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Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC)

Goal: Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), a scholarly peer-reviewed open access international research journal enabling low cost publication solutions while projecting an image of quality research. AETiC is published by the International Association for Educators and Researchers (IAER) which is a CIC (Community Interest Company) i.e. a low-profit organization, registered in England and Wales.

As an Open Access journal, AETiC aims to provide a channel for quality research to be publicised to a broad audience. Past issues of AETiC are made available online at AETiC website and archived at the British Library, London, UK.

Printed format of the journal issues are printed and distributed by Marston Book Services, a printer in Oxfordshire, UK. The Article Processing Fee (APF) also includes two copies of the printed issues of the journal, to be posted to the mailing address of the corresponding author FREE of any additional cost.

AETiC welcomes authors to submit, through EasyChair submission site using AETiC’s MS Word Template, their original research, review and survey papers which significantly contributes to the existing domain of research and adds new knowledge in the field of emerging technologies related to computing, software engineering, information technology and communications engineering. More details can be found here: http://aetic.theiaer.org

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Maaruf Ali
added 4 research items
The discovery of neighbouring active nodes is one of the most challenging problems in asynchronous ad hoc networks. Since time synchronization is extremely costly in these networks, application of asynchronous methods like quorum-based protocols have attracted increased interest for their suitability. This is because Quorum-based protocols can guarantee that two nodes with differing clock times have an intersection within at least one timeslot. A higher neighbour discovery rate of active nodes is desired, but it also results in a higher active ratio and consequently and adversely more overall power consumption of the nodes and a shorter network lifetime. There must be a trade-off between extensive neighbour discovery and active ratio in order to design high-performance and efficient protocols. In this paper, two novel asynchronous quorum-based protocols to maximize the neighbour discovery and minimize the active ratio have been designed and presented. A new metric (Quorum Efficiency Ratio: QER) has also been designed to evaluate and compare the performance of quorum-based protocols in terms of their neighbour discovery (the Expected Quorum Overlap Size: EQOS) and the active ratio. The EQOS has been theoretically derived, along with the Active Ratio and the QER values for the proposed novel protocols and the other contemporary protocols. Finally, the proposed methods have been evaluated and compared against the other methods based on the current metrics and the new metric.
The discovery of neighbouring active nodes is one of the most challenging problems in asynchronous ad hoc networks. Since time synchronization is extremely costly in these networks, application of asynchronous methods like quorum-based protocols have attracted increased interest for their suitability. This is because Quorum-based protocols can guarantee that two nodes with differing clock times have an intersection within at least one timeslot. A higher neighbour discovery rate of active nodes is desired, but it also results in a higher active ratio and consequently and adversely more overall power consumption of the nodes and a shorter network lifetime. There must be a trade-off between extensive neighbour discovery and active ratio in order to design high-performance and efficient protocols. In this paper, two novel asynchronous quorum-based protocols to maximize the neighbour discovery and minimize the active ratio have been designed and presented. A new metric (Quorum Efficiency Ratio: QER) has also been designed to evaluate and compare the performance of quorum-based protocols in terms of their neighbour discovery (the Expected Quorum Overlap Size: EQOS) and the active ratio. The EQOS has been theoretically derived, along with the Active Ratio and the QER values for the proposed novel protocols and the other contemporary protocols. Finally, the proposed methods have been evaluated and compared against the other methods based on the current metrics and the new metric.
This second part covers the implementation, testing, critical evaluation, conclusion and further study. It concentrates on the actual implementation details of hardening of network devices by referring to the hardware and software components, device operating system’s features, management controls, access-list restrictions, operational configurations and critically making sure that the data and credentials are not stored or transferred in ‘plaintext’ over the network by detailed testing and evaluation. It investigates the commands used to enable cryptography and network protocols based on encryption, in order to meet the need for essential security requirements. Substantial work is devoted to the command line details and testing of a router based on Cryptography and Security Protocols in the border router. A step-by-step hardening approach is detailed using the commands used to secure the proposed network framework’s border router. Encrypted services coupled with best practice configurations are explained and tested in an emulated environment. The use of protocol analysers, CISCO Configuration Professional’s Audit and penetration testing tools corroborated the success of the project.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC is now fully indexed in Scopus: https://www.scopus.com/sourceid/21101017691
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
It is our great pleasure to let you know that all AETiC past papers are now indexed in Scopus. For more details on submission procedure, please visit: http://aetic.theiaer.org/
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Scopus Indexing:
It is our great pleasure to announce that Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC) has been accepted for inclusion in Scopus on 15th March 2020.
On this great occasion, we would like to thank all the members of the editorial board, reviewers, authors as well as the back-office administrative staff.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Cloud computing is a phenomenon that is changing information technology, with many companies no longer having data and resources retained within their own premises. Instead they are utilising cloud computing and its centralised resources. There are many benefits of this approach such as pay-per-use model, elasticity of operation and on demand resourcing. However, this approach also introduces additional security challenges. Security involves a triad of considerations, those being confidentiality, integrity and availability, often abbreviated to CIA. This work focusses on the last aspect of the CIA triad – availability, which is even more crucial for cloud-based platforms as centralised resources need to be provided at a distance to the end customers. Several factors including ‘denial of service’ attack impact availability. Moreover, current protection frameworks do not sufficiently consider the issues of verification, scalability and end-to-end latency. Hence, a new framework has been designed to fill the identified gap. The framework referred to as the cloud-based Distributed Denial of Service Alleviation System (DDoSAS) is based on its predecessor Enhanced DDoS-MS. The new framework has been implemented using Amazon Web Services. The work serves to provide a baseline for measuring end-to-end latency in real-life scenarios.
Keywords: Denial of service attack; DoS; DDoS; Cloud computing; availability challenges
Citation:
Michal Zak and J. Andrew Ware, “Cloud based Distributed Denial of Service Alleviation System”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 44-53, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1st January 2020, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2020.01.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce a scheme, called Polynomial Exchange Rate Scheme (PERS), to generate exchange rate functions for token swap systems, and show that the functions generated are consistent, stable, and resilient. We show that payments are guaranteed in PERS if the Single Circulation Source principle is adopted (i.e., PG-PERS). Compared to the existing deposit-based exchange rate schemes, PG-PERS is a scheme that requires no initial key token deposit and its price changes have relatively stable rates especially in extreme cases. As an application of PG-PERS, we present a token swap service, called Fanco Swap, for swapping the ERC20 token used on aFan, an incentivized social media platform, and Ether coin. We also cover several practical issues such as precision and computation cost problems and the solutions to them, which adopted in the implementation of Fanco Swap. The paper contains a comprehensive survey on existing cryptocurrency exchange services and their pricing mechanism, followed by a formal development of the proposed exchange rate scheme and its comparison with one of the most representative existing exchange rate schemes.
Keywords: Token Swap System; Exchange Rate Scheme; Cryptocurrency; Smart Contract; ERC20 Token
Citation:
Youngseo Yoo, Dongil Seo and Minhyun Kim, “Payment Guaranteed Polynomial Exchange Rate Scheme and Its Application to Cryptocurrency Swaps”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 28-43, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1st January 2020, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2020.01.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Optimization algorithms are often used to obtain optimal solutions to complex nonlinear problems and appear in many areas such as control, communication, computation, and others. Bat algorithm is a heuristic optimization algorithm and efficient in obtaining approximate best solutions to non-linear problems. In many situations complex problems involve large amount of computations that may require simulations to run for days or weeks or even years for an algorithm to converge to a solution. In this research, a Parallel Distributed Bat Algorithm (PDBA) is formulated using Message Passing Interface (MPI) in C language code for a PC Cluster. The time complexity of PDBA is determined and presented. The performance in terms of speed-up, efficiency, elapsed time, and number of times fitness function is executed is also presented.
Keywords: Bat Algorithm; Computational Complexity; Distributed; Message Passing Interface (MPI); Optimization Algorithm; Parallel; PC Cluster; Neural Networks
Citation:
Fazal Noor, Abdulghani Ibrahim and Mohammed M. AlKhattab, “Performance of Parallel Distributed Bat Algorithm using MPI on a PC Cluster”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 19-27, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1st January 2020, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2020.01.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: We provide a historical overview of proof-of-work techniques and the fields in which it plunges its roots. We are interested in PoW-techniques applied to blockchain technology and therefore we survey the state-of-the-art protocols employing these methods for consensus algorithms, emphasizing the differences between the efficient hashcash systems and the promising bread pudding protocols. Afterwards, the consensus mechanisms are discussed and some interesting known attacks to these algorithms are collected and classified according to their underlying ideas.
Keywords: Proof of Work (PoW); Blockchain; Distributed Digital Ledger; Hashcash; Bread Pudding Protocols; Consensus algorithms
Citation:
Alessio Meneghetti, Massimiliano Sala and Daniele Taufer, “A Survey on PoW-based Consensus”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 8-18, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1st January 2020, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2020.01.002, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The increasing use of wireless communication and the continuous miniaturisation of electronics devices have brought about the concept of Wireless Body Area Network (WBANs). In these types of networks, the sensor node operates in close proximity to the body and also the wireless nature of the system presents various novel, real-time and new methods to improve health care delivery. The sensor is capable of measuring any parameter which it has been designed to read, for example the heartrate and the body temperature. This paper presents a review of the concept of WBANs with a focus on the mechanism of data communication over the wireless medium. Further, it examines ways to power such devices, in particular focusing on minimisation of energy requirements, thereby reducing maintenance demands and contributing to making the environment ‘greener’.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Healthcare delivery; MAC protocol; Sensor networks; Wireless body area network
Citation:
Ogheneochuko Ubrurhe, Nigel Houlden and Peter S. Excell, "A Review of Energy Efficiency in Wireless Body Area/Sensor Networks, With Emphasis on MAC Protocol”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-7, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1st January 2020, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2020.01.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
To read the articles, please visit: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v4/v4n1/v4n1.html
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The compatibility between emerging technology such as Blockchain and the new data protection obligations has been a matter of discussion since the European General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) came into force back in 2018. The main reason is that GDPR is considered the Regulation that has incorporated the strongest obligations and enforcement consequences. There are some areas of tension on how to comply with these obligations, some of which are still a matter of discussion that have not been concluded by regulators or in court. In this chapter, I set out an overview of the main obligations, relevant areas of tension and set out an opinion on what I have seen that in practice is working the best, and how I recommend dealing with these issues in practice, in order to do an assessment applied to a particular context in which a Blockchain network is used.
Keywords: Blockchain; Privacy; Data Protection Laws; General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); Data Protection
Citation:
Rocio de la Cruz, "Privacy Laws in the Blockchain Environment”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 34-44, Vol. 3, No. 5, 15th December 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.05.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n5/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Digital notarization is one of the most promising services offered by modern blockchain-based solutions. We present a digital notary design with incremental security and cost reduced with respect to current solutions. A client of the service receives evidence in three steps. In the first step, evidence is received almost immediately, but a lot of trust is required. In the second step, less trust is required, but evidence is received seconds later. Finally, in the third step evidence is received within minutes via a public blockchain.
Keywords: Blockchain (BC); Notarization; Provable security; Cryptography
Citation:
Alessio Meneghetti, Armanda O. Quintavalle, Massimiliano Sala and Alessandro Tomasi, “Two-tier Blockchain Timestamped Notarization with Incremental Security”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 25-33, Vol. 3, No. 5, 15th December 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.05.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n5/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) platforms have a great number of vulnerabilities which cyber-attackers can exploit. A possible solution largely contemplated in the state of the art is to make use of blockchain technology in any IoT system to enhance the security of the platform while improving other of its aspects. Although there are valuable benefits of the use of IoT platforms based on blockchain technology, it is worth studying the different alternatives between blockchain technologies, because all of them have their own limitations that are not suitable for every use case scenario. In this work, we listed a number of flaws that blockchain technology has in this respect. We have identified that, most of the flaws can be overcome by adapting the variants of this technology to the specific needs of the IoT platform. Every IoT system based on blockchain technology, should perform a systematic analysis of their needs, identifying what are the blockchain features sought for that scenario, to choose the solution that best meets the needs among the different blockchain technology alternatives.
Keywords: Blockchain; IoT; Security; Review
Citation:
Yeray Mezquita, Roberto Casado, Alfonso Gonzalez-Briones, Javier Prieto and Juan Manuel Corchado, “Blockchain Technology in IoT Systems: Review of the Challenges”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 17-24, Vol. 3, No. 5, 15th December 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.05.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n5/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The main problem faced by smart contract platforms is the amount of time and computational power required to reach consensus. In a classical blockchain model, each operation is in fact performed by each node, both to update the status and to validate the results of the calculations performed by others. In this short survey we sketch some state-of-the-art approaches to obtain an efficient and scalable computation of smart contracts. Particular emphasis is given to sharding, a promising method that allows parallelization and therefore a more efficient management of the computational resources of the network.
Keywords: Blockchain (BC); Bitcoin; Crypto-currency; IoT; Proof of Work (PoW); Distributed Digital Ledger.
Citation:
Alessio Meneghetti, Tommaso Parise, Massimiliano Sala and Daniele Taufer, “A Survey on Efficient Parallelization of Blockchain-based Smart Contracts”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 9-16, Vol. 3, No. 5, 15th December 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.05.002, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n5/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Agreements, consensuses, protocols, resource-sharing, and fairness are all examples of social and political metaphors that define and shape new computational algorithms. The thought experiments and allegories about resource-sharing or agreement between nodes played a vital role in the development of "concurrent programming" (enabling processor power-sharing and process synchronization) and still later in the development of distributed computing (facilitating data access and synchronization). These paved the way for current concepts of consensus mechanisms, smart contracts, and other descriptions of cryptocurrencies, blockchain, distributed ledger, and hashgraph technologies, paradoxically reversing the relations between metaphor and artifact. New computing concepts and algorithmic processes, such as consensus mechanisms, trustless networks, and automated smart contracts or DAOs (Distributed Autonomous Organizations), aim to disrupt social contracts and political decision-making and replace economic, social, and political institutions (e.g., law, money, voting). Rather than something that needs a metaphor, algorithms are becoming the metaphor of good governance. Current fantasies of algorithmic governance exemplify this reversal of the role played by metaphors: they reduce all concepts of governance to automation and curtail opportunities for defining new computing challenges inspired by the original allegories, thought experiments, and metaphors. Especially now, when we are still learning how best to govern the transgressions and excesses of emerging distributed ledger technologies, productive relations between software and allegory, algorithms and metaphors, code and law are possible so long as they remain transitive. Against this tyranny of algorithms and technologies as metaphors and aspirational models of governance, we propose sandboxes and environments that allow stakeholders to combine prototyping with deliberation, algorithms with metaphors, codes with regulations.
Keywords: Blockchain; Bitcoin; Metaphors; Thought Experiments; Algorithms; Governance; Automation
Citation:
Denisa Reshef Kera, "Dining Philosophers, Byzantine Generals, and the Various Nodes, Users, and Citizens under Blockchain Rule”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-8, Vol. 3, No. 5, 15th December 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.05.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n5/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This paper presents novel hardware architecture of dynamic memory manager providing memory allocation and deallocation operations that are suitable for hard real-time and safety-critical systems due to very high determinism of these operations. The proposed memory manager implements Worst-Fit algorithm for selection of suitable free block of memory that can be used by the external environment, e.g. CPU. The deterministic timing of the memory allocation and deallocation operations is essential for hard real-time systems. The proposed memory manager performs these operations in nearly constant time thanks to the adoption of hardware-accelerated max queue, which is a data structure that continuously provides the largest free block of memory in two clock cycles regardless of actual number or constellation of existing free blocks of memory. In order to minimize the overhead caused by implementing the memory management in hardware, the max queue was optimized by developing a new sorting architecture, called Rocket-Queue. The Rocket-Queue architecture as well as the whole memory manager is described in this paper in detail. The memory manager and the Rocket-Queue architecture were verified using simplified version of UVM and applying billions of randomly generated instructions as testing inputs. The Rocket-Queue architecture was synthesized into Intel FPGA Cyclone V with 100 MHz clock frequency and the results show that it consumes from 17,06% to 38,67% less LUTs than the existing architecture, called Systolic Array. The memory manager implemented in a form of a coprocessor that provides four custom instructions was synthesized into 28nm TSMC HPM technology with 1 GHz clock frequency and 0.9V power supply. The ASIC synthesis results show that the Rocket-Queue based memory manager can occupy up to 24,59% smaller chip area than the Systolic Array based manager. In terms of total power consumption, the Rocket-Queue based memory manager consumes from 15,16% to 42,95% less power.
Keywords: Hard Real-Time; Dynamic Memory Management; SRAM; ASIC; Worst-Fit.
Lukáš Kohútka, Lukáš Nagy and Viera Stopjaková, “Hardware-Accelerated Dynamic Memory Manager for Hard Real-Time Systems”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 48-70, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1st October 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.04.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This paper describes a developed new method of body parts force displacements calculation of metal-cutting machine tools using combination of CAD and CAE technologies. It was carried out the analysis of analytical methods and the method of finite elements of body parts force displacements calculation of metal-cutting machine tools. On the basis of it the requirements to the method of calculation of compound errors of processing and deviations of the form of the processed surfaces due to deformations of the body parts of metal-cutting machines are established. The method of designing metal-cutting machines is grounded, which is based on mathematical modeling of different processes. It gives an opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the machine and the impact on it of the individual assembly already in the initial stages of designing. The calculation methodology was implemented using ANSYS finite element analysis. This technique was used in the calculations on the example of high-precision lathes.
Keywords: Structural Elements; Spindle; Calculation Scheme; Load; Rigidity; Finite Element Method; Deformation.
Taras Chetverzhuk, Oleg Zabolotnyi, Viktor Sychuk, Roman Polinkevych and Anatolii Tkachuk, “A Method of Body Parts Force Displacements Calculation of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools Using CAD and CAE Technologies”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 37-47, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1st October 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.04.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: An investigation into the variables that have a bearing on the acceptance of D-learning (Digital-learning) services such as E-learning and M-learning, in Jordanian universities is presented. This is followed with a discussion on modernising M-learning with emerging technologies. The study fuses the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (“UTAUT”) model with the cultural paradigm and educational variables. 100 valid questionnaires distributed to random Jordanian students in two cities were used to collect the primary data. The IBM SPSS® (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software platform was used to analyse the data. The validity of the overall model was proven statistically with an acceptable fit of the data to the measurement model. The findings show that the factor with the highest direct effect on “Intention to use M-learning” is the “Attitude toward using M-learning”. Whilst the factor with the highest indirect effect on “Intention to use M-learning” is “Compatibility”. The conclusions are that the: cultural factor has a significant and positive impact on the “perceived usefulness” and “perceived ease of use”. “Perceived usefulness” and “perceived ease of use” have the greater impact on the “customers’ attitude”, which consequently influences the students’ “intention to use M-learning services”. The findings also indicate that educational variables such as the attainment value, self-management of learning and the perceived enjoyment significantly affected M-learning adoption intention. Emerging technologies such as the Cloud, AI (Artificial Intelligence) and the Blockchain and how they may be utilised to enhance the delivery of M-learning is discussed throughout the paper.
Keywords: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model; UTAUT; D-learning; Mobile Learning Services; Mobile Learning; M-learning; Culture; E-learning.
Saleem Issa Al-Zoubi and Maaruf Ali, “E-mobile Acceptance Using Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT): Research on Universities in Jordan”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 28-36, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1st October 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.04.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The Blockchain (BC) design pattern has many variations and is a concept that is anticipated to lead many implementations in the years to come. The number of choices for a BC implementation continues to increase since new design and implementation patterns and applications are emerging. This increasing number of design patterns enables correspondingly increasing tradeoff opportunities at every evolutionary round of architecture elaboration. Key components of a BC include network nodes, blocks, and consensus methodologies. These components all possess critical characteristics that can be designed and implemented in a variety of different ways. A central thesis here is that the choice of the design methodologies has direct and varying impact with regard to resulting quality attributes such as performance, security, and availability. We describe the use of a tradeoff matrix during the initial design phase of a development cycle that identifies the quality attributes to be evaluated when designing software systems comprising a BC. We hypothesize that consideration of the quality attributes at this initial design stage via the use of the proposed tradeoff matrix enables designers to meet requirements more efficiently and accurately. This hypothesis is tested and the use of the tradeoff matrix is demonstrated by creating a consensus algorithm whose performance is evaluated through a simulation that compares the behaviour in a “bare-metal” versus a Cloud-based environment. This simulation approach drives the usage of one of the quality tradeoff parameters in achieving a more optimal solution.
Keywords: Blockchain (BC); Consensus; Quality Attributes; Design Tradeoffs; Software Development
John M. Medellin and Mitchell A. Thornton,Consideration of Quality Attribute Tradeoffs in a Blockchain Software Development Process”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 15-27, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1st October 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.04.002, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This research demonstrates a method of discriminating the numerical relationships of neural network layer inputs to the layer outputs established from the learnt weights and biases of a neural network's generalisation model. It is demonstrated with a mathematical form of a neural network rather than an image, speech or textual translation application as this provides clarity in the understanding gained from the generalisation model. It is also reliant on the input format but that format is not unlike an image pixel input format and as such the research is applicable to other applications too. The research results have shown that weight and biases can be used to discriminate the mathematical relationships between inputs and make discriminations of what mathematical operators are used between them in the learnt generalisation model. This may be a step towards gaining definitions and understanding for intractable problems that a Neural Network has generalised in a solution. For validating them, or as a mechanism for creating a model used as an alternative to traditional approaches, but derived from a neural network approach as a development tool for solving those problems. The demonstrated method was optimised using learning rate and the number of nodes and in this example achieves a low loss at 7.6e-6, a low Mean Absolute Error at 1e-3 with a high accuracy score of 1.0. But during the experiments a sensitivity to the number of epochs and the use of the random shuffle was discovered, and a comparison with an alternative shuffle using a non-random reordering demonstrated a lower but comparable performance, and is a subject for further research but demonstrated in this "decomposition" class architecture.
Keywords: Weight capture; Information Assurance; Safety-Critical AI; Decomposition Rule-Extraction
Richard N M Rudd-Ortner and Lyudmilla Milhaylova, "Numerical Discrimination of the Generalisation Model from Learnt Weights in Neural Networks”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-14, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1st October 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.04.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/p1.html
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is our great pleasure to let our readers know that the October 2019 issue (V3, N4) is now freely available online at http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n4/v3n4.html.
Happy Reading.
 
Safeeullah Soomro
added an update
Dear iCCECE ’19 and iCETiC ’19 Authors
Following are the links of pictures taken during the conferences last week:
We would like to thank everyone who have contributed to the collection of photos.
With Best Regards,
 
Andrea Piroddi
added a research item
The aim of this research is to explore a possible method for identifying an alphanumeric character produced by an individual with motor and vocal disabilities and whose possibilities to interact with the surrounding environment are limited to the movement of the face. The reason behind the creation of an alphanumeric character interpretation algorithm is linked to the fact that attempts to use existing algorithms (such as Tesseract) gave poor results in this scenario. The reason of the low success rate was not investigated; the focus was on finding a functional solution to the objective. Obviously subsequent studies in this sense are desirable. A Human-Computer Interaction algorithm has been developed in order to allow a person with limited mobility to interact with a computer, to which commands can be given. This project is based on three main elements: the identification of facial parameters, their tracking and the interpretation of the word expressed. A Linux based Python application has been coded to elaborate information from a camera. The main action is to identify the face of the potential user, activate tracking when the subject closes his eyes for a defined numbers of times, then follow the trajectory of a point of the face (in our case the tip of the nose), interpret the letter thus drawn, buffer the letters and finally convey the command (entire word) thus obtained. At the end, statistics on the success percentage are provided.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC Special Issue on “Next General Blockchain Architecture, Infrastructure and Applications”
Special Issue Editors:
Prof. Abdullah Tansel (The City University of New York, USA)
Prof. Juan Manuel Corchado Rodríguez (University of Salamanca, Spain),
Prof. Andrew H. Sung (The University of Southern Mississippi, USA),
Prof. Massimiliano Sala (University of Trento, Italy)
Dr. Mahdi H. Miraz (The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
Dr. Denisa Reshef Kera (University of Salamanca, Spain)
Dr. Subhasis Thakur (National University of Ireland, Ireland)
Special Issue Aims and Scopes:
The disruptive power of Blockchain technology is affecting and influencing the current practice in every sphere of activities in economy, social relations, finance, health care, industry and so forth. Therefore, the goal of the Special Issue is to gather scientific papers on the theoretical and practical aspects of blockchain technologies and smart contracts. The focus is on blockchain and smart contracts development in various application domains. Surveys by experts in the field are also welcome. Topics may include, but are not limited to:
•Blockchain and blockchain technologies •Threat models and attacks •Network security and network Attacks •Design methods •Governance and regulation •Consensus mechanisms •State channels •Token engineering •Technical repercussions of economic, legal, ethical, regulatory, and societal aspects •Case studies (e.g., of adoption, attacks, forks, scams, etc.) •Blockchain and Dapp architectures •Blockchain scaling and interplay •Decentralised artificial intelligence •Decentralised databases •Static and dynamic blockchain analysis; blockchain forensics •Big data and the blockchain •Human-computer interaction for blockchain applications •Blockchain of Things (BCoT) – Fusion of Blockchain and the Internet of Things (IoT) •Languages for smart contract development •Blockchain-oriented software engineering •Blockchain security and testing •Applied cryptography •Financial cryptography • Decentralised applications in finance, banking, insurance, supply chain management, e-government, notarisation, industry, energy, logistic, commerce, gaming, education •Anonymity and privacy, •Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS) •Blockchain and data privacy regulations such as GDPR, etc.
Submission Deadline: 1st November 2019
Publication Date: 1st December 2019 (tentative)
Submission Procedure:
Authors can submit Full papers, with a length between six to eighteen pages, using the EasyChair Conference Management System. While submitting, authors need to select “Special Issue on Next Generation Blockchain Architecture, Infrastructure and Applications” as the topic to indicate the submission is for this special issue. Please make sure that the manuscript has been prepared using AETiC MS Word Template and it adheres to the author guidelines.
If you have any further queries, please feel free to let us know.
We look forward to receiving your contributions.
Very best Regards
AETiC — Editorial Office
Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC)
International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER)
Kemp House
160 City Road
London, UK
EC1V 2NX
 
Maaruf Ali
added a research item
Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases in the world, 246 million people are inflicted by this disease and according to a World Health Organisation (WHO) report, this figure will increase to 380 million sufferers by 2025. Many other debilitating and critical health issues may further develop if this disease is not diagnosed or remain unidentified. Machine Learning (ML) techniques are now being used in various fields like education, healthcare, business, recommendation system, etc. Healthcare data is complex and high in dimensionality and contains irrelevant information-due to this, the prediction accuracy is low. The Pima Indians Diabetes Dataset was used in this research, it consisted of 768 records. Firstly, the missing values are replaced by the median followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis. Using the Python programming language, feature selection techniques is applied in combination with five classification algorithms: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Decision Tree. The aim of this paper is to compare the different classification algorithms in order to predict diabetes in patients more accurately. K-fold cross-validation is applied, considering k to be 2, 4, 5 and 10. The performance parameters taken are the: accuracy, precision, recall, F Score and area under the curve. Our study found that the MLP classifier gave the highest accuracy of 78.7% with a recall of 61.26%, precision of 72.45% and F1 Score of 65.97% for k = 4.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC has been submitted for indexing in Scopus :-)
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases in the world, 246 million people are inflicted by this disease and according to a World Health Organisation (WHO) report, this figure will increase to 380 million sufferers by 2025. Many other debilitating and critical health issues may further develop if this disease is not diagnosed or remain unidentified. Machine Learning (ML) techniques are now being used in various fields like education, healthcare, business, recommendation system, etc. Healthcare data is complex and high in dimensionality and contains irrelevant information - due to this, the prediction accuracy is low. The Pima Indians Diabetes Dataset was used in this research, it consisted of 768 records. Firstly, the missing values are replaced by the median followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis. Using the Python programming language, feature selection techniques is applied in combination with five classification algorithms: Support Vector Machine (SVM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Logistic Regression, Random Forest and Decision Tree. The aim of this paper is to compare the different classification algorithms in order to predict diabetes in patients more accurately. K-fold cross-validation is applied, considering k to be 2, 4, 5 and 10. The performance parameters taken are the: accuracy, precision, recall, F Score and area under the curve. Our study found that the MLP classifier gave the highest accuracy of 78.7% with a recall of 61.26%, precision of 72.45% and F1 Score of 65.97% for k = 4.
Keywords: Classification Algorithms; Diabetes Prediction; Prediction; Feature Selection; Machine Learning; Neural Networks; Multi-layer Perceptron; MLP.
Ravinder Ahuja, Subhash C. Sharma and Maaruf Ali, “A Diabetic Disease Prediction Model Based on Classification Algorithms”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 44-52, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1st July 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.03.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Internet of Things (IoT) provides an opportunity to build powerful applications and computing systems by using wireless communication and radio frequency identification (RFID), mobile, wired and wireless sensor device. In recent years several IoT applications have been developed for industrial use. To comprehend the IoT development, this survey paper provides a precise review of current research on IoT technologies. This study provides IoT applications regarding industries and categorizes the research challenges, issues, and developments. This survey contributes in providing the current state-of-the-art information regarding industrial IoT.
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; Radio-frequency identification (RFID); WSN; Industry.
Usman Ahmad, Junaid Chaudhary, Mudassar Ahmad and Amjad Ali Naz, ”Survey on Internet of Things (IoT) for Different Industry Environments”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 28-43, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1st July 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI:
10.33166/AETiC.2019.03.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This article presents a low power consumption, high speed multiplier, based on a lowest transistor count novel structure when compared with other traditional multipliers. The proposed structure utilizes 4×4-bit adder units, since it is the base structure of digital multipliers. The main merits of this multiplier design are that: it has the least adder unit count; ultra-low power consumption and the fastest propagation delay in comparison with other gate implementations. The figures demonstrate that the proposed structure consumes 32% less power than using the bypassing Ripple Carry Array (RCA) implementation. Moreover, its propagation delay and adder units count are respectively about 31% and 8.5% lower than the implementation using the bypassing RCA multiplier. All of these simulations were carried out using the HSPICE circuit simulation software in 0.18 µm technology at 1.8 V supply voltage. The proposed design is thus highly suitable in low power drain and high-speed arithmetic electronic circuit applications.
Keywords: Cascade Carry Array Multiplier; Propagation Delay; Ripple Carry Array Multiplier (RCA); Braun Multiplier; Bypassing RCA; Bypassing CSA; Carry Save Array; Ripple Carry Array.
Mohsen Sadeghi, Mahya Zahedi and Maaruf Ali, ”The Cascade Carry Array Multiplier – A Novel Structure of Digital Unsigned Mulitipliers for Low-Power Consumption and Ultra-Fast Applications”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 19-27, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1st July 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.03.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The economic burden of healthcare provision is continually rising. To combat this, targeted preventative measures have been proposed, together with encouragement of healthier lifestyle, enhanced health data collection and empowerment of patients in disease prevention and monitoring. A major cause of impairment is muscular strain and/or bone damage caused by sports injuries in the young, or falling in the elderly. To address such issues, a wearable wireless inertial sensor network is proposed which monitors body dynamics for probable disruptive incidents. The sensor node consists of a combined accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, linked to a micro controller to gather information from the sensor and a wireless transceiver for communication with the network. A miniaturised wearable prototype was designed and realised in hardware.
Keywords: Body Area Network (BAN); IEEE 802.15.4; motion monitoring; prevention of physical injuries; MEMS; microcontroller; wearable devices; wireless sensor network.
Tobias Heiduk, Aye Min Thike, Peter S. Excell and Ardeshir Osanlou, "A Wearable Wireless Sensor Network Node for Prevention of Physical Injuries”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 9-18, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1st July 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.03.002, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Today, several socio-techno-economic drivers are steering the evolution of Telecommunications and Internet towards a growing exploitation of ultra-broadband infrastructures (e.g., 5G) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. Focusing on the most promising AI technological approaches, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) are outperforming in several applications domains. One of the possible explanations, elaborated in literature, is that DNN functioning is deeply rooted in the principles of theoretical Physics, specifically Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and Gauge theory. This is encouraging even more researches and experiments in the direction of a full exploitation of quantum computing and networking for the development of innovative Information Communication Technologies (ICT) and AI systems. In this innovation avenue, given that QFT and Gauge theory have been already proposed for modeling the brain and biological nervous systems, this paper explores the intriguing possibility of exploiting QFT principles also for future DNN, for instance by using electromagnetic waves effects in metamaterials. This appears to be a promising direction of future studies and experiments: therefore, the paper also describes the architecture of a simple optical DNN prototype, based on metamaterials, which is intended as a live test-bed, for simulations and experiments.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Deep Neural Networks; Gauge Theory; Quantum Field Theory.
Antonio Manzalini, "Towards a Quantum Field Theory for Optical Artificial Intelligence”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-8, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1st July 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.03.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is our great pleasure to let you know that the Vol. 3, Issue 3 of AETiC journal has been published. Articles of this issue can be accessed freely at:http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n3/v3n3.html.
 
Maaruf Ali
added a research item
This article presents a low power consumption, high speed multiplier, based on a lowest transistor count novel structure when compared with other traditional multipliers. The proposed structure utilizes 4×4-bit adder units, since it is the base structure of digital multipliers. The main merits of this multiplier design are that: it has the least adder unit count; ultra-low power consumption and the fastest propagation delay in comparison with other gate implementations. The figures demonstrate that the proposed structure consumes 32% less power than using the bypassing Ripple Carry Array (RCA) implementation. Moreover, its propagation delay and adder units count are respectively about 31% and 8.5% lower than the implementation using the bypassing RCA multiplier. All of these simulations were carried out using the HSPICE circuit simulation software in 0.18 µm technology at 1.8 V supply voltage. The proposed design is thus highly suitable in low power drain and high-speed arithmetic electronic circuit applications.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is to update you that the submission deadline for July 2019 issue (V3N3) is 31st May 2019.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC's Editorial Board has been further enriched by the inclusion of some prominent professors from around the globe. Please visit the editorial board page to see the complete list: http://aetic.theiaer.org/editors.htm.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is our great pleasure to let you know that the Vol. 3, Issue 2 of AETiC journal has been published. Articles of this issue can be accessed freely at: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/v3n2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The Internet of Things is the current and next revolution in integrating various technologies and wireless communications. It has been shown to make an important contribution in various modes of communication, in homes, offices and other buildings. However, certain research issues are still remain, such as life span of the network and a definition of the most influential nodes in communications, which affect the overall energy distribution. This paper introduces a new approach to enhance the communication over the internet of things, by combining two different domains, the computer network and network science. Various scenarios have been thoroughly implemented and tested over different network topologies. The results show clear enhancements on network centrality and overall energy distribution.
Keywords: Internet of Things; Computer Networks; Network Science; Energy Efficiency
Majed Alhaisoni, "IoT Energy Efficiency through Centrality Metrics”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 14-21, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1st April 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.02.002, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Routing protocols are used to transmit the packets from the source to the destination node in mobile ad hoc networks. The intruders seek chance to pierce into the network and becomes a cause of malfunctioning in the network. These protocols are always prone to attacks. During the phases of routing in different types of protocols, each of the attack finds a way to degrade the performance of the routing protocols. The reactive routing protocols DSR and AODV have lot of similar features and so are considered in this study. In order to transmit the packets safely, a secured approach using triple factor has been proposed. This triple factor computes the trust by using the direct information then verifies the reputation by collecting the information from the neighbouring nodes called distributed factor and uses cryptographic algorithm to ensure security. And to ensure that there are routes available to perform the routing process, the reasons for such attacks are studied so as to re-integrate back the nodes in to the network, once it has repented for being malicious before. The availability of routes increases the throughput.
Keywords: MANET; IoT; Dynamic Source Routing protocol; Ad Hoc on Demand Distance Vector Protocol; Threats
Mohammad Riyaz Belgaum, Shahrulniza Musa, Mazliham MohdSu’ud, Muhammad Alam, Safeeullah Soomro and Zainab Alansari, "Secured approach towards Reactive Routing Protocols using Triple factor in Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 32-40, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1st April 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.02.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: At every level of education, from early years to postgraduate, students can arrive in the UK (or US) classroom with little or no English language ability. It is impossible for teachers to have knowledge of every first language that students bring into the classroom and thus they may rely on a computer-aided translation tool so that their students can have access to the English needed in all subjects across the curriculum. At the same time, students need to move from basic English skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing towards the subtleties of academic English which they must achieve in order to reach the UK government’s required standards in English at every level of assessment. Using her extensive knowledge of the challenges that students learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) and their teachers face in the classroom situation and the English needed in assessments, the author examines possible benefits of computer-aided translation tools such as Google Translate and Talking Pen and outlines some of the problems and drawbacks with such tools that create barriers to acquiring full academic fluency, thus posing challenges to future translation tool developers.
Keywords: Computer Aided Translation; eLearning; e-translation Tools; English as an Additional Language (EAL)
Dianne Excell, “Some Problems in Using Computer-Aided Translation Tools to Facilitate Second Language Fluency in Education”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 22-31, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1st April 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.02.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The calculated filling factors (FFs) for a feature reflect the fraction of the solar disc covered by that feature, and the assignment of reference synthetic spectra. In this paper, the FFs, specified as a function of radial position on the solar disc, are computed for each image in a tabular form. The filling factor (FF) is an important parameter and is defined as the fraction of area in a pixel covered with the magnetic field, whereas the rest of the area in the pixel is field-free. However, this does not provide extensive information about the experiments conducted on tens or hundreds of such images. This is the first time that filling factors for SODISM images have been catalogued in tabular formation. This paper presents a new method that provides the means to detect sunspots on full-disk solar images recorded by the Solar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper (SODISM) on the PICARD satellite. The method is a totally automated detection process that achieves a sunspot recognition rate of 97.6%. The number of sunspots detected by this method strongly agrees with the NOAA catalogue. The sunspot areas calculated by this method have a 99% correlation with SOHO over the same period, and thus help to calculate the filling factor for wavelength (W.L.) 607nm.
Keywords: Sunspots; SODISM; PICARD; Wavelength 607nm; Parametric; non-parametric statistics; discrete wavelet; Filling Factors catalogue
Amro F. Alasta, Abdrazag Algamudi, Fatma Almesrati, Mustapha Meftah and Rami Qahwaji, "Filling Factors of Sunspots in SODISM Images”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-13, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1st April 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.02.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: In the modern socially-driven, knowledge-based virtual computing environment in which organisations are operating, the current digital forensics tools and practices can no longer meet the need for scientific rigour. There has been an exponential increase in the complexity of the networks with the rise of the Internet of Things, cloud technologies and fog computing altering business operations and models. Adding to the problem are the increased capacity of storage devices and the increased diversity of devices that are attached to networks, operating autonomously. We argue that the laws and standards that have been written, the processes, procedures and tools that are in common use are increasingly not capable of ensuring the requirement for scientific integrity. This paper looks at a number of issues with current practice and discusses measures that can be taken to improve the potential of achieving scientific rigour for digital forensics in the current and developing landscape.
Keywords: Digital forensics; scientific rigour; standards; procedures; tools
Andrew Jones and Stilianos Vidalis, "Rethinking Digital Forensics”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 41-53, Vol. 3, No. 2, 1st April 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.02.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n2/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
We are happy to let you know that AETiC penned a MoU with content aggregator J-Gate for indexing purposes.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added a research item
Since the introduction of Bitcoin in 2008, many other cryptocurrencies have been introduced and gained popularity. Lack of interoperability and scalability amongst these cryptocurrencies was-and still is-acting as a significant impediment to the general adoption of cryptocurrencies and coloured tokens. Atomic Swaps-a smart exchange protocol for cryptocurrencies-is designed to facilitate a wallet-to-wallet transfer enabling direct trades amongst different cryptocurrencies. Since swaps between cryptocurrencies are still relatively unknown, this article will investigate the operation and market development thus far and query the advantages they offer and the future challenges they face. The paper contains detailed literature and technology reviews, followed by the main analysis and findings.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC journal has acquired an impact factor of 0.61 by CiteFactor and have been included in their JCR (Journal Citation Report) for 2018.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Since the introduction of Bitcoin in 2008, many other cryptocurrencies have been introduced and gained popularity. Lack of interoperability and scalability amongst these cryptocurrencies was - and still is - acting as a significant impediment to the general adoption of cryptocurrencies and coloured tokens. Atomic Swaps – a smart exchange protocol for cryptocurrencies - is designed to facilitate a wallet-to-wallet transfer enabling direct trades amongst different cryptocurrencies. Since swaps between cryptocurrencies are still relatively unknown, this article will investigate the operation and market development thus far and query the advantages they offer and the future challenges they face. The paper contains detailed literature and technology reviews, followed by the main analysis and findings.
Keywords: Atomic Swaps; Cross-chain Trading; Blockchain; Cryptocurrencies; Cross-listing; Wallet-to-Wallet Transfer; On-Chain; Off-Chain; Layer 2; Hashed Timelock Contracts (HTLC); Lightning Network; Payment Channels; State Channels; Coloured Coins; DAO; ICO; DApps
Mahdi H. Miraz and David C. Donald, "Atomic Cross-chain Swaps: Development, Trajectory and Potential of Non-monetary Digital Token Swap Facilities”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 42-50, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st January 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER),
DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.01.005, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n1/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Combining healthcare services on a primary care level, at a basic rather than specialised extent, for elementary treatment seeking people, can be challenging but yet useful. In fact, there are many different healthcare apps currently available in the emporium of India, however, their lack of usability as well as appropriate user interface is a major concern. Thus, the possibility of creating convenient and sustainable user interface and experience has great potentials in this regard. This paper presents a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) prototype for primary care level services in India, enabling seamless communication amongst pharmacies, clinics and relevant specialised services, demonstrating chronological steps of the conceptual user interface design process. The initial usability test results of the app reveal positive upshots. The PoC prototype, developed exploring service design processes, can be used for reference and guidance for the researchers, developers and other concerned stakeholders.
Keywords: Healthcare Apps; Primary Care in India; User Interface Design Process; Service Design
Aratrika De and Woo Jeong Chon, "Conceptual User Interface Design Process for Healthcare App for Primary Care Level Services in India”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 28-41, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st January 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.01.004, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n1/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Visible Light Communications (VLC) is currently considered one of the most promising Optical Wireless Communications (OWC) for commercial applications, due to the widespread deployment of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for energy efficiency, durability and low cost. With the ability to provide several THz of bandwidth, VLC is expected to co-exist with legacy and future Radio Frequency (RF) media as a reliable solution to the rapid demand of high-speed wireless communication. VLC is challenged by two main drawbacks: ambient light interference and the transmission range. To overcome these drawbacks, we propose a tuned VLC Analog Front-End (AFE) using simple and low-cost electronic circuity. The proposed VLC receiver architecture consists of a transimpedance amplifier, a fourth order Multiple Feed Back (MFB) band pass filter and a comparator. Experimental results demonstrated that by employing the proposed front-end the VLC transmission range could be extended up to 4.7m by using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). Moreover, the proposed system showed robustness against ambient light interference under the indoor scenario.
Keywords: VLC; Pulse Width Modulation; LEDs; Multiple Feedback; SNR
Majed Basha, Martin J. Sibley and Peter J. Mather “Design and Implementation of a Long Range Indoor VLC System using PWM”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 20-27, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st January 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.01.003, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n1/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Ultrasonic sensors have been used in a variety of applications to measure ranges to objects. Hand gestures via ultrasonic sensors form unique motion patterns for controls. In this research, patterns formed by placing a set of objects in a grid of cells are used for control purposes. A neural network algorithm is implemented on a microcontroller which takes in range signals as inputs read from ultrasonic sensors and classifies them in one of four classes. The neural network is then trained to classify patterns based on objects’ locations in real-time. The testing of the neural network for pattern recognition is performed on a testbed consisting of Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C) ultrasonic sensors and a microcontroller. The performance of the proposed model is presented and it is observed the model is highly scalable, accurate, robust and reliable for applications requiring high accuracy such as in robotics and artificial intelligence.
Keywords: Ultrasonic Sensors; Time of Flight; Echo; Transmitter; Receiver; I2C; Neural Network; Pattern Recognition; SONAR
Fazal Noor, “Pattern Recognition using a Neural Network on a Microcontroller with I2C Ultrasonic Sensors”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp 9-19, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st January 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.01.002, Available:
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: In contrast with practice in recent times past, computational and data intensive processes are increasingly driving collaborative research in science and technology. Large amounts of data are being generated in experiments or simulations and these require real-time, or near real-time, analysis and visualisation. The results of these evaluations need to be validated and then published quickly and openly in order to facilitate the overall progress of research on a national and international basis. Research is increasingly undertaken in large teams and is also increasingly interdisciplinary as many of the major research challenges lie at the boundaries between existing disciplines. The move to open access for peer reviewed publications is rapidly becoming a required option in the sector. At the same time, communication and dissemination procedures are also utilising non-traditional forms facilitated by burgeoning developments in social networking. It is proposed that these elements, when combined, constitute a paradigm shift in the model of research and the dissemination of research results.
Keywords: academic social networking; collaboratories; grand challenges; big data; analytics; visualisation; paradigm shift
Rae A. Earnshaw, Mohan de Silva and Peter S. Excell, "Models of Research and the Dissemination of Research Results: the Influences of E-Science, Open Access and Social Networking", Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-8, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1st January 2019, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), DOI: 10.33166/AETiC.2019.01.001, Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n1/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is our great pleasure to let you know that issue 1 of AETiC's volume 3 has been published today. All the papers of the issue can be downloaded freely from http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v3/v3n1/v3n1.html
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Greetings from AETiC Editorial Board.
We are happy to let you know that, as part of our striving for continuous improvement, AETiC is now indexed in Cite Factor.
AETiC is also being evaluated for 2018 Impact Factor by Cite Factor.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Greetings from AETiC Editorial Board.
We are happy to let you know that, as part of our striving for continuous improvement, AETiC is now indexed in Crossref and each AETiC papers shall have unique DOI numbers from now.
You will be glad to know that we decided to assign DOI numbers for all the already published papers too.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Submission deadline for April 2019 (V3N2) issue is 15 February 2019. The Updated CFP has been attached for your reference.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC Recently got indexed in ResearchBib
 
Aamir Z. Shaikh
added a research item
Fuzzy Logic is an excellent method to incorporate for making decisions at various levels of cognitive radio under uncertain, incomplete and nonlinear environments. This is one of the most important methods to employ. It is due to the inherent characteristics of wireless channels that produce mostly inaccurate and incomplete information. Thus, the coexisting radios in a particular RF band have to make many decisions using incomplete information especially under cognitive radio access regime. This paper elaborates the concept of fuzzy logic and also investigates a review of the fuzzy logic in the domain of spectrum sensing, power control, resource management for cognitive radio applications. The survey presents the key applications as well as the benefits offered by this technology in comparison to the hard decision making logic i.e.1 and 0 for future wireless communications.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Submission deadline for AETiC journal's January 2019 issue is 31st December 2018. Please do feel free to let me know if you have any queries :-)
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Attached is the editorial of AETiC October 2018 issue. It can also be read from the Archive section of AETiC: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/editorial.html
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC Journal's submission procedure is now powered by EasyChair. For more information, please visit: http://aetic.theiaer.org/
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: There are many social networking websites that provide online networking opportunities; all of these platforms require creating an account, then logging in and updating information to maintain a profile. Our research investigates mobile number based log in feature of both Facebook and Twitters - two exemplary social networking sites – for degree of seamlessness and other security features. Our research reveals that there are major dissimilarities as well as flaws in the deployment of mobile number based login on these two platforms. It has been observed that Twitter allows creation of multiple accounts using one single mobile number, however, logging out from one such account automatically logs out all other accounts associated with the same number. On the contrary, Facebook allows creation of multiple accounts using one single mobile number without deactivation of the previously created ones, however, if same password is used for more than one accounts associated with the same number, only one account can be accessed at any given time. This paper also provides probable solutions to address the security loopholes as identified by our research.
Keywords: Social Networking Platforms; Facebook; Twitter; Login System; Mobile Number; Password; Security
Jawaid A. Mangnejo, Arif R. Khuhawar, Muneer A. Kartio and Saima S. Soomro, "Inherent Flaws in Login System of Facebook and Twitter with Mobile Numbers.”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516- 029X, pp. 53-61, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1st October 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: IoT is a man-made technology conceptualized by intelligent virtual objects, which capable of knowing all things and allows the devices around themselves to interact automatically without human control. Every year, the number of IoT devices usage is exponentially increasing and estimated as much as 75.44 billion devices will be connected in IoT network. In line with the expansion of the IoT network, the construction industry should take into consideration as otherwise the construction industry will be left behind by other industries. This is because the construction industry should utilize the applications offered by IoT to ensure the smoothness of the construction industry in the project. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the types of IoT applications used in the construction industry in Malaysia. The research method used to identify the types of IoT applications used is through the questionnaire method. The questionnaire was analysed using nominal analysis. A study was conducted on construction industry players which comprising of government agencies, developers, architects, engineers, quantity surveyors and class G7 contractors covering all states in Malaysia. The findings show that among the many types of IoT applications used by construction industry players are social media such as WhatsApp, Telegram and Facebook for discussion and communication purposes, the use of email for information and communication exchange and website usage as a source of reference to obtain data on company profiles, acts and policy, price quotes and so on.
Keyword: Internet of Things; Construction Industry; Industrial Revolution 4.0; Augmented Reality; Waste Management
Syamsul H. Mahmud, Laromi Assan and Rashidul Islam, "Potentials of Internet of Things (IoT) in Malaysian Construction Industry”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 44-52, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st October 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are exposed to many security attacks, and it can be easily compromised. One of the main reasons for these vulnerabilities is the deployment nature, where sensor nodes are deployed without physical guarding duty. That makes the network susceptible to physical attacks. The communication nature between sensor nodes is another reason, where intruders can easily send/receive information if they are located in the network communication range. In this paper, most of the possible WSN attacks are discussed, different security services expected in WSN are explained, and trust-based solutions proposed in the literature are listed. Moreover, the state-of-the-art of the attacks’ mitigation and avoidance techniques are presented. Besides, this paper is enriched with a new classification of the WSNs attacks regarding attacks’ characteristics. It will be beneficial to researchers in the field of WSNs security if they can distinguish between different attacks that have common characteristics.
Keywords: Wireless sensor networks; WSN possible attacks; WSN attacks’ detecting features; WSN security services; WSN trust-based solutions; WSN attacks mitigation techniques; WSN attack avoidance techniques
Ahmed S. Abu Daia, Rabie A. Ramadan and Magda B. Fayek, “Sensor Networks Attacks Classifications and Mitigation”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 28-43, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1st October 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This second part covers the implementation, testing, critical evaluation, conclusion and further study. It concentrates on the actual implementation details of hardening of network devices by referring to the hardware and software components, device operating system’s features, management controls, access-list restrictions, operational configurations and critically making sure that the data and credentials are not stored or transferred in ‘plaintext’ over the network by detailed testing and evaluation. It investigates the commands used to enable cryptography and network protocols based on encryption, in order to meet the need for essential security requirements. Substantial work is devoted to the command line details and testing of a router based on Cryptography and Security Protocols in the border router. A step-by-step hardening approach is detailed using the commands used to secure the proposed network framework’s border router. Encrypted services coupled with best practice configurations are explained and tested in an emulated environment. The use of protocol analysers, CISCO Configuration Professional’s Audit and penetration testing tools corroborated the success of the project.
Keywords: AAA; ACL; APT; ASA; CEF; Control Plane; Cryptography; DDoS; DES; DMVPN; DMZ; DoS; Data Plane; EIGRP; GRE; Hardening CISCO Devices; HSRP; ICMP; IDS; IKE; IOS; IPS; IPSec; Management Plane; NAT; NHRP; OSFP; OSI; PSM; RADIUS; RIP; RIPv2; RSA; Security Protocols; SNMP; SNMPv3; SSH; SSHv2; SSL; TACACS; TCP/IP; VPN; VLAN
Faisal Waheed and Maaruf Ali, “Hardening CISCO Devices Based on Cryptography and Security Protocols – Part II: Implementation and Evaluation”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 11-27, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1st October, 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: We present a web-based methodology for the extraction of semantic information and object identification in poorly annotated Web3D scenes. Our approach is based on a set of rules that mimic human spatial cognition, backed by an indexing mechanism for the automated spatial correlation between objects in terms of linguistic predicates. The proposed methodology is comprised of real-time techniques with broad application areas, ranging from CAD and 3D room planning tools based on architectural designs, to medical and e-learning environments where their objects’ relative position is closely associated with identification attributes.
Keywords: Spatial semantics; object identification; 3D model indexing; Web3D
Konstantinos Kontakis, Athanasios G. Malamos, Malvina Steiakaki, Spyros Panagiotakis and J. Andrew Ware, “Object Identification Based on the Automated Extraction of Spatial Semantics from Web3D Scenes”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 01-10, Vol. 2, No. 4, 1st October 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC October 2018 issue has now been published and freely available for download from: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n4/v2n4.html
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Submissions for AETiC October issue is open till 10th September. For more information, please visit http://aetic.theiaer.org/
 
Maaruf Ali
added a research item
Network Security is a vital part of any corporate and enterprise network. Network attacks greatly compromise not only the sensitive data of the consumers but also cause outages to these networks. Thus inadequately protected networks need to be "hardened". The hardening of network devices refers to the hardware and software components, device operating system's features, management controls, access-list restrictions, operational configurations and above all making sure that the data and credentials are not stored or transferred in 'plaintext' over the network. This article investigates the use of cryptography and network protocols based on encryption, to meet the need for essential security requirements. Use of non-secure protocols, underrating and misconfigurations of management protection are reasons behind network devices not properly being hardened; hence leaving vulnerabilities for the intruders. The gap identified after conducting intense search and review of past work is used as the foundation to present solutions. When performing cryptography techniques by encrypting packets using tunnelling and security protocols, management level credentials are encrypted. These include password encryption and exceptional analysis of the emulated IOS (Internetwork Operating System). Necessary testing is carried out to evaluate an acceptable level of protection of these devices. In a virtual testing environment, security flaws are found mainly in the emulated IOS. The discoveries does not depend on the hardware or chassis of a networking device. Since routers primarily rely on its Operating System (OS), attackers focus on manipulating the command line configuration before initiating an attack. Substantial work is devoted to implementation and testing of a router based on Cryptography and Security Protocols in the border router. This is deployed at the core layer and acts as the first point of entry of any trusted and untrusted traffic. A step-by-step hardening approach is adopted to secure the proposed network framework's border router. Encrypted services coupled with best practice configurations are implemented and tested in an emulated environment. The use of protocol analysers, CISCO Configuration Professional's Audit and penetration testing tools corroborated the success of the project.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: A brief review of key milestones in the development of the British Electronics and Computing industries is presented, together with some thoughts about future directions.
Keywords: Electronics industry; British industry; thermionic valves; radio; television; radar; satellite communications; optical fibre; computer industry; mobile communications; electronic entertainment; digital media
Peter S. Excell, “The British Electronics and Computing Industries: Past, Present and Future”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 45-52, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1st July 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n3/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Network Security is a vital part of any corporate and enterprise network. Network attacks greatly compromise not only the sensitive data of the consumers but also cause outages to these networks. Thus inadequately protected networks need to be “hardened”. The hardening of network devices refers to the hardware and software components, device operating system’s features, management controls, access-list restrictions, operational configurations and above all making sure that the data and credentials are not stored or transferred in ‘plaintext’ over the network. This article investigates the use of cryptography and network protocols based on encryption, to meet the need for essential security requirements. Use of non-secure protocols, underrating and misconfigurations of management protection are reasons behind network devices not properly being hardened; hence leaving vulnerabilities for the intruders. The gap identified after conducting intense search and review of past work is used as the foundation to present solutions. When performing cryptography techniques by encrypting packets using tunnelling and security protocols, management level credentials are encrypted. These include password encryption and exceptional analysis of the emulated IOS (Internetwork Operating System). Necessary testing is carried out to evaluate an acceptable level of protection of these devices. In a virtual testing environment, security flaws are found mainly in the emulated IOS. The discoveries does not depend on the hardware or chassis of a networking device. Since routers primarily rely on its Operating System (OS), attackers focus on manipulating the command line configuration before initiating an attack. Substantial work is devoted to implementation and testing of a router based on Cryptography and Security Protocols in the border router. This is deployed at the core layer and acts as the first point of entry of any trusted and untrusted traffic. A step-by-step hardening approach is adopted to secure the proposed network framework’s border router. Encrypted services coupled with best practice configurations are implemented and tested in an emulated environment. The use of protocol analysers, CISCO Configuration Professional’s Audit and penetration testing tools corroborated the success of the project.
Keywords: AAA; ACL; APT; ASA; CEF; Control Plane; Cryptography; DDoS; DES; DMVPN; DMZ; DoS; Data Plane; EIGRP; GRE; Hardening CISCO Devices; HSRP; ICMP; IDS; IKE; IOS; IPS; IPSec; Management Plane; NAT; NHRP; OSFP; OSI; PSM; RADIUS; RIP; RIPv2; RSA; Security Protocols; SNMP; SNMPv3; SSH; SSHv2; SSL; TACACS; TCP/IP; VPN; VLAN.
Faisal Waheed and Maaruf Ali, “Hardening CISCO Devices Based on Cryptography and Security Protocols”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 27-44, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1st July, 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n3/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: With the advent of E-Learning (Electronic Learning) and M-Learning (Mobile Learning), many educational software or tools have been developed, a major part of which are game-based applications. Even though, most of which are freely available on the web, there are only few intuitions make practical and effective use of these learning applications. Because these applications utilises various elements of multimedia such as audio, video, image and animation, they help visualise the learning materials and hence have higher span of at attention. To investigate the effect of web and game based E-Learning and M-Learning, an experiment was conducted amongst the students of three different schools in Pakistan and the results were analysed. The results of our research reveal that utilisation of such web and game based learning tools are much more effective compared to the traditional teaching methods without applying any ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools.
Keywords: Game Based Learning; Game Design; E-Learning; M-Learning; Graphical User Interface
Awais K. Jumani, Mashooque A. Memon and Muneer A. Kartio, “A Technique to Measure Students’ Mental Approach using Web and Game Based E-Learning Application”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 19-26, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1st July 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n3/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: A Certificate Authority (CA) provides the critical authentication and security services for Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) which are used for the Internet and wired networks. In MANETs (wireless and ad hoc) there is an inability to offer a centralized CA to provide these security services. Recent research has looked to facilitate the use of CAs within MANETs through the use of a Distributed Certificate Authority (DCA) for wireless and ad hoc networks. This paper presents a number of different types of DCA protocols and categorizes them into groups based on their factors and specifications. The paper concludes by proposing the best DCA security services in terms of performance and level of security.
Keywords: Component; Certificate Authority; Key management; DCA; Distributed Certificate Management
Junaid Chaudhry, Kashif Saleem, Paul Haskell-Dowland, and Mahdi H. Miraz, "A Survey of Distributed Certificate Authorities in MANETs”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 11-18, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1st July 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n3/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The evolving standards of mobile communications, the wide variety of services they offer and the rapid growth of the Internet have made a merger of the two network technologies inevitable. One of the most prominent platforms that has been developed to facilitate this is the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) concept. Many mobile communications standards integrate IMS as the main core network architecture and Quality of Service (QoS) is the main concern for customer satisfaction. A major approach to optimisation of QoS is the Differentiated Services scheme, and a simulation study of implementations of this is presented. The study covered an IMS core network architecture modelled with discrete-event network simulator software, with a Differentiated Services QoS scheme run over it with differing bearer traffic scenarios. Implications for core network architectures are discussed.
Keywords: IMS; Mobile communications; Quality of Service; Differentiated Services; Network simulation
David K. Osei-Aboagye and Peter S. Excell, “Optimising Differentiated Services Strategies under IMS”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 01-10, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1st July 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n3/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
This is our great pleasure to let you know that the July (2018) issue of AETiC journal is now available online.
To read/download the papers freely, please visit AETiC's digital archive: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive.htm
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Submission deadline for AETiC July issue has been extended till 15th June. For more details, please visit http://aetic.theiaer.org/.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC July 2018 issue: submission deadline is 10th June 2018. For more information, please visit journal website: http://www.aetic.theiaer.org.
AETiC is widely indexed and archived in the British Library.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC has now applied for inclusion in ISI ESCI Indexing database.
 
Maaruf Ali
added a research item
This paper gives an overview of electronic learning (E-Learning) and mobile learning (M-Learning) adoption and diffusion trends, as well as their particular traits, characteristics and issues, especially in terms of cross-cultural and universal usability. E-Learning and M-Learning models using web services and cloud computing, as well as associated security concerns are all addressed. The benefits and enhancements that accrue from using mobile and other internet devices for the purposes of learning in academia are discussed. The differences between traditional classroom-based learning, distance learning, E-Learning and M-Learning models are compared and some conclusions are drawn.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This paper gives an overview of electronic learning (E-Learning) and mobile learning (M-Learning) adoption and diffusion trends, as well as their particular traits, characteristics and issues, especially in terms of cross-cultural and universal usability. E-Learning and M-Learning models using web services and cloud computing, as well as associated security concerns are all addressed. The benefits and enhancements that accrue from using mobile and other internet devices for the purposes of learning in academia are discussed. The differences between traditional classroom-based learning, distance learning, E-Learning and M-Learning models are compared and some conclusions are drawn.
Keywords: Cross-cultural Usability; E-Learning (Electronic Learning); M-Learning (Mobile Learning); Virtual Learning Environments (VLE); Virtual Education; Online Education; Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL); Blended Learning.
Mahdi H. Miraz, Maaruf Ali and Peter S. Excell, “Cross-cultural Usability Issues in E/M-Learning”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 46-55, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1st April 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n2/p5.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This research article presents a brief survey of language learning applications implemented on mobile computing devices, such as cellular mobile phones. The corpus of the literature show the efficacy and effectiveness of using mobile devices to disseminate, train, retain and improve the linguistic ability of non-native speakers.
Keywords: Mobile Assisted Language Learning; MALL; Mobile Learning; e-learning.
Maaruf Ali and Shayma K. Miraz, “Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) – A Brief Survey”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 37-45, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1st April 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n2/p4.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This paper discusses the conceptual implementation of a system to locate people inside buildings using their personal Bluetooth® low energy device(s) in situations of a crisis. Various aspects of BLE technology are covered with regard to their usage for emergency management. Legal, social, ethical and professional issues are also discussed in using this technology, especially in matters of safeguarding information privacy. The plan of the proposed system is then discussed and concluded.
Keywords: Localization; Bluetooth Low Energy; BLE; Location Based Services; LBS; Crisis Intervention.
Glebs Kuzmics and Maaruf Ali, “Intra-building People Localisation Using Personal Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Devices”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 24-36, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1st April 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n2/p3.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: The algorithm presented in this paper is designed to detect people in real-time from 3D footage for use in Augmented Reality applications. Techniques are discussed that hold potential for a detection system when combined with stereoscopic video capture using the extra depth included in the footage. This information allows for the production of a robust and reliable system. To utilise stereoscopic imagery, two separate images are analysed, combined and the human region detected and extracted. The greatest benefit of this system is the second image, which contains additional information to which conventional systems do not have access, such as the depth perception in the overlapping field of view from the cameras. We describe the motivation behind using 3D footage and the technical complexity of human detection. The system is analysed for both indoor and outdoor usage, when detecting human regions. The developed system has further uses in the field of motion capture, computer gaming and augmented reality. Novelty comes from the camera not being fixed to a single point. Instead, the camera is subject to six degrees of freedom (DOF). In addition, the algorithm is designed to be used as a first filter to extract feature points in input video frames faster than real-time.
Keywords: 3D Image; Human Detection; Human Tracking; Foreground Detection.
Ross Davies, Ian Wilson and Andrew Ware, “Stereoscopic Human Detection in a Natural Environment”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 15-23, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1st April 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n2/p2.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: With the development of incipient technologies, user devices becoming more exposed and ill-used by foes. In upcoming decades, traditional security measures will not be sufficient enough to handle this huge threat towards distributed hardware and software. Lack of standard network attack taxonomy has become an indispensable dispute on developing a clear understanding about the attacks in order to have an operative protection mechanism. Present attack categorization techniques protect a specific group of threat which has either messed the entire taxonomy structure or ambiguous when one network attacks get blended with few others attacks. Hence, this raises concerns about developing a common and general purpose taxonomy. In this study, a sequential question-answer based model of categorization is proposed. In this article, an intrusion detection framework and threat grouping schema are proposed on the basis of four sequential questions (“Who”, “Where”, “How” and “What”). We have used our method for classifying traditional network attacks in order to identify initiator, source, attack style and seriousness of an attack. Another focus of the paper is to provide a preventive list of actions for network administrator as a guideline to reduce overall attack consequence. Recommended taxonomy is designed to detect common attacks rather than any particular type of attack which can have a practical effect in real life attack classification. From the analysis of the classifications obtained from few infamous attacks, it is obvious that the proposed system holds certain benefits related to the prevailing taxonomies. Future research directions have also been well acknowledged.
Keywords: Network attack taxonomy; Intrusion detection; Network vulnerabilities; Sequential question; Virus attack security; Virus attack classification; Attack taxonomies; Attack Surfaces.
Md Mehedi Hassan Onik, Nasr Al-Zaben, Hung Phan Hoo and Chul-Soo Kim, “A Novel Approach for Network Attack Classification Based on Sequential Questions”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-14, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1st April 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n2/p1.html.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC April 2018 has now been published and freely available online. To read or download the full texts, please visit AETiC's archive site: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive.htm
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
As a commitment to Open Access publication, AETiC Applied for OASPA membership today :-)
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
The submission deadline for upcoming April Issue has now been extended until the end of 20th March 2018. To submit your paper, please visit http://aetic.theiaer.org
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
CFP Reminder: Submission deadline for AETiC April issue is 10 March 2018. To submit your paper, please visit: http://aetic.theiaer.org/submission.htm
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Great News: AETiC has been accepted for indexing in Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the largest indexing body for open access journal.
 
Maaruf Ali
added 2 research items
A Service Provider has different methods to provide a VPN service to its customers. But which method is the least complex to implement? In this paper, two architectures are described and analysed. Based on the analyses, two methods of complexity calculation are designed to evaluate the complexity of the architecture: the first method evaluates the resources consumed, the second evaluates the number of cases possible.
This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies covered include: native IEEE AVnu Alliance Audio Video Bridging (AVB), CobraNet®, Audinate Dante™ and Harman BLU Link.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
AETiC is now accepting papers for its April 2018 issue. For more information, please visit http://aetic.theiaer.org/submission.htm
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
All articles, published in January 2018 issue, are freely available at IAER Archive site :-)
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Due to the fast growth and tradition of the internet over the last decades, the network security problems are increasing vigorously. Humans can not handle the speed of processes and the huge amount of data required to handle network anomalies. Therefore, it needs substantial automation in both speed and accuracy. Intrusion Detection System is one of the approaches to recognize illegal access and rare attacks to secure networks. In this proposed paper, Naive Bayes, J48 and Random Forest classifiers are compared to compute the detection rate and accuracy of IDS. For experiments, the KDD_NSL dataset is used.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System; Naive Bayes; J48; Random Forest; NSL_KDD dataset
Nabeela Ashraf, Waqar Ahmad and Rehan Ashraf, "A Comparative Study of Data Mining Algorithms for High Detection Rate in Intrusion Detection System”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 48-56, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st January 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n1/p5.pdf.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies covered include: native IEEE AVnu Alliance Audio Video Bridging (AVB), CobraNet®, Audinate Dante™ and Harman BLU Link.
Keywords: Audio Video Bridging; AVB; CobraNet; Dante; BLU Link; Audio Networking
Glebs Kuzmics and Maaruf Ali, "Audio Networking in the Music Industry”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 22-48, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st January 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n1/p4.pdf.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: As vehicle population has been increasing on a daily basis, this leads towards increased number of accidents. To overcome this issue, Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) has come up with lot of novel ideas such as vehicular communication, navigation and traffic controlling. In this study, the main focus is on congestion control at the intersections which result from unclear ahead. For this purpose, a city lane and intersection model has been proposed to manage vehicle mobility. It shows the actual vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to traffic infrastructure communication. The experiment was conducted using Network Simulator 2 (NS 2). The implementation required modelling the road side unit, traffic control unit, and on-board unit along the roadside. In the simulation, including traffic volume, the distance between two signals, end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, throughput and packet lost were taken into consideration. These parameters ensure efficient communication between the traffic signals. This results in improved congestion control and road safety, since the vehicles will be signalled not to enter the junction box and information about other vehicles.
Keywords: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET); IEEE 802.11p Standard; Vehicle to Traffic Infrastructure; Traffic Signal; Efficient Communication
Ruchin Jain, "A Congestion Control System Based on VANET for Small Length Roads”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 17-21, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st January 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n1/p3.pdf.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
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Abstract: Since autistic children suffers from learning disabilities and communication barriers, this research aim to design, develop and evaluate an Android based mobile application (app) providing better learning environment with inclusion of graphical representation in a cost effective manner. This research evaluate various supporting technologies and finds Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) to be better choice for integrating with the app. Evaluation results reveal that the inclusion of PECS helped the children suffering from Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to better communicate with others. The study included autistic children who do not speak, who are unintelligible and who are minimally effective communicators with their present communication system. The evolution results showed encouraging impacts of the Autism App in supporting autistic children to adapt to normal life and improve the standard of their life.
Keywords: Autism; Language Learning; Learning Disability; Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS); Android; Mobile Application (apps)
Nareena Soomro and Safeeullah Soomro, "Autism Children’s App using PECS”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 7-16, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st January 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n1/p2.pdf.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Abstract: Blockchain (BC), the technology behind the Bitcoin crypto-currency system, is considered to be both alluring and critical for ensuring enhanced security and (in some implementations, non-traceable) privacy for diverse applications in many other domains - including in the Internet of Things (IoT) eco-system. Intensive research is currently being conducted in both academia and industry applying the Blockchain technology in multifarious applications. Proof-of-Work (PoW), a cryptographic puzzle, plays a vital rôle in ensuring BC security by maintaining a digital ledger of transactions, which is considered to be incorruptible. Furthermore, BC uses a changeable Public Key (PK) to record the users’ identity, which provides an extra layer of privacy. Not only in cryptocurrency has the successful adoption of BC been implemented but also in multifaceted non-monetary systems such as in: distributed storage systems, proof-of-location, healthcare, decentralized voting and so forth. Recent research articles and projects/applications were surveyed to assess the implementation of BC for enhanced security, to identify associated challenges and to propose solutions for BC enabled enhanced security systems.
Keywords: Blockchain (BC); Bitcoin; Crypto-currency; IoT; Proof of Work (PoW); Distributed Digital Ledger.
Mahdi H. Miraz and Maaruf Ali, "Applications of Blockchain Technology beyond Cryptocurrency”, Annals of Emerging Technologies in Computing (AETiC), Print ISSN: 2516-0281, Online ISSN: 2516-029X, pp. 1-6, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1st January 2018, Published by International Association of Educators and Researchers (IAER), Available: http://aetic.theiaer.org/archive/v2n1/p1.pdf.
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added a research item
Blockchain (BC), the technology behind the Bitcoin crypto-currency system, is considered to be both alluring and critical for ensuring enhanced security and (in some implementations, non-traceable) privacy for diverse applications in many other domains-including in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem. Intensive research is currently being conducted in both academia and industry applying the Blockchain technology in multifarious applications. Proof-of-Work (PoW), a cryptographic puzzle, plays a vital rôle in ensuring BC security by maintaining a digital ledger of transactions, which is considered to be incorruptible. Furthermore, BC uses a changeable Public Key (PK) to record the users' identity, which provides an extra layer of privacy. Not only in cryptocurrency has the successful adoption of BC been implemented but also in multifaceted non-monetary systems such as in: distributed storage systems, proof-of-location, healthcare, decentralized voting and so forth. Recent research articles and projects/applications were surveyed to assess the implementation of BC for enhanced security, to identify associated challenges and to propose solutions for BC enabled enhanced security systems.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
The British Library has assigned AETiC the following ISSN address:
Print ISSN: 2516-0281
Online ISSN: 2516-029X
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
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Here is the October 2017 issue of IAER Members' Newsletter, "The Communications".
 
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
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The diverse range of Internet enabled devices both mobile and fixed has not only impacted the global economy but the very fabric of human communications and lifestyles. The ease of access and lowered cost has enabled hitherto diametrically opposed people to interact and influence each other globally. The consequence of which is the dire need to address the way culture affects interaction with information systems across the world. The many facets of which encompasses human behaviour, socio-economic and cultural factors including lifestyles and the way of interaction with the information system. The study group involved participants from Bangladesh and the United Kingdom to ascertain the users’ behavioural patterns and mobile broadband technology diffusion trends.
Dr Mahdi H. Miraz
added an update
Big Data Analytics and Its Applications
Mashooque A. Memon, Safeeullah Soomro, Awais K. Jumani and Muneer A. Kartio
Abstract: The term, Big Data, has been authored to refer to the extensive heave of data that can't be managed by traditional data handling methods or techniques. The field of Big Data plays an indispensable role in various fields, such as agriculture, banking, data mining, education, chemistry, finance, cloud computing, marketing, health care stocks. Big data analytics is the method for looking at big data to reveal hidden patterns, incomprehensible relationship and other important data that can be utilize to resolve on enhanced decisions. There has been a perpetually expanding interest for big data because of its fast development and since it covers different areas of applications. Apache Hadoop open source technology created in Java and keeps running on Linux working framework was used. The primary commitment of this exploration is to display an effective and free solution for big data application in a distributed environment, with its advantages and indicating its easy use. Later on, there emerge to be a required for an analytical review of new developments in the big data technology. Healthcare is one of the best concerns of the world. Big data in healthcare imply to electronic health data sets that are identified with patient healthcare and prosperity. Data in the healthcare area is developing past managing limit of the healthcare associations and is relied upon to increment fundamentally in the coming years.
Keywords: Big Data; Big Data Analytics; Big Data Applications; Tools and Techniques; Challenges and Issues.