Project

ANTROPOLOGÍA DE LA CONSERVACIÓN. UNA APROXIMACIÓN COMPARATIVA A LAS GENEALOGÍAS Y EL DESARROLLO DE LOS PARQUES NATURALES EN ESPAÑA (GOBERPARK).Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación PID2019-106291RB-I00

Goal: The designation of natural protected areas constitutes one of the main governmental strategies for the conservation of nature. The institutionalization of conservation in Spain in recent decades has mirrored the also notorious development of these policies worldwide. However, it has also coincided with the decentralization of the Spanish state and the constitution of autonomous regional governments (AR), which have became responsible for conservation policies. Natural parks, which rely on a management model that aims to make compatible the preservation of nature and certain human uses, have been one of their key instruments. They are currently the most broadly used instrument in conservation and cover the largest area; up to 8,5% of terrestrial lands in some regions.

Nowadays, after four decades since the designation of the first natural parks in Spain, we are in a privileged position to analyse their development diachronically. This research proposal aims to evaluate this process from the perspective of Environmental Anthropology. The research seeks to carry out a comparative analysis between the different conservation logics that have been dominant in different ARs by looking at the particular case of natural parks. As environmental anthropologists, we approach conservation as a socioecological process. Together with the biological and ecological indicators that tend to monopolize environmental studies, other indicators such as economic dynamics, institutional governance or environmental understandings should also have a preeminent position in this kind of analysis. Rather frequent people-park conflicts or the influence of conservation in the development of tourism in parks are good evidence of the social dimension of conservation.

Comparison between case studies will permit us to identify the elements that have been influential in the development of conservation and to suggest future directions. The project will focus on three different autonomous regions (Catalonia, Andalusia and Valencian Community). This comparative study thus provides us with a representative sample of different forms of conservation management at regional level. Alongside traditional methods of anthropological research (participant observation and interviews), this proposal also includes the analysis of other sources (material for the park promotion, management instruments or sociodemographic statistics), as well as other less frequent research techniques (participatory workshops and focus groups).

The kind of critical and systematic assessment of conservation models that we aim to carry out in this project has been rather absent from the existing anthropological literature. To redress this would also mean going beyond legislative and statistical indicators, which are frequently used in the analysis of public policies, as well as other broadly-present indicators in environmental studies. Conservation, as one of the most important political phenomena of our time, must be approached from a holistic perspective that takes into consideration its multiple social dimensions, which would help define new actions and forms of conservation management with better results.

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Project log

Beatriz Santamarina
added 77 research items
En los primeros años del siglo XXI, el lobo y el oso han reaparecido en los Pirineos, el Estado destina recursos a la gestión de algunas poblaciones de ungulados salvajes y, después de décadas de haberse producido los últimos avistamientos, los buitres y las nutrias vuelven a estar presentes en los cielos y los ríos de la región. La creciente presencia de animales salvajes en estas montañas constituye un indicio significativo de un proceso social más amplio y complejo que tiene unas consecuencias ecológicas importantes. Nos proponemos analizar aquí la racionalidad de estas geografías zoológicas emergentes y del proceso de «asilvestramiento» del paisaje rural que representan.
En este artículo se realiza una síntesis de los procesos de expropiación sufridos en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales (Andalucía) y se concretan los más importantes hitos a tener en cuenta en la acción política de los sectores agrarios. Nos centramos en algunas prácticas y discursos cotidianos desde donde observar la discusión al status quo impuesto y la legitimidad de los actuales propietarios y gestores en un contexto de patrimonialización natural. Finalmente se hace un balance sobre la significación de estas actitudes y su relación con la oposición mantenida a las políticas ambienta les diseñadas desde los enfoques de "arriba-abajo".
Contemporary scholarship increasingly emphasizes that modern state sovereignty does not depend on the control of a strictly bounded and uniformly governed territory. Rather, authority now stems from a variety of different actors, within and external to states, who enact shared forms of power over different areas of national territory for different objectives. In Guyana, contemporary expressions of neoliberal governmentality, environmental conservation and the recognition of indigenous peoples’ rights, have recently emerged as alternative forms of territorial authority in the country's interior rainforest—an area that has historically posed challenges to steady state control. We outline the history and configuration of these territorial ‘islands', demonstrating the ways in which their diverse sources of authority articulate and overlap with—and often contradict—each other, thereby emphasizing that these processes are intrinsic to the very constitution, expansion, and legitimacy of modern state power. This paper contributes to understandings of the territorial reconfiguration of sovereignty in English-speaking South America.
Beatriz Santamarina
added a project goal
The designation of natural protected areas constitutes one of the main governmental strategies for the conservation of nature. The institutionalization of conservation in Spain in recent decades has mirrored the also notorious development of these policies worldwide. However, it has also coincided with the decentralization of the Spanish state and the constitution of autonomous regional governments (AR), which have became responsible for conservation policies. Natural parks, which rely on a management model that aims to make compatible the preservation of nature and certain human uses, have been one of their key instruments. They are currently the most broadly used instrument in conservation and cover the largest area; up to 8,5% of terrestrial lands in some regions.
Nowadays, after four decades since the designation of the first natural parks in Spain, we are in a privileged position to analyse their development diachronically. This research proposal aims to evaluate this process from the perspective of Environmental Anthropology. The research seeks to carry out a comparative analysis between the different conservation logics that have been dominant in different ARs by looking at the particular case of natural parks. As environmental anthropologists, we approach conservation as a socioecological process. Together with the biological and ecological indicators that tend to monopolize environmental studies, other indicators such as economic dynamics, institutional governance or environmental understandings should also have a preeminent position in this kind of analysis. Rather frequent people-park conflicts or the influence of conservation in the development of tourism in parks are good evidence of the social dimension of conservation.
Comparison between case studies will permit us to identify the elements that have been influential in the development of conservation and to suggest future directions. The project will focus on three different autonomous regions (Catalonia, Andalusia and Valencian Community). This comparative study thus provides us with a representative sample of different forms of conservation management at regional level. Alongside traditional methods of anthropological research (participant observation and interviews), this proposal also includes the analysis of other sources (material for the park promotion, management instruments or sociodemographic statistics), as well as other less frequent research techniques (participatory workshops and focus groups).
The kind of critical and systematic assessment of conservation models that we aim to carry out in this project has been rather absent from the existing anthropological literature. To redress this would also mean going beyond legislative and statistical indicators, which are frequently used in the analysis of public policies, as well as other broadly-present indicators in environmental studies. Conservation, as one of the most important political phenomena of our time, must be approached from a holistic perspective that takes into consideration its multiple social dimensions, which would help define new actions and forms of conservation management with better results.