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The overall aim of the ANICA project is to develop concepts of the indirectly heated carbonate looping (IHCaL) process for CO2 capture from lime and cement plants. CO2 avoidance costs of the IHCaL process for lime and cement production plants are expected to be in a well below 25 €/t, which is close to current CO2 prices and significantly lower than competing CO2 capture solutions for lime/cement plants. The novel process concepts are developed with the aid of advanced process simulations. The technology is demonstrated in a 300 kWth pilot plant at industrially relevant conditions using the same fuels, sorbents, and operating conditions as can be expected in large-scale commercial IHCaL plants for lime and cement applications. A detailed techno-economic assessment and a life-cycle-analysis is performed for both lime and cement applications. The basic design of a 20 MWth IHCaL demonstration plant is developed using two different technologies, i.e. fluidized bed reactors and Direct Separation technology, and costs of these plants are estimated. The paper presents an overview of the project as well as first results related to process simulations and design of the pilot plant.
Lime production is associated with unavoidable process CO2 emissions that can only be avoided by CO2 capture technologies. The indirectly heated carbonate looping (IHCaL) is a novel post-combustion carbon capture technology that can be applied to lime plants with high potential for heat and mass integration. In this work, two concepts for efficiently integrating the IHCaL into lime plants are proposed and evaluated. To study and characterize these concepts, heat and mass balances were established, sensitivity analyses were performed, and key performance indicators were calculated by means of process simulations. The results show an increase of 63% in the direct fuel consumption for a highly integrated concept, but almost 30% of the entire heat input can be converted into electric power via heat recovery steam generation. Direct CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 87% when coal is used as fuel in the IHCaL process, but net negative CO2 emissions could be achieved when using biogenic fuels. Critical points for integration are the preheating of the combustion air, the efficiency of the sorbent solid-solid heat exchanger, and the utilization of the sorbent purge as lime product. The developed models and the obtained results will be used to further develop the integration of the IHCaL into lime plants through both experimental and numerical methods.