Project

Albedo effect for global warming adaptation

Updates
0 new
0
Recommendations
0 new
0
Followers
0 new
4
Reads
3 new
515

Project log

Pablo Campra
added a research item
The effects of increasing the surface reflectance by albedo modifications have been evaluated using an air quality modelling system. We have evaluated the influence over pollutant concentrations of increasing from 0.20 to 0.55 the roof surface albedo (scenario called Albedo1) and increasing from 0.15 to 0.30 the ground surface albedo and from 0.20 to 0.55 the roof surface albedo for all urban categories (scenario called Albedo2). To obtain a better representation of the local processes we have considered very high resolution (333.33 m) and up to 10 different urban categories. Changes in albedo cause changes in different meteorological parameters (planetary boundary layer height, radiation and temperature), modifying the pollutant concentration in every single scenario. Results show that this mitigation measure is effective during summer periods, providing not high NO 2 increments and O 3 reduction on the urban areas of the city of Madrid. Whilst during winter periods the measure induces NO 2 increments over polluted areas with high NO x emissions. In this way, the benefits of the measure, from the point of view of urban heat island effects, are greater than the detriments during summer periods, in comparison with air quality effects. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: González, M.Á., Arasa, R., Gámez, P., Picanyol, M. and Campra, P. (2019) 'Effects of increasing the surface reflectance over air quality levels using WRF-BEM/AEMM/CMAQ: application over the city of Madrid', Int. J. Environment and Pollution, Vol. 65, Nos. 1/2/3, pp.195-210. 196 M.Á. González et al. Biographical notes: M. Ángeles González works as a Project Manager at Meteosim with key responsibilities of managing emission inventories and air quality assessment. She previously worked on air quality modelling for five years in Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), where she researched air pollution and heavy metals with chemistry-transport models. She holds a PhD in Physics on Atmospheric sciences specialized on Air Quality, and a MSc in Geophysics and Meteorology (from the Complutense Univ. of Madrid). She has experience in meteorological and air quality modelling systems and has participated in emission inventories development, numerous air quality modelling studies, the model execution, and subsequent processing, and data analysis and graphics. Raúl Arasa is Chief Operations Officer of Meteosim, where he leads the technical department. He holds a PhD degree cum laude in Physics, a Master in Meteorology and a Master in Project Management. He has extensive experience in meteorology, air quality, climate and atmospheric modelling. During his career has worked in the development, implementation and execution of coupled air quality modelling systems, adapting different meteorological and dispersion/photochemical models, and implementing emissions inventories and emissions models. He has worked in more than 15 meteorological and air quality modelling systems in an operational mode and executed meteorological models in more than 100 different regions. He has participated in around 20 scientific peer-review contributions about atmospheric modelling and he has leaded more than 60 projects related to the atmosphere. Pedro Gámez holds an MSc in Meteorology and graduated in Environmental Sciences. He has been working in the fields of climate change and air quality modelling at the University of Barcelona for four years. His main expertise is the analysis of CMIP5 climate projections, photochemical (CMAQ) and meteorological (WRF) models, air quality studies, ozone forecast and development of emission inventories. His education and his experience in programming has enabled Meteosim to develop a new emissions model, to offer new services based on API solutions and to analyze climate models ensembles. Miquel Picanyol has 13 years of experience working in Meteosim. He has large experience with operational forecasting systems for different applications: air quality, weather, risk management, metocean) and with high computing infrastructure. He has been involved in more than 60 operational forecasting projects working with models like CMAQ, CALPUFF, AERMOD, HYSPLIT, MASS, MM5, WW3, SWAN, ROMS and WRF. He is the responsible of the R+D department and modelling activities, that allows to provide and improve the best solution for Meteosim consumers: design web platforms, system configuration, data assimilation, functionalities, etc. He has large experience working for public administration, private companies and research projects for the European Commission. Pablo Campra is a Professor at University of Almeria (Spain) since 2013. He Works in Department of Agronomy, High School of Engineering, with a large experience in assessment of the climatic impact of high albedo surfaces on human settlements. He has participated in many scientific publications related to Surface temperature cooling trends, radiative forcing and case studies on agriculture and greenhouse farming. He previously worked on air resources board, from Environmental Protection Agency, as an expert in potential effects of high albedo surfaces in urban cities. Effects of increasing the surface reflectance over air quality levels 197 This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled 'Effects of increasing the surface reflectance over air quality levels using WRF-BEM/AEMM/CMAQ. Application over the city of Madrid' presented at 18th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes (HARMO18),
Pablo Campra
added 2 research items
Purpose Climate change impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) are usually assessed as the emissions of greenhouse gases expressed with the global warming potential (GWP). However, changes in surface albedo caused by land use change can also contribute to change the Earth’s energy budget. In this paper we present a methodology for including in LCA the climatic impacts of land surface albedo changes, measured as CO2-eq. emissions or emission offsets. Methods A review of studies calculating radiative forcings and CO2-equivalence of changes in surface albedo is carried out. A methodology is proposed, and some methodological issues arising from its application are discussed. The methodology is applied in a practical example dealing with greenhouse agriculture in Southern Spain. Results The results of the case study show that the increase in surface albedo due to the reflective plastic cover of greenhouses involves an important CO2-eq. emission offset, which reduces the net GWP-100 of tomato production from 303 to 168 kg CO2-eq. per ton tomato when a 50-year service time is considered for the agricultural activity. This example shows that albedo effects can be very important in a product system when land use plays an important role, and substantial changes in surface albedo are involved. Conclusions Although the method presented in this work can be improved concerning the calculation of radiative forcing, it constitutes a first operative approach which can be used to develop regionalized characterization factors and provide a more complete evaluation of impacts on the climate change impact category.