka on synnyttänyt uusia työmahdollisuuksia taidealan ammattilaisille. Tarkastelen lyhyesti hybriditaiteilijuutta ja taidealan ammattilaisille uusia työmahdollisuuksia tarjoavia ns. hybridejä toimintaympäristöjä, samoin kuin muutamia niihin liittyvän toiminnan ehtoja. Lopuksi pohdin laajentuvaan taiteilijuuteen liittyvää kouluttautumistarvetta ja tutkimuksen merkitystä taiteilijan laajentuvan ammattilaisuuden tarkastelussa. Tämä kirjoitus on jatkotyöstetty versio Yhteisö ja taide seminaarissa syksyllä 2019 Taideyliopiston Teatterikorkeakoulussa pitämästäni esitelmästä.
Heidi Westerlund
added 4 research items
Disability is a neglected field of diversity within music education scholarship and practices. The study reported in this article sought alternatives for the hierarchical practice-model and ableist discourses that have thus far pervaded music teacher education, through a reconceptualization of expertise. The focus is on a Finnish university special education course, where musicians with learning disabilities conducted workshops for student music teachers over three consecutive years. Student teachers’ written reflections (n = 23) were reflexively analyzed in order to examine how performing disability may disrupt, expand, and regenerate normative discourses and transform inclusive thinking in music teacher education. Performing disability is here seen to generate critical discursive learning, and create third spaces for pedagogical diversity and the co-construction of professional knowledge. It is thus argued that through teaching with, and by, rather than about, we in music education may move beyond normalizing understandings and practices of inclusion, towards an expanded notion of professionalism.
Although rituals are considered central to human life, scholarship on rituals in music education is sparse. This may be due to a more general emphasis on the individual and private at the expense of the social and public aspects of music in education. This article highlights the educational value of school rituals in festivities and celebrations, arguing that there is a need to revisit the idea of musical performance as ritual from an educational perspective. By leaning on anthropological viewpoints, musical performances in school rituals are seen as having a central place in youth life and as revealing a school's core values: rituals are considered as social arenas where students can enact who they are and gain implicit knowledge that guides them on an embodied way. They also aid students to explore, affirm, and celebrate their important life relationships. School rituals, however, involve a pedagogical paradox: they not only manifest traditional values and the prevailing order, but may also reflect and actively promote desired changes. Therefore, school rituals and musical performances in rituals should be constantly re-evaluated from an educational perspective so that they can function as critical educational-culture machineries for conscious change.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
In Finland, ArtsEqual Research Initiative has produced research-informed policy recommendations to communicate to decision-makers about equal access to the arts and arts education. This paper presents two such policy briefs that strive to enhance cultural wellbeing: one on the actualisation of cultural rights in social and health care settings, the other on the expansion of the percent for art -principle. By drawing from the Constitution of Finland, Bourdieu’s concepts of cultural and social capital, and Nussbaum’s capability theory, the paper explicates the argumentative leverage that the concepts of ‘cultural rights’ and ‘cultural wellbeing’ have provided in the policy briefs. In addition, the paper explains the interaction that has taken place in the project to inform decision-makers and implement the recommendations. The paper concludes that research-informed policy recommendations together with collaboration with strategic interaction partners can open doors for the arts in health and social care settings.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
This ArtsEqual policy brief offers government bodies and local institutions responsible for the implementation of Basic Education in the Arts insights from recent research to inform discussions on accessibility, as well as offer concrete suggestions on how accessibility can be realized in all fields of arts education.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
While the interest in understanding how music affects an individual’s development is growing, the significance of music education for a more equal society has also been frequently discussed. In this study, we pay special attention to the potential for social capital that music learning, making, and experiencing offer. We report upon the reactions and feedback from the audience and performers in attendance at concerts organised by the Resonaari Centre for Music Education in 2012 and 2014. Our research is based on two online questionnaires and group discussions with the students, teachers, and audience members. The findings explicate the importance and benefits of music, music-making, and music education for student musicians with special educational needs and for their relatives, friends, and audience.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Østern, T. P. & Jääskeläinen, T. 2019. Kunst, kunstpedagogikk og menneskerettigheter som motstand mot hatefulle ytringer og rasisme på kunstfeltet. På Spissen/Dance Articulated 5, 2. (http://ps.noda.no/index.php/ps) // Abstract: Hatefulle ytringer, rasisme og aggresjon på kunstfeltet er farlig fordi vegen fra ytringer til fysisk vold kan være kort. Dermed kan hatefulle ytringer skape redsel og dempe kunstnerskapene hos dem som rammes. Kraftfulle mot-narrativ mot hatet kan skapes gjennom kunsten, og kunst- og utdanningsinstitusjoner har et særlig ansvar.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added a research item
The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of an applied music notation system, Figurenotes, by using the concept of educational method as theoretical lens. Figurenotes is examined through this lens at two levels: the micro level of music educational practice and the macro level of advancement of educational policies. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with experts in music education, special and general education, educational policy, music therapy, voluntary work, and music business as well as with students, clients, parents, and the developers of Figurenotes. The findings emphasise that the application of Figurenotes lowers the threshold for learning and teaching music, and is especially applicable in educational situations where the student’s cognitive load needs to be lessened. It is concluded that Figurenotes can be seen both as a pedagogical approach and as a method for advancing educational equity.
Kai Lehikoinen
added 2 research items
People in care institutions have limited opportunities to benefit from art and cultural services and the wellbeing they contribute to. This is one reason why the reach of these services needs to be extended to the social welfare and healthcare sectors. This could be done by expanding the currently employed percent for art principle. It would serve to create more equal opportunities for all people to participate in the arts and culture. This ArtsEqual policy brief is addressed to the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the Finnish Ministry of Finance, managers of change in the (SOTE) social welfare and healthcare sector and regional government reform process, municipalities and political decision makers. It offers them latest research information and critical perspectives on the realization of cultural rights and cultural welfare, to support the extending of the percent for art principle in accordance with the program of the current government.
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
In this chapter we discuss the conceptualisation of cultural diversity in arts education research in three Finnish universities Aalto University, University of Lapland and University of the Arts, Helsinki. We articulate how the changing societal and environmental conditions need to be taken into account in both the research and practice of arts education in Finland. We present three different approaches to arts education research aiming to reflect the different frameworks and contexts of researching in each institution. In the Department of Art at Aalto, selected ongoing work of professors, researching lecturers, postdoctoral researchers and doctoral students of arts education is analysed, categorised and reflected. The perspective of the Faculty of Art and Design at UoL focuses on selected research group work (NACER) and on three multidisciplinary research projects, which introduces the research method developed in the North: arts-based action research (ABAR). The Uniarts section introduces the work of the Centre for Educational Research and Academic Development (CERADA), and more specifically the research initiative ArtsEqual, in the context of research-based arts pedagogy.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
Hate speech has become a growing topic of discussion and debate on a global scale, especially as advances in the internet transform communication on many levels. Among scholars, hate speech has been defined as any form of expression - for example by means of speech, images, videos, or online activity - that has the capacity to increase hatred against a person or people because of a characteristic they share, or a group to which they belong. In order to maintain the integrity of a functioning democracy, it is important to identify the best balance between allowing freedom of expression and protecting other human rights by countering hate speech. In addition to strengthening the legal framework to address the cases when hate speech can be considered criminal, and developing automated monitoring of online systems to prevent the spreading of cyberhate, counter narratives can be utilised by the targets of hate speech and their communities to create campaigns against hate speech. The employment of artists' expression and arts education have great potential for creating different counter narratives to challenge one-sided narratives and hate speakers' simplified generalisations. Because hate speech is not an easy issue to address in schools, clear research evidence, concrete guidelines, and practical examples can help teachers to contribute, along with their students, in combating it. A great body of evidence supporting the beneficial social impacts of the arts and culture fields is already available, but much more research, backed by sufficient resources, is needed to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of intervention strategies in countering hate speech through arts education.
Tuulikki Laes
added a research item
Aiemmin elinikäisestä oppimisesta puhuttiin oppimisen tasa-arvon näkökulmasta, nyt korostetaan velvollisuutta ja hyötyä: koulutus palvelee työelämää. Miten ikääntyneiden oikeutta taiteeseen ja kulttuuriin osallistumiseen voidaan perustella oppimisen näkökulmasta? näkökulmia tutkimukseen ELINIKÄISESTÄ OPPIMISESTA on keskusteltu pit-kään niin teoreettisesti kuin käytännöllisesti. Esimer-kiksi filosofi Juhana Vilhelm Snellman (1806-1881) korosti, kuinka elämä on se koulu, jossa ihminen muokataan ihmiseksi. Suomen koululainsäädäntöön elinikäisen oppimisen ajatus kirjattiin 1970-luvulla koulutustakuun periaatteen muodossa (ks. laki kes-kiasteen koulutuksen kehittämisestä 474/1978), kun Suomessa asetettiin koulutuspoliittiseksi tavoitteeksi kansalaisten yhtäläinen oikeus elinikäiseen oppimi-seen takaamalla muun muassa kaikille oikeus perus-opetuksen jälkeiseen koulutukseen. Tässä muodossa elinikäisen oppimisen ajatus korosti yksilön oikeutta rakentaa elämänkaarensa aikana oma koulutuspol-kunsa ja toimia sen eri vaiheissa itseohjautuvasti koulutuspalveluiden kentällä. Uusliberaali koulutuspoliittinen keskustelu on viime vuosikymmeninä liittänyt koulutuspalvelut yhä suoremmin työelämän tarpeisiin ja yhteiskunnan tuottavuuden ja tehokkuuden tavoitteisiin. Ajankoh-taisessa poliittisessa ilmastossa oppimisen oikeutusta sanoitetaan uudella tavalla.
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
Toimenpidesuositus Opetus-hallitukselle, opettajille, opettajan-kouluttajille, rehtoreille, kunnille ja poliittisille päättäjille Tanssi on kulttuuria ja taidetta. Samalla se on kokonaisvaltaista, fyysistä toimintaa. Tanssi voi tukea jokaisen peruskoulun oppilaan oppimista, fyysistä aktiivisuutta, kulttuurista osallisuutta ja valmiutta ilmaista itseään monipuolisesti.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
Dance pedagogy has expanded into hybrid contexts such as the arts and health in elderly care, calling for a review of the current state of the role and professionalism of dance ambassadors in Finnish society. This article addresses dance ambassadors as a specific brand of training and professionalism in Finland. In addition, framed by theories on practical knowledge, tacit knowledge, and professionalism, the article introduces a case study based on the author’s ethnographic field work and analysis of the collected data with a descriptive-interpretative mix of methods and thematic analysis on the professionalism of the dance ambassadors who engage with people in late adulthood. These results show that key components of dance ambassadorship include mindful attention and appreciative dialogue.
Liisa Jaakonaho
added a research item
This study explores questions around disability and ability in arts education and artistic-pedagogic research. It proposes disability as a transformative force that can challenge and push further neo-liberal notions of diversity. The aim is to move towards more equitable practices and affirmative spaces in and through arts pedagogy. The study continues a process of investigating disability and ability, stemming from a performative workshop that took place at the Research Pavilion, Venice Biennale in 2017. The workshop is part of the authors’ research project, which is developing artistic, performative, post-qualitative and intertextual research methodology. It uses the means of performance art as a way to facilitate an experimental, artistic-pedagogic process. Drawing from contemporary disability studies, as well as feminist and posthumanist theories, the study looks into disability as a complex, material-discursive phenomenon. The authors argue that whether or not we are disabled, we are all vulnerable, intra-dependent and entangled in socio-material structures. Disability can inform our understanding of this vulnerability and relationality, and help to destabilize dominant and normative notions of subjectivity and agency.
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
This article seeks to explore the notion of performing difference in/through dance, specifically in the context of dance education. By unraveling theories pertaining to performance, performativity, difference, and identity, and then connecting these with the notion of dialogical, or third space as a particular condition for pedagogical encounters in dance, the authors aim to illuminate the significance of performing difference for individuals and communities. The central motivating query for this research essay is: How could the notion of performing difference in the context of dance education lean on and lead towards dialogical, or third spaces as source of learning and living together? We propose that dance education that is framed this way may be deeply about democratic life within diverse and sustainable communities. Thus, we claim that dance has educational potential beyond learning dance.
Sari Karttunen
added 2 research items
The article/working paper deals with the connections and resemblances between the practices of community art and professional facilitation.
The article presents the ArtsEqual initiative, which is funded by the strategic research council of the Academy of Finland. The six-year project, funded from a sub-programme aiming to increase equality in society, is constructed on the visionary question: What if the arts were understood to be an essential part of public services? The project sets out to identify mechanisms and remove barriers that hinder equality from being established both within the arts and through them in society at large. The project is multidisciplinary and draws largely upon participatory, practice-led methodologies. It is carried out in six research teams and in two phases, the first of which consisted of numerous arts interventions combined with research. The conclusive phase that links the findings and experiences from the case studies together via qualitative system analysis started in the beginning of 2018. The authors are leaders of two of the research teams, and here they present the entire research initiative as well as exemplary sub-studies from their own teams. They discuss the research project and the preliminary findings in view of the changing role of the artist in society, a shared problematic between their teams. They also reflect on the advantages and challenges that programmatic funding may bring to artistic practices and research.
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
Background and purpose: This article focuses on how future Physical Education and Dance teachers may be better prepared to work in increasingly diverse education environments. It also discusses how tertiary institutions might address issues of social inclusion and cultural pluralism within their programmes, courses and assignments. The authors critically reflect on an experiential learning intervention in Jyväskylä, Finland, in which trainee PE teachers facilitated kinaesthetic language-learning workshops for asylum seekers. The applied use of physical education and dance in this context was aimed at providing a distinct opportunity to consider a PE teacher’s professional competence and role as an agent of integration. Methods: Adopting an interpretive approach, the authors sought to understand students’ experiences, rather than to determine the causes behind, and results emerging from, the experience. Through a qualitative, open, yet structured set of questions they gathered the trainee PE teachers’ reflections on their experiences related to the workshops. The data were analysed through a collaborative, interpretive process. The analysis was supported by pertinent theories on, e.g. transformative learning in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the meanings of this intercultural encounter for the trainee teachers. The authors have sought to understand how a learning intervention may function as a transformative experience, shifting professional dispositions towards social inclusion and cultural integration. Results: The interpretive process resulted in a thematic structure that contains the following four themes: (1) Preconceptions of others, (2) Questioning the relevance, (3) Positive affirmation and (4) Pedagogical practices in motion. Conclusion: This study has sought to identify the ways in which intercultural encounters may support PE teacher trainees’ dispositions towards working with asylum seekers, and migrants in general. The findings suggest that not all students feel that such encounters are relevant to the role of a PE teacher. The authors conclude that courses on interculturality need to be developed for encouraging trainee teachers towards such encounters and applied uses of physical education and dance. For many students, however, the experience appeared to contribute to a process of transformation, in which they were developing professional competences that are amenable to the idea of being an agent of integration.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added a research item
https://www.waxmann.com/waxmann-buecher/?no_cache=1&L=1&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Bbuch%5D=BUC125409&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Baction%5D=show&tx_p2waxmann_pi2%5Bcontroller%5D=Buch&cHash=4bf5e98832e30421075c3e1bb3bdfac5
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
Eeva Anttila
added 2 research items
The results of the 2016 British referendum on membership of the European Union and the presidential election in the United States of America initiated political changes that will arguably have resounding impacts, within and beyond the UK and the US for years to come. Much of the rhetoric accompanying these political victories appears to confront humanist ideals associated with inclusion, rationalism and transnational exchange. This article argues that these seismic political events in Europe and America will have an international impact on policies, practices and pedagogies associated with dance education, inevitably challenging those who seek to broaden meanings of socially, culturally, economically and politically inclusive arts education. We have gathered the queries of leading dance education researchers from around the world, to better understand how these political shifts are perceived, who feels they may be affected, how they feel it may affect them, and how research into dance education may respond to, and address, these effects. In doing so, we hope to provide a global snapshot of concerns felt by dance education academics in the aftermath of the 2016 British referendum and US Presidential election, and a research framework for investigating the implications of these events on dance education.
Alexis Kallio
added a research item
The Indigenized arts-based inquiry reported in this article addresses matters of equality in Finland’s extracurricular arts education system, as experienced by Indigenous Sámi artists, arts educators, scholars, and community leaders. Challenging national narratives of cultural homogeneity and egalitarianism, this research identifies aspects of this publicly-funded arts education system that function to create, or perpetuate inequality for Sámi learners. Employing narrative and joik as analysis approaches, we reflect upon these processes of exclusion in order to envision new possibilities for this national arts education system to not only accommodate Sámi learners, but to learn from and together with Indigenous arts, pedagogies, onto-epistemologies and ways of being to enhance equality for all.
Tuula Jääskeläinen
added 4 research items
This article presents a study researching a Finnish and Gambian collaboration in art education during the years 2015-2017. The study was conducted in an intercultural context during visual arts workshops in The Gambia. The main aim was to explore new art pedagogical perspectives, methods, and learning environments for the development of an art school, and for advancing the learning and teaching of the visual arts. Qualitative research methodology, memory work, and interviews were used in the collection of data from Finnish and Gambian students, teachers, artists, and local people about their memories and experiences, as connected to learning the visual arts. The results suggest that a transformative approach to the process of art students’ learning – emphasizing passion and freedom as vitalizing actants in realizing art, and utilizing meaningful people to encourage artists’ motivation – should be supported and strengthened, both in visual art pedagogy and in everyday life. https://shop.unigrafia.fi/tuote/sand-indigo-a-finnish-and-gambian-collaboration-in-art-pedagogy/ Keywords: art education: art school; intercultural learning; visual art pedagogy
Eeva Anttila
added a research item
In this article, based on my conference paper, I present several theoretical frameworks for considering dance as embodied learning. In doing so, my intention is to substantiate the claims on the educational potential of dance – a physical activity that at best engages the human being quite fully. Because dance often involves sensory processes, social interaction, various modes of reflection, creative processes, and performative elements it has the capacity to connect non-symbolic, multimodal sensations with symbolic information. The performance elements and cultural aspects of dance open wide possibilities for learning that is grounded in the body but reaches towards complex cultural meanings. When sensory experiences intertwine with the shared social world the pre-reflective level of consciousness may become connected with the reflective level. Dance, as well as many other creative and embodied activities may also support the ability to access and interpret messages that our embodied system generates and transmits. These messages, along with the immediate sensory experiences that dancing generates, can be seen as “raw material” for creating artistic expressions and interpreting cultural meanings. In my view, these processes form the premise for dance as embodied learning.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
The aim of this article is to introduce how the Dance Ambassadors are perceived by nursing staff and supervisors in institutions of elderly care. Dance Ambassadors are a dance-based service concept offered to various social contexts by the Dance Centre of Western Finland. I will report on the three central themes that I identified from the nursing staff perspectives using a multi-sited dance ethnographic approach to collect data and then thematic analysis in tandem with a descriptive-interpretative mixed method approach to code and interpret the data: dancing as a form of rehabilitation and support, dance contributes to a meaningful life, and participation in dance as a basic right. Also, social and theoretical frames as well as key concepts including cultural rights and cultural well-being are introduced. In the discussion, some critical concerns are highlighted regarding the rehabilitation discourse in relation to dance in elderly care contexts and the unequal access to dance for people in late adulthood, which stands in stark contrast to the Constitution and its emphasis on human rights and equal treatment. Some suggestions are provided to improve the situation.
Sari Karttunen
added 2 research items
Tarkastelen artikkelissani hybridisyys-käsitteen kautta yhteisöllisen taidetoiminnan luonnetta ja sen harjoittajien identiteettiä. Kysyn, ylittävätkö yhteisötaiteilijat työskentelyssään eri yhteiskuntasektorien rajoja ja sulautuuko heidän toiminnassaan yhteen useilta eri suunnilta tulevia elementtejä. Mille pohjalle yhteisötaiteilijan identiteetti rakentuu? Rajat rikkova moniammatillisuus ja uudet taiteilijatyypit Pohdin artikkelissani yhteisötaiteilijoiden toimintaa ja identiteettiä hybridisyyden käsitteen valossa. Testaan samalla empiirisen, useita taiteenaloja kattavan haastatteluaineiston avulla hybridisoitumisen käsitteen toimivuutta suhteessa yhteisötaiteilijoiden kasvavaan ryhmään. Hybridisoituminen kuuluu taiteensosiologisessa tutkimuksessa keskeisiin käsitteisiin, joilla viitataan taiteilijan ammatin ja roolin viimeaikaiseen muutokseen. Monet hybridisoitumiseksi lasketut piirteet näyttävät sopivan yhteisötaiteeseen, kuten taiteilijan roolin tavanomaistuminen, toiminta taideinstituutioiden ulkopuolella ja muidenkin kuin taiteen sisäisten tavoitteiden palveleminen. Hybriditaiteilijuutta ei kuitenkaan ole liiemmin tutkittu suhteessa sosiaaliseen praktiikkaan vaan huomio on kohdistunut kehityssuuntiin, joissa taide ja talous sekoittuvat.[1] Taiteilijan ammatin muutosta luonnehditaan usein monipuolistumisskenaarion avulla, ja siihen myös hybridisoitumisen käsite olennaisesti liittyy. Monipuolistuminen taas kytketään yleensä taiteilijoiden pyrkimykseen lieventää toimeentulonsa epävarmuutta taloudellista riskiä hajauttamalla. Merign Rengers ennakoi, että tulevaisuudessa autonominen taiteilijuus on mahdollista vain harvoille ja valituille. Valtaosa ammattikunnasta joutuu kohtaamaan entistäkin kovempia vaatimuksia tilaajilta ja taistelemaan toimeentulostaan. Rengers katsoo, että selviytyäkseen taiteilijan on muututtava nykyistä joustavammaksi, kaupallisemmaksi ja monitaitoisemmaksi.[2] Taiteilijan aseman muuttumista on selitetty viittaamalla taiteen "dedifferentiaatioon" tai ja "deinstitutionalisoitumiseen".[3] Termit kuvaavat tilannetta, jossa taiteen ja muiden yhteiskunnan sfäärien rajat liudentuvat, taideinstituution autonomisuus purkautuu ja taidetta määrittelevä erityislogiikka murenee. Tällöin taidetta ja taiteilijaa ei ole enää tarvetta eristää ulkoisilta Laajentuva taiteilijuus-yhteisötaiteilijoiden toiminta ja identiteetti hy.
Heidi Westerlund
added a research item
This article addresses the discourse on social justice and inclusion in music education by exploring how educational systems can be transformed in the rapidly changing world of late modernity. We aim to show that one possible approach to tackling injustice in music educationat the micro level is to reflect on the possibilities for institutional change at the macro level. As an institutional context, we use Basic Education in the Arts, a characteristically Finnish system of extracurricular arts education. With the help of systems analysis and a case from the Arts as Public Service: Strategic Steps towards Equality (ArtsEqual) research project, we aim to show that the resilience of a music education system can be supported by institutional innovations that help to redefine the system’s purpose and identity and make its boundaries more flexible. Our case study, the Flora project, suggests that institutional innovation can lead to new insights on how social justice and inclusion may be enhanced within a music education system by opening its borders to the exchange of new information and resourcing options. However, to grasp the full import of such initiatives requires that policy makers and institutional leaders understand the need toreflect critically on the possibilities of institutional change, recognizing the important role that operators within the system can play in such change.
Kai Lehikoinen
added a project reference
Kai Lehikoinen
added a research item
The book introduces recent international research on the connections between the arts, culture, health and well-being. The introduction explains some key concepts such as cultural rights and cultural well-being. Five chapters focus on the well-being impacts of participation in the arts in relation to five target groups: young people, immigrants, people in late adulthood, disabled people, and mental health recoverees.
Sanna Kivijärvi
added 2 research items
In this essay, we elaborate on John Dewey’s pragmatist idea of aesthetic experience in the context of early childhood music education; how people make meaning of the world through the body in a continuous interaction with their environment. In this analysis, we define early childhood music education as music education with children up to eight years old, and use Mark Johnson’s conceptualisation of embodiment as a theoretical lens to discuss points of connection or disruption with Dewey’s aesthetics. We argue that experiencing in early childhood is pre-conscious and non-symbolic (nonlinguistic), and that bodily experience is essential to the construction of meaning. Thus, our goal is to understand the layers of musical experience that do not necessitate symbolic thought or communication, but instead are a direct function of the person-environment interaction. In particular, we aim to answer the following question: What are the key characteristics of aesthetic experiencing in early childhood, and accordingly, in what ways can educators advance suitable pedagogical interaction?
The subject of this research is Figurenotes, a simplified notation system developed at the Resonaari Centre for Music Education (Helsinki) in the 1990s. In Finland, the application of Figurenotes has considerably advanced the opportunities for students with significant support needs (i.e. cognitive and developmental disabilities) to access music as a field of education, cultural activity, and art form. For example, the utilisation of Figurenotes has allowed such students to attend to music lessons in Basic Education in the Arts, a system of extracurricular instruction that follows the goals and guidelines defined by the Finnish National Board of Education.
Liisa Jaakonaho
added 2 research items
The arts have a crucial role in empowering young people with special needs through diverse dance initiatives. Inclusive pedagogy that integrates all students in a rich, equitable and just dance programmes within education frameworks are occurring alongside enabling projects by community groups and in the professional dance world where many high profile choreographers actively seek opportunities to work across diversity to inspire creativity. Access and inclusion is increasingly the essence of projects for disenfranchised and traumatised youth who find creative expression, freedom and hope through dance. This volume foregrounds dance for young people with special needs and presents best practice scenarios in schools, communities and the professional sphere. International perspectives come from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cambodia, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, South Africa, Taiwan, Timor Leste, UK and USA.