added a research item
This research focuses on the application and performance assessment of geometric patterns as shading screens and shows how the geometric patterns can function as a design agency, an environmental control system, and a cultural element. We begin with a brief review of the underlying rules of creating two-dimensional geometric patterns, and then look at how these patterns evolve as three-dimensional shading screens in buildings. We next discuss a predictive model for translating complex patterns to simple patterns concerning their perforation ratio, granularity, and morphology. This is followed by an experimental and simulation study for measuring the daylighting performance of some simple shading screens. The result of this phase assesses the agreement among experimental and numerical studies. Finally, we evaluate the performance of a screen inspired by a Persian pattern. Keywords Geometric patterns Persian patterns Shading screens Solar screens Predictive model Perforation ratio Granularity Daylighting performance http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00004-015-0279-z
This study is focused on an innovative passive integrated shading panel system for building envelopes, where the internal shading is formed out of core elements that are structurally layered between the two glass panes. The composite panel consists of two outer skins and an inner core, which are assembled by bonding the two skins to the intermediate core. The skins are relatively strong, stiff materials while the core is a less stiff material. This integrated composite panel system modulates daylighting through the shading panels in addition to providing increased structural efficiency, compared to a simple double glazed system.
ABSTRACT: During the latter half of the last century, architects emphasized lightness and transparency in buildings, with trends towards fully glazed building envelopes, including glass façades, atriums and roof structures. However, these glass facades presented challenges such as, the structural design of the envelopes for safety, durability of joints, as well as daylight glare control, thermal insulation and solar heat gain. Today’s changing paradigm for design, places an ever-greater emphasis on integrated solutions that are not only aesthetic and experiential, but embrace environmental influences. Environmental imperatives necessitate an agent for change that integrates environmental concerns with the human experience. Two contradictory factors influence the design of glass envelopes. On the one hand, stylist design overemphasizes the benefits of maximizing transparency (the desire to create ‘glass cathedrals’). This infatuation with transparency results in unintended consequences, namely, that glass facades are generally heavy and energy inefficient, resulting in solutions that are more expensive and wasteful of the planets resources. Therefore, there remain significant challenges for resolving the functional aspects in building facade designs. Whereas designs that are driven by pragmatic functional parameters are generally only concerned with the performance of a building, this in turn sacrifices the aesthetic form of a building in the interests of high performance. We address this conflicting issue by, considering both stylistic and pragmatic functionality, through an integrated passive solution. We address this by integrating “macro form” through function, related to occupancy and overall massing, with “micro configurations” through functional technology driven parameters. Thereby we adopt an integrative approach, which embraces multiple agents of interconnectivity that address aesthetics, energy, light, structure, materials, transparency, form and function. Our approach is to merge macro scale with micro function thorough what we call a “functionally graded” façade system. The system passively integrates these multiple agents within a single customized solution that uniquely responds to the specifics of building program, site and geographical location. In this paper, we demonstrate how such a novel façade system may function at the intersections of architectural design - aesthetics - structural - energy performance and human comfort, as a an effective high performance solution for transparent façades, with an exciting range of expressive aesthetics.
ABSTRACT: In the last century and especially after the modern movement, the architects emphasized more on the ‘lightness’ and ‘transparency’ of the buildings, pushing towards fully glazed envelopes. Le Corbusier stated the glass envelope as the ‘minimum membrane’ between indoors and outdoors. Today, architects are not satisfied by the natural illumination and panorama views which is provided by the glass skins, but they are looking after something more. They want to create the whole building, from the beams and the columns to the ceilings and the roofs from glass. Their desire to use glass as a structural element has pushed the architects and researchers towards conducting practical experiments on the structural capacity of this material. Many all-glass prototypes and structures have been constructed in this regard. Following the above mentioned desire, the main subject of this paper would be confined to distinguishing of potentials and abilities of the glass structures. Thus after a quick review of the historical procedure and the structural characteristics of the glass, glass structures are categorized based on their primary establishing elements. Then the results on creation of different architectural spaces and the built proposals are checked, concerning their form and structural behavior. The objective of this study is to learn about experiences of the structural glass masterpieces in the new age.