Project

ADORNO - Aicraft Design and nOise RatiNg for regiOnal aicraft

Goal: The high-level objective of ADORNO is to allow a fast and reliable estimation of aircraft Environmental Noise and Emissions (in terms of CO2 and NOx) at different mission phases. This through the implementation of a flexible aircraft model which provides requirements for the engine platform in terms of thrusts and offtakes at different power settings and flight conditions.
The ADORNO high level objective is translated into the following main technical objectives:

- Apply the available MDO chain for aircraft design with integration of noise, emission and engine tools.

- Implement a flexible aircraft modeler which allows an easy integration of an external engine map to obtain an efficient and cost-effective design processes.

- Implement a stand-alone tool for environmental noise prediction tool.

ADORNO has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 821043.

Website: http://www.adorno-project.eu/

Date: 1 November 2019 - 31 October 2022

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Project log

Vittorio Trifari
added an update
The main objective of initial activities related to Work Package 4 of the ADORNO project was to provide information on the set of aircraft models designed by UNINA around the characteristics of three different advanced engines, whose dataset in terms of performance, mass and main dimensions was elaborated and provided by MTU. The first part of this work has been related to the collection of information regarding the set of advanced engines designed by MTU. As for Work Package 2 activities concerning the design of the target 2025+ UM aircraft model, UNINA has provided MTU with dedicated trade factors necessary to carry out parametric analyses on engine Bypass Ratio (BPR). Three engines were elaborated by MTU, characterized by distinct BPR values. For each engine, characteristics in terms of SFC, powerplant mass, maximum nacelle diameter, and nacelle cowl length were provided to allow UNINA to correctly model them in its aircraft preliminary design framework.
Starting from the target 2025+ UM aircraft model, this has been equipped with the two engines characterized by a lower BPR value and, once adjusted in terms of characteristics of the landing gear group by lowering the main landing gear group uncompressed leg length to ensure the same minimum clearance of the baseline aircraft model with respect to the ground, it was used to carry out a parametric study in terms of wing planform parameters. For each of the two engines, 56 different aircraft were analysed, thus leading to a 56-point response surface.
These response surfaces were then provided to a sub-module of the UNINA preliminary aircraft design chain dedicated to the optimization task. Here a single-objective optimization on fuel burn has been performed for each response surface including the set of constraint also applied for the target 2025+ UM aircraft model of the Work Package 2.
A summary of the main outcomes of the analyses of the three A/C models designed with the set of engines provided by MTU is reported in the attached figures.
For more information, please visit the ADORNO website at http://www.adorno-project.eu/.
 
Vittorio Trifari
added an update
The Work Package 3 of the ADORNO project deals with the development of Noise and Emissions software. A tool for the calculation of A/C emissions was already included in the UNINA design framework at the beginning of the project. A Noise tool was specifically designed and developed for ADORNO by UNINA, with the support from LeadTech, starting from a pre-existing tool, written in MATLAB, developed by the UNINA research group on Aeroelasticity and Acoustics. This tool has been used by UNINA within the context of the ADORNO project to carry out noise estimations at ICAO provided certification points. A three-month internship (from January to March 2020) at the MTU headquarter in Munich of one UNINA master’s degree student helped to strengthen the collaboration between the partners and MTU, to set the specifications of this tool, and to speed up the development. ATTILA++ (AircrafT noise predicTion IncLuding performAnce), that is the name that was selected for the tool, has been programmed including the following requirements:
  • It was preferrable to adopt C++ as the programming language, following an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) approach, in order to ease its interfacing with the MTU framework.
  • The software had to offer to process both standard (i.e., for certification purposes) and user-defined flight paths, as well as standard and arbitrary microphone location.
  • Input data to the tool had to be provided through Comma Separated Values file (CSV, .csv file extension).
  • The software had to allow to include in the calculation noise contributions estimated with external tools.
  • The software had to exit clearly on errors, reporting events, exceptions and warnings in a log file.
The methodologies implemented derives from Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) estimating:
  • Airframe noise - contributions to aircraft overall noise emission of airframe components (wing, slats, flaps, tails, and landing gears, etc)
  • Atmospheric attenuation – effects of sound wave energy loss due to gaseous absorption.
  • Ground reflection – considers reflection of the sound wave by the ground.
  • Lateral attenuation – difference between the one-third octave band under-the-flight-path and sideline free-field sound pressure levels.
Engine noise contribution is also taken into account by ATTILA++ making use of external input files, which can be provided by the user or selected from an already available set. The final version of the tool is now completed, validated and documented. It includes also new modules for the estimation of:
  • Shielding effect (according to ESDU 790115).
  • Additional noise metrics (such as Sound Exposure Level, SEL).
For the validation of the Noise tool, work was performed by UNINA and LeadTech. LeadTech carried out the validation of the individual calculation modules of ATTILA++ by means of the test cases included in the documentation of the Engineering Sciences Data Unit (ESDU) methodologies implemented by the tool, while UNINA performed the validation of the overall noise (i.e., including the contributions of the airframe, of the engines, and of the propagation effects) based on real world data available in the literature.
 
Vittorio Trifari
added an update
Once the design activities for both reference 2014 A/C models were completed, time was spent to identify the set of advanced airframe technologies and solutions to be equipped on target 2025+ A/C models. The set of advanced airframe technologies to be tested and equipped on the target UM A/C was elaborated based on expected Technology Readiness Level (TRL) by 2025. The selection was supported by the Clean Sky 2 Development Plan and by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Aircraft Technology Roadmap.
Airframe technologies and their effect on disciplines and quantities such as aerodynamics, engine power off-takes (and then fuel consumption), A/C components weight, and direct costs were accounted by UNINA A/C design framework by means of calibration factors and offsets. These calibrations were based on suggestions retrieved from the available literature on the effect of these technologies. Once implemented in the A/C design chain, they were individually tested and checked against expected fuel burn benefits, as provided by IATA.
In addition to airframe technologies, an advanced engine model has been designed by MTU based on both engine requirements and a preliminary linear trade factors generated by UNINA. In particular, trade factors were focused on the effect of both SFC and engine dry mass on the overall block fuel for a design mission of 3100nmi.
The design of the target 2025+ UM aircraft model has been carried out by UNINA using its preliminary design framework, named JPAD. Four sets of constraints have been considered for the optimization phase. These were related to the combination (ON/OFF) of the following characteristics:
  • A limitation on the maximum allowed wingspan to 36m (ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code Category C).
  • An additional fuselage centre tank to increase the maximum fuel capacity.
Results of the optimization process concerning the case of a constrained wingspan (36 m) and the presence of the additional fuselage central tank are shown in attached figures. This set of constraints has been selected as the most reasonable one for this type of aircraft. The final solution considered for the design of the ADORNO target 2025+ UM aircraft model has been related to the one with the minimum design mission block fuel.
For more information, please visit the ADORNO website at http://www.adorno-project.eu/.
 
Vittorio Trifari
added a research item
This paper introduces the activities performed at University of Naples Federico II within the ADORNO research project. ADORNO project, "Aircraft Design and NOISE Rating for regional aircraft" is a research project financed by European Commission under the Horizon 2020 Program Clean Sky 2, focused on the development of aircraft models for a regional aircraft engine platform. The main objective is to evaluate the benefits of Clean Sky 2 developed technologies at aircraft system level, with respect to gaseous and noise emissions. One of the enablers is the development of an efficient noise prediction tool and its integration into an existent aircraft design and analysis chain. The developed tool can model the "near field" noise sources and with a propagation model estimate noise level in the space. The paper presents an application of noise estimation (Effective Perceived Noise Level) on the certification points (flyover, sideline and approach) of a regional turbofan aircraft. The aircraft is designed and analyzed with the aircraft design chain (JPAD) and needed input data passed to noise prediction tool to compute noise level. Results, in EPNL scale, are compared to EASA certified data, showing an overestimation of noise level lower than 1 dB in the three certifications points.
Vittorio Trifari
added an update
Having assumed a set of TLAR simialr to one related to the Airbus A220-300, the design activities related to the Work Package 2 have been focuesd on the definition of both Underwing-Mounted engines (UM) and Rear-Mounted engines (RM) configurations related to the reference 2014 aircraft model. At the end of April 2020, this task has been completed.
Both aircraft configuration has been designed by means of a dedicated MDAO process carried out using the UNINA JPAD software. Starting from a statistically-defined baseline aircraft model, a population of aircraft has been generated for each configuration by varying lifting surfaces planform parameters and positions, as well as engines longitudinal position in the case of a RM configuration. Each aircraft model has been analyzed considering a complete multi-disciplinary cycle including weights, balance, ground stability, ground operability, aerodynamics, static stability, performance, emissions, environmental noise and costs.
The result of this process has been a set of response surfaces related to main aircraft characteristics in terms of environmental noise (EPNL) and performance (block fuel for the design mission of 3100nmi).
For more information, please visit the ADORNO website at http://www.adorno-project.eu/.
 
Pierluigi Della Vecchia
added an update
Researchers of University of Naples Federico II joined for 3 days with MTU engine designers and integrators specialists to include Engine Design loop within Aircraft Design Loop.
 
Pierluigi Della Vecchia
added an update
ADORNO is funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under GA no. 821043
The ADORNO project focuses on the development of aircraft models for a regional aircraft engine platform. The main objective is to provide aircraft requirements (e.g. thrusts, offtakes, etc.) as well as trade factors for specific fuel consumption, engine drag and engine weight on fuel burn for both a year 2014 reference aircraft and a CS2 target aircraft. In addition, an aircraft noise method will be developed and integrated in an aircraft design chain.
Success of the ADORNO project is measured with respect to a reference A/C system, set for a reference aircraft configuration, which will be established in the first phase of the project. The following quantitative objectives ‘measures’ are set:
  • 60% reduction in necessary preliminary design time to converge for A/C and engine design loop by means of the integration of dedicated tools and interfaces.
  • Ability to include noise and emissions prediction tools inside the design process with a minimum required user input.
  • 40% reduction in time necessary to analyse data and to perform trade-off studies through the implementation of Enhanced Trade Space Exploration methods and Machine Learning technique.
  • 50% reduction in time necessary to perform an optimization study due to software architecture (object-oriented software with several dedicated apps).
  • 20% accuracy improvements on aerodynamic and stability prediction, which reflect on weight, performance, fuel consumption and noise and emission augmented fidelity.
The overall work plan is divided in three (4) work packages (WPs), following listed:
  1. WP1 - Management, Dissemination and Exploitation
  2. WP2 - Aircraft design and emissions assessment
  3. WP3 - Noise and Emissions Software
  4. WP4 - Advanced Trade Factor Methodology
 
Vittorio Trifari
added a project goal
The high-level objective of ADORNO is to allow a fast and reliable estimation of aircraft Environmental Noise and Emissions (in terms of CO2 and NOx) at different mission phases. This through the implementation of a flexible aircraft model which provides requirements for the engine platform in terms of thrusts and offtakes at different power settings and flight conditions.
The ADORNO high level objective is translated into the following main technical objectives:
- Apply the available MDO chain for aircraft design with integration of noise, emission and engine tools.
- Implement a flexible aircraft modeler which allows an easy integration of an external engine map to obtain an efficient and cost-effective design processes.
- Implement a stand-alone tool for environmental noise prediction tool.
ADORNO has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 821043.