Abstrakt / Abstract Výskum sa zameriava na analýzu dát, ktoré zbierajú samotné samosprávy o obyvateľoch, ktorí sa zúčasťňujú hlasovania na participatívnych rozpočtoch. Metódou výskumu je analýza dát, ktoré samosprávy zbierajú v kontexte participatívneho rozpočtu. Za výskumnú vzorku boli vybraté dve samosprávy, z ktorých jednou je magistrát mesta Brna a druhou je mestská časť Bratislava-Nové Mesto. Z dát vyplýva, že kým mesto Brno prostredníctvom uzavretých otázok získava dáta s relatívne širokej vzorky, mestská časť Bratislava-Nové Mesto využíva kombináciu otvorených a uzavretých otázok na malej vzorke. Mesto Brno zároveň dáta zbiera dlhodobo počas celého obdobia fungovania participatívneho rozpočtu, zatiaľ čo v prípade mestskej časti Bratilavy išlo o ad hoc zber dát, ktorý obsahoval aj otázky zamerané na iné oblasti než samotný participatívny rozpočtu. V závere je teda možné konštatovať, že mesto Brno zbiera dáta o svojich participantoch vo väčšom časovom rozsahu a zamerané na jednu tému. This research focuses on the analysis of data collected by local governments themselves on the population which participate in participatory budgeting. The research method is the analysis of data that local governments collect in the context of participatory budgeting. Two municipalities were selected for the research sample, one of which is the city of Brno and the other is the city district of Bratislava-Nové Mesto. The data show that while the city of Brno obtains data with a relatively commonly available sample through closed questions, the city district of Bratislava-Nové Mesto uses the possibility of open and closed questions on a small pattern. At the same time, the city of Brno has been collecting data for a long time during the entire period of operation of the participatory budget, while in the case of the city part of Bratislava it was an ad hoc data collection, which also included issues focused on other areas than the participatory budget itself. In conclusion, it can be stated that the city of Brno collects data on its participants in a larger time horizon focused on one topic. Kľúčové slová: participatívny rozpočet, Brno, dáta, prieskum / Keywords: participatory budgeting, City o Brno, data, research PARTICIPATÍVNE ROZPOČTOVANIE Participatívne rozpočtovanie je už tri dekády súčasťou rozhodovania o verejných finaniách. Od jeho počiatkov v latinsko-americkom Porto Alegres sa stal súčasťou aj európskej politiky prevažne na lokálnej úrovni. Výnimkou nie je ani Stredná a Východná Európa, vrátane Slovenska a Česka, kde sa tento nástroj používa približne od roku 2011 na Slovensku a 2014 v Česku. V súčasnosti ho využíva viac ako 60 samospráv na Slovensku a viac ako 140 v Česku. (Hrabinová a kol. 2020, Černý 2018) Okrem obcí, miest a mestských častí sa stal súčasťou aj regionálnej politiky niektorých samosprávnych krajov. V súčasnosti môžeme tiež pozorovať príklad implementácii tohto nástroja aj v rámci organizácií v zriaďovateľskej pôsobnosti niektorých samospráv. Sem patria napríklad stredné a základné školy, ktoré boli implementované v rámci miest a krajov. Participatívne rozpočtovanie sa v niektorých príkladoch stalo zásadnou súčasťou politiky samosprávy. Mesto Brno, ktoré na účely participatívneho rozpočtu alokovalo najvyššiu čiastku v Česku a na Slovensku sa v minulosti rozhodlo ukotviť tento proces aj v rámci štatútu mesta. Participatívne rozpočtovanie bolo predmetom viacerých odborných výskumov a štúdií. Napríklad oblasťou Latinskej Ameriky, ktorá sledovala počiatočnú fázu aplikovania tohto nástroja v Porto Alegre (Goldfrank, 2007)
Authors of this chapter try to identify three important challenges linked to status and performance of self-governing regions in Slovakia that should be addressed in the near future. They do not intend to propose any "final solution"; instead, they rather formulate a few provocative ideas in order to start some broader discussion.
Book review of the following publication (in Slovak): WILLIAMS, D. – WAISANEN, D. 2020. Real Money, Real Power? The Challenges with Participatory Budgeting in New York City [Skutočné peniaze, skutočná sila? Výzvy s participatívnym rozpočtovaním v New Yorku]. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan. 2020. 112 s. ISBN 978-3-030-59200-4.
At present, the influence of individual communities of interest on the financing of regional development projects as a space for civic activities in the public interest provided as publicly available services that the region is not executing in an unsatisfactory manner or is not executing at all for various reasons is actively resonating). The article deals with the issue of participatory budgeting as one of the latest budgetary innovations in the field of public sector management and aims to identify the challenges and barriers to the implementation of participatory budgeting in Slovakia at the regional level. It also analyses the implementation of this tool in the regional authorities in the conditions of the Slovak Republic before and during the Covid-19 pandemic, which has significantly affected public budgets and their redistribution. The methodological approach applied in this research includes a systematic review of the literature on participatory budgeting concerning analyses, comparisons, clarification of causal relations, systematization, abstraction, and concretization, and results of researchers´ activities related to the subject of the conducted research. The chapter “Results” presents the findings of a survey carried out in all eight regional authorities of self-governing regions, and show the extent to which the issue in question has been affected by the ongoing pandemic. The paper provides an overview of the challenges and barriers to PB in Slovakia at the regional level.
The 8 November 2021 became a historic moment for all local governments in Slovakia that were interested in participatory budgeting. On this day, the Slovak Charter of Good Participatory Budgeting Principles was announced. In this short informative article, we would like to offer the insiders’ story – or, more precisely, an inside view – on the efforts and activities that led to the official announcement of the charter.
Participatory budgeting (PB) allows citizens to be a part of the decision-making processes on public money expenditure. It increases citizens ‘participation in public affairs, strengthens deliberation and engagement. Active participation can strengthen the role of the citizen, and in addition it can create a common knowledgebase of collective issues and help to prevent and solve power centralisation, leading to a democratic and equal society. In the academic literature, PB is often referred to as “traveling policy innovation”, and since the original case in Porto Alegre, it has taken a path that originated in values such as reduction of corruption and empowerment of marginalized groups. Nevertheless, there is currently a lively academic discussion about PB it lacks a connection of its impacts on youth segment in general. The aim of this case study of Kutná Hora in the Czech Republic, where the youth segment was included into the process. In this case not only students at high schools but also primary schools’ students with organizational help of student’s councils were participating in the budget allocation decision process and such contributed to the innovative and inclusive local government. Paper gives an overview of PB process creation and its structure in Kutná Hora that led to youth engagement on local level (local PB).
Abstrakt: Participácia občanov na procese politického rozhodovania je základným predpokladom stabilnej demokracie. Aktívnejšie zapojenie občanov do verejného rozhodovania zaznamenalo v poslednom období pokrok v európskom meradle. Príspevok je venovaný skúmaniu inovatívnych foriem občianskej participácie s dôrazom na tzv. mini-verejnosť (mini-public). Príspevok obsahuje aj praktické príklady občianskej participácie na rôznych úrovniach vo vybraných krajinách. Kľúčové slová: občianska participácia, inovatívne formy občianskej participácie, mini-verejnosť
Participatory budgeting (PB) is one of recent democratic innovations to support public involvement in public budgeting. Despite the fact that the first initiative leading to adoption of this innovation appeared in Slovakia ten years ago, this issue has not been regulated by law. Whilst a few NGOs in cooperation with representatives of relevant local governments were the main entrepreneurs in the field of PB during the first years of its use in Slovakia, the Office of Slovak Government Plenipotentiary for Civil Society Development have begun to support its use since 2017. Unsurprisingly, local governments in Slovakia have different experiences with its adoption and use, and even the models that these local governments have employed differ quite significantly from each other. The aim of this paper is to point out the strengths and weaknesses of missing legal regulation in the field of PB from the perspective of local governments or NGOs. A significant diversity in the adoption and use of this innovation is presented as one of the clear outcomes of the above-mentioned missing regulation, and three possible scenarios of further development in this field are offered in the conclusions.
This is a summary article of the SJPS thematic issue on participatory budgeting in the Central and Eastern European region. Its authors provide an overview of the diffusion of participatory budgeting, and they classify relevant countries in terms of the pace of this diffusion into four different groups: frontrunners, early majority, later majority, and lagging adopters. In addition, they uncover various diffusion mechanisms that have been used. Since the research articles included in this thematic issue unpack various factors that influence the diffusion of the innovative practice of participatory budgeting in the specific settings of Central and Eastern Europe, the main goal of this article is to sum up their crucial findings and formulate several conclusions, including a few avenues for further research. A clear majority of countries in the region have already collected a relevant amount of experience with the adoption and further use of participatory budgeting. An analysis of the individual experiences reveals that the position and characteristics of mayors, organizational resources, and available capacities, as well as the quality of public trust, are likely to be important factors that determine the adoption and use of participatory budgeting in the region.
The importance of high quality public sector control is an obvious fact – without efficient and effective control system, the risk of wasting public funds is critical. The goal of this article was to evaluate efficiency of internal control systems on the level of regional self-administration in the Slovakia. The findings clearly document many problems related to the performance of regional control bodies and on this basis purposes and possible actions are proposed. From the point of view of "fiscal rules", the research, for example, pointed to an exceptionally poor situation in compliance with the rules and conditions of budgetary management in the Bystrica region in the period 2006-2009. The research also proves that one of the key problems of nonconceptual and non-transparent asset management of regions is confusing and disadvantageous asset sales. The quantitative analysis suggests that the efficiency (intensity) of the functioning of regional control systems does not have a direct impact on the monitored output indicators. The implemented DEA also indicates the low effectivity of the internal control systems of the regions. Our findings fully prove that there are no truly efficient systems of external and internal control at the level of self-governing regions in Slovakia. The factor of high autonomy of regions in the financial management and disposal of assets in connection with the identified high degree of failure of the regional control system generates a clear need to strengthen the system of internal control of regions, based on systemic and procedural changes.
Strategic planning is a tool for local and regional authorities to formulate the expected future status. The meaning of strategic planning creates space for identifying problems, setting goals, implementing solutions, measuring the effectiveness or monitoring the success of implemented measures in all areas on which planning focuses. The main goal of the paper is to create a summary of the adopted strategic plans in the environment of regional self government. The sub-objectives focus on determining the presence of selected analytical categories. At the same time, it seeks a comparative perspective between individual regional governments with the determination of similarities or differences. It focuses exclusively on the environment of the Slovak Republic. Entities represent the level of regional self-government in the form of local authorities. The subject of the analysis is focused on strategic planning. The primary source of data for the analysis are the official strategic plans (concepts, strategies, plans) published on the official websites of selfgovernmet regions .. In the documents, the searched categories are described in the methodical procedure of analysis processing. Data evaluation uses basic descriptive statistics with graphical comparative evaluation through tables.
Zastúpenie žien v politických štruktúrach, ale aj problematika volebných kvót, sa čoraz častejšie stávajú predmetom diskusií, výskumu, ale aj reálnou možnosťou, ako ovplyvniť ciele a nástroje verejnej politiky na všetkých vládnych úrovniach. Garancia určitého podielu alebo počtu žien v zastupiteľských orgánoch či na významných monokratických postoch prináša mnoho otázok a argumentačných polemík. Zámerom príspevku je poukázať na trendy zastúpenia žien v politických štruktúrach v krajinách Európy s osobitným akcentom na genézu zastupiteľskej demokracie na úrovni Európskeho parlamentu. V neposlednom rade je pozornosť zameraná aj na špecifiká a bariéry uplatňovania princípov rodovej rovnosti v podmienkach Slovenska.
This paper offers an evaluation of participatory budgeting in the City of Brno (Czech Republic) in terms of a theoretical concept of participatory budgeting developed by Wampler. A set of interviews with coordinators of the mentioned participatory budgeting was employed to collect relevant data. Results of presented analysis show a few significant differences between practice of participatory budgeting in B characteristics based mostly on case of Porto Alegre.
This textbook entitled "Participatory Budgeting (Contexts, Models, and Practical Experience)" is focused on participatory budgeting and it was written by seven authors from various universities in Slovakia and the Czech Republic. It consists of four chapters: (1) Civil Society and the Third Sector as Drivers of Public Participation; (2) Participatory Budgeting as a Tool of Public Participation; (3) Practical Experience with Participatory Budgeting; (4) Participatory Budgeting in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In addition, a new Charter of Good Participatory Budgeting can be found in Appendix 1. Last but not least, Keywords and Questions & Tasks follow each chapter.
The paper deals with the issue of joint municipal offices, as one of the forms of merging municipalities in Slovakia. The aim of this paper is to consolidate theoretical knowledge in the field of inter-municipal cooperation in the Slovak Republic, also to find out the legislative conditions for the establishment of Joint Municipal Offices in Slovakia and evaluate the functioning of the Joint Municipal Office for Spatial Planning and Building Regulations in Stará Ľubovňa in 2020. several research methods were used, especially the method of analysis and synthesis, but also the method of concretization.
In this chapter we take a closer look at the participatory budgeting in Slovakia: how is it implemented, what rules does it follow, how the process looks, and what the objectives are. Based on the desk research and descriptive analysis we map examples of good practice and point out obstacles that limit broader use of participatory budgeting in the Slovak Republic. What makes it interesting, is very fragmented level of local governments with a strong mayor form for the local government system. The chapter presents the development of the participatory budgeting, starting in the first three local governments, spreading to 54 municipalities that currently use this tool (January 2020). The highlights on participatory budgeting process in selected local governments are presented and different conditions in the given municipalities are analysed. Furthermore, interesting cases of participatory budgeting at the regional level are described as well as an interesting initiative of participatory budgeting in secondary and grammar schools.
Women represent more than half of the population of Slovakia. We are therefore interested in the extent to which their needs are reflected in the public space in the production of public services. As a large part of public everyday consumption services is produced locally, we will focus our paper on the local government units. The aim of our paper is to find out whether the structure of expenditures is changing together with the level of representation of women in the local council or in the position of mayor. To do so, we use a regression analysis of selected groups of local government expenditures (expressed through the COFOG classification). At the same time, we wanted to find out whether the level of representation of women in local councils differs across Slovakia and, if so, in what way. The results show that the representation of women in local councils is not the same across Slovakia. Likewise, we were not able to prove the influence of the number of women in elected positions on the structure of local government expenditures in Slovakia. One of main reasons could be the fragmented administrative structure of the Slovak Republic.
Citizens' participation in public affairs is an essential element for the functioning of any democratic society. Recent years have created the conditions for forming new tools of participation or a particular transformation of existing ones. An example of this trend is participatory budgeting. In the Slovak Republic conditions, it is first used at the level of municipal self-government in 2011. The paper aims to characterize the current state of participation of inhabitants in regional cities concerning the participatory budgeting. The participation of inhabitants is monitored through the number of submitted projects and the number of voters. All years in which the participatory budget was implemented in a particular city are taken into account. The condition for including these years is their public availability, which also monitors the extent to which local governments communicate openly and honestly. Therefore, the official websites and documents of the monitored municipalities serve as a source of data. The obtained data are then compared diachronically at each town's level concerning the established comparison criteria. The findings showed that participatory budgeting is used in 4 out of 8 regional cities. Each of them has several specifics in its settings. As one of the common and main issue of all 4 cities is considered the participation of the inhabitants in the voting, which is relatively low at the moment.
Open Access: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03003930.2021.1944858?src=& xxx The Czech Republic and Slovakia rank among the extremely fragmented European countries in terms of their local government structure. In addition to local governments, regional governments were established in both countries in connection with EU accession, which means that policy making is framed at three levels in both countries. If it applies that more centralised structures are, generally, easier to coordinate in crisis situations, then these two decentralised post-communist countries offer a great laboratory for examining how this unexpected pandemic crisis that has affected all socio-political and economic levels and structures has been handled in a very fragmented environment. We intend to examine the behaviour of individual levels of government, measures adopted by the governments and their expected and unexpected impacts during the first wave of a pandemic crisis with a special focus on possible changes in the systems of multi-level governance.
This special issue was envisaged to cover diverse scholarly contributions of an empirical nature that focus on various questions linked to the COVID-19 crisis in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The choice of countries was intentional; after all, the Czech Republic and Slovakia both experienced controversial developments during 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic found them unprepared and inexperienced in the field of serious epidemics yet also saw them gain international recognition for the very positive results gained from their initial responses. The second half of 2020 provided a very different story. Both countries were hard hit by the epidemics immediately after the summer, and the situation worsened month by month. These negative developments escalated at the end of 2020 and in early 2021 when the number of new cases rapidly increased and the total number of patients at risk of dying began to exceed the capacities of public hospitals. This summary offers an overview of the research by authors included in this special issue. It compares their findings with the results of others in order to suggest a set of policy implications that are based on empirical analyses. There is also an attempt to estimate several avenues of further multi-disciplinary research focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic and relevant policy responses. Within this context, this special issue is useful for both researchers and policy makers.
The issue of equal political participation of women and men became an important international research topic only a few decades ago. Although a relatively large number of research initiatives has been devoted to the topic of insufficient political representation of women and its determinants, the effects of such unequal political representation of women remain a lagging research field especially in the post-communist countries. This fact is one of the main reasons for conducting research, the partial results of which are contained in this paper. The analytical part begins with a description of women's representation at the regional level in Slovakia. Two groups of politically active women are identified as target groups for the research purposes, namely the women who hold the position of deputies in regional councils and the women who are members of budgetary/financial committees established by these councils. Further analytical attention is paid to the perceptions of these two target groups towards possible influence of women on regional budgets. From a methodological point of view, not only methods of descriptive statistics are used, but also a content analysis of data collected by means of electronically distributed survey is employed. Several researchers concluded that there is a relatively clear relation between the women's representation in decision-making (representative) bodies and the contents of various public budgets. Therefore, it is interesting to look at this issue from perspective of those who are directly involved. Although the analysed sample is small, it has potential to stimulate further and more extensive research in this area. Key words: political representation of women, regional (self-)government, public budgeting, Slovakia
The paper deals with participatory budgeting at the level s of self-governing regions in the Slovak Republic. In the Slovak Republic, the concept of participatory budgeting is gaining more and more support, either from individual local governments or the inhabitants themselves. The aim of the paper is both to use secondary sources to provide readers with basic information about participatory budgeting and to evaluate the use of participatory budgeting as a tool of modern management methods in regional offices in Slovakia. This paper uses several research methods including synthesis, induction, deduction and also comparison. Data collection is based mainly on secondary data available on the Internet. From processing the data, we see that of the eight self-governing regions, only half (four) regions use participatory budgeting: Bratislava, Trnava, Trenčín and Žilina. The first three of these regions have been using participatory budgeting for several years, while Žilina has only had one year of experience. The conditions for the use and redistribution of funds from the participatory budget are determined and set by each region separately.
Participatory budgeting is relatively new phenomenon, which has been invented in Brazilian city Porto Alegre. This new tool has been spread in Slovakia just in last decade, and nowadays is part of public decision making in many regions and municipalities. Resalting from it popularisations around the world it has been subject of many researches and public institutions publications. Thanks to many researchers we determined many characteristics of participatory budgeting. This paper focuses on application of this new tool of public policy making in Slovakia in comparison to the theoretical approaches. Data analysis shows that slovak municipalities are much open to public participation than theory. There are mostly no topics or regional dividing of city. On the contrary slovak municipalities take their right in junging of citizen´s project, which is one of the determinants of participatory budgeting in theoretical approaches.