Zsolt Szalay

Zsolt Szalay
Budapest University of Technology and Economics · Department of Automotive Technologies

Doctor of Philosophy

About

107
Publications
98,340
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797
Citations
Citations since 2016
100 Research Items
790 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
Future transportation is expected to be connected, cooperative, and highly automated. Classic automated vehicular functions are developed based on safety principles primarily, but the reliability and cybersecurity of wireless communication processes pose new challenges for the automotive industry for connected vehicles, representing Connected, Coop...
Article
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Electrification, automation of vehicle control, digitalization and new mobility are the mega trends in automotive engineering and they are strongly connected to each other [...]
Article
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In autonomous cars accurate and reliable detection of objects in the proximity of the vehicle is necessary in order to perform further safety critical actions which depend upon it. Many detectors have been developed in the last few years, but there is still demand for more reliable and more robust detectors. Some detectors rely on a single sensor,...
Article
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In our days, simulation based development is a core element of vehicle engineering, especially considering highly automated or fully autonomous vehicles. Accordingly, the paper presents a benchmark of three different automotive simulators: PreScan, IPG CarMaker, and VTD Vires. The three software tools were applied for the same goal, namely, modelli...
Article
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Safe autonomous operation is a major challenge for today's technologies. In order to be able to define and evaluate the requirements of these technologies, a systematic and methodical approach is required. VISSE has developed such an approach over several years, which is now to be evaluated on the basis of various use cases. Students of the course...
Article
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Self-driving cars, i.e., fully automated cars, will spread in the upcoming two decades, according to the representatives of automotive industries; owing to technological breakthroughs in the fourth industrial revolution, as the introduction of deep learning has completely changed the concept of automation. There is considerable research being condu...
Article
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Electronic vehicle dynamics systems are expected to evolve in the future as more and more automobile manufacturers mark fully automated vehicles as their main path of development. State-of-the-art electronic stability control programs aim to limit the vehicle motion within the stable region of the vehicle dynamics, thereby preventing drifting. On t...
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Nowadays, cybersecurity is an emerging research area in the automotive industry, and it is investigated by many different perspectives. Our article is a review of existing vehicular security solutions that covers the state‐of‐the‐art and future research directions. This article is a new contribution to tutorials/surveys related to the vehicular cyb...
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We demonstrate a working functional prototype of a cooperative perception system that maintains a real-time digital twin of the traffic environment, providing a more accurate and more reliable model than any of the participant subsystems—in this case, smart vehicles and infrastructure stations—would manage individually. The importance of such techn...
Article
Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) promise to significantly improve road traffic. To a certain extent, this situation is similar to the expectations at the end of the last century about the positive effects that the introduction of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems would have had on motorway traffic. The parallelism is interesting because...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to provide a new approach for describing and measuring the vulnerability of in-vehicle networks regarding cyberattacks. Cyberattacks targeting in-vehicle networks can result in a reasonable threat considering passenger safety. Unlike previous literature, the methodology focuses on a comparatively large sample of vehicle networks (11...
Article
The emergence of new autonomous driving systems and functions - in particular, systems that base their decisions on the output of machine learning subsystems responsible for environment perception { brings a significant change in the risks to the safety and security of transportation. These kinds of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are vulnerable...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the key application target areas of 5G mobile technologies is the Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication. The first 5G deployments for Non-Standalone Architecture (NSA) have been successful worldwide, although the success itself should be supported by published performance results-which are still hard to find. This paper aims to make up f...
Article
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The paper describes a mixed reality environment for testing highly automated vehicle functions. The proposed Scenario-inthe-Loop test system connects real-time computer simulation with real elements being applicable at automotive proving ground. The paper outlines necessary hardware and software requirements and proposes basic system architecture....
Article
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A spectacular measurement campaign was carried out on a real-world motorway stretch of Hungary with the participation of international industrial and academic partners. The measurement resulted in vehicle based and infrastructure based sensor data that will be extremely useful for future automotive R&D activities due to the available ground truth f...
Article
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Autonomous or highly automated road vehicles and all related technologies are under intensive research and development. Moreover, internationally a massive investment increase can be observed in the automotive industry. According to this megatrend, new automotive test tracks appear or older ones transform to be capable of testing and proving for au...
Preprint
Full-text available
The paper presents the measurement campaign carried out on a real-world motorway stretch of Hungary with the participation of both industrial and academic partners from Austria and Hungary. The measurement included vehicle based as well as infrastructure based sensor data. The obtained results will be extremely useful for future automotive R&D acti...
Article
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Testing self-driving vehicles is still a new and immature process; the globally harmonised procedure expected much later. The resource-demanding nature of real-world tests makes it indispensable to develop and improve the efficiency of virtual environment based testing methods. Accordingly, a novel X-in-the-Loop framework is proposed to fully explo...
Conference Paper
This article presents two prospective methods for vehicle distance estimation utilizing a single camera at different altitudes and camera pitch angles. A distance estimation procedure was conducted applying real-life visualization and homography approaches. Experimental outputs showed that the real-life visualization method overperforms the homogra...
Article
A közúti jelzések és a közlekedési infrastruktúra jelentősen befolyásolják a magasan automatizált vagy autonóm járművek viselkedését. Az automatizáltság azonban nem mindig jelent előnyt a jelenlegi köz-úti infrastruktúra vonatkozásában. Előfordulhat, hogy a magasan automatizált járművek szigorúbban betartják a közlekedési szabályokat, emiatt az önv...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles are at the forefront of interest due to the expectations of changing transportation for the better. In order to make better decisions on the road, vehicles use information from various sources: their own sensors, messages arriving from surrounding vehicles and objects, as well as from centralized entities-including their own Dig...
Article
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Összefoglalás. A XXI. század első felében a korábban sok évtizeden keresztül lassan változó közlekedés gyorsított ütemben alakul át. Ez alatt a pár év alatt több változás következik be, több kihívást kell leküzdeni, mint a korábbi időszakban. Az elektromos hajtás térnyerése, új járműhasználati módok mellett a járművek autonomizálódása és összekapcs...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are vehicles able to imitate human driving, control skills, and the ability to perceive the environment around them while driving on the road. Therefore, one of the techniques that should be studied in detail is the overtaking maneuver, which is one of the most dangerous scenarios for AVs on the road, since overtaking gene...
Chapter
Rear-end collisions expose a significant part of all crashes with injuries. The driver assistance autonomous braking function intends to mitigate the effect of the rear-end collisions. Usually, the terminology refers to this function as AEBs (Automated Emergency Braking system). The goal of this assistance to prevent accidents in emergencies where...
Article
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The perception and prediction of the surrounding vehicles’ trajectories play a significant role in designing safe and optimal control strategies for connected and automated vehicles. The compression of trajectory data and the drivers’ strategic behavior’s classification is essential to communicate in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs). This paper p...
Article
This study aims to provide a new approach for describing and measuring the vulnerability of in-vehicle networks regarding cyberattacks. Cyberattacks targeting in-vehicle networks can result in a reasonable threat considering passenger safety. Unlike previous literature, the methodology focuses on a comparatively large sample of vehicle networks (11...
Article
Full-text available
Road traffic signals and traffic infrastructure have a significant impact on the behaviour of highly automated or autonomous vehicles. However, the increase in automation does not always mean an advantage. Generally, highly automated vehicles strictly follow the traffic rules resulting in near-accident situations, although their goal is to avoid an...
Article
The spread of connected vehicles is expected to multiply the effects of the growing penetration of cyberspace in our life, and with this it remarkably influences the vulnerability of society to cyberattacks in an unfavorable way. Accordingly, ZalaZONE - the Hungarian test track - has set up a working group to support the necessary methodological ba...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous driving poses numerous challenging problems, one of which is perceiving and understanding the environment. Since self-driving is safety critical and many actions taken during driving rely on the outcome of various perception algorithms (for instance all traffic participants and infrastructural objects in the vehicle's surroundings must r...
Article
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Under proofread The traditional automotive homologation processes aim to ensure the safety of vehicles on public roads. Autonomous vehicles (AV) with artificial intelligence (AI) are difficult to account for in these conventional processes. This research aims to map and attempt to close the gaps in the areas of testing and approval of such automate...
Article
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Environment perception plays a significant role in autonomous driving since all traffic participants in the vehicle’s surroundings must be reliably recognized and localized in order to take any subsequent action. The main goal of this paper is to present a neural network approach for fusing camera images and LiDAR point clouds in order to detect tr...
Article
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Based on the reviewed literature, the objective of the article is to investigate the most important cyberattack factors affecting the effectiveness of the connected and autonomous transport system. Accordingly, remotely implemented malicious interventions are in the focus of our study, especially considering cyberattacks on connected and autonomous...
Article
Full-text available
The application of Event Data Recorder (EDR) in passenger cars and vans has been compulsory in the USA since 2014. In the European Union, every passenger car and vehicle manufactured and released must have e-call systems since April 2018. However, neither the data recorded in Event Data Recorders regulated by the current standards nor the data reco...
Conference Paper
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The accurate identification and recognition of horizontal and vertical traffic signs can cause problems for autonomous vehicles. That is why have checked anomalies of traffic signs in the topic. Because for the safely navigate an autonomous vehicle, it is necessary to have a very accurate environment recognition. However, there are many problems wi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A magasan automatizált és autonóm járművek elterjedésével, megjelenésével a különböző biztonsági funkciók és környezetérzékelő rendszerek használata egyre jelentősebbé válik, különös tekintettel a tesztelésükre. A járművekben alkalmazott rendszerek lényege, hogy támogatják a vezetőket és bizonyos mozdulatokban helyettesítik őket. Az autonóm funkció...
Chapter
Intelligent Transportation System has been the driving forces to enable the paradigm of autonomous vehicles, smart roads and Internet of Things (IoT). For the safety and security of the traffic and transportation, stabilization of the technology and system is necessary. In addition to this, security of intelligent transportation system also influen...
Article
As automated driver assistance functions are getting more and more popular, they will surly have a significant impact on our life especially considering security and the expected serious effects of malicious interventions. In light of the introduced aspects, the Test Field of Zalaegerszeg has started a research to evaluate the required professional...
Preprint
Full-text available
While mobile network operators have started announcing their 5G-capable network implementations, practical details of their capabilities are not widely supported through measurements. This paper describes a practically implemented 5G architecture-based on the 5G Option 3x reference model-and initial results on its KPI (Key Performance Indicator) me...
Article
Full-text available
The Automotive Industry has advanced significantly and this process is constantly continuing. Cars are controlled by hundreds of electrical units, which affects directly numberless safety and security related risk factors, especially considering incidents realized in the cyberspace. Due to the increasing number of connected cars, new testing facili...
Article
This paper presents a real-time optimal motion planner algorithm for road vehicles. The method is based on a cubic spline trajectory planner which is able to plan a set of vehicle motions driving from a given initial state to a required final state. Maximal dynamical feasibility and passenger comfort are ensured by minimizing the lateral accelerati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autonomous driving functions increasingly incorporate machine learning methods for perception, environment modeling and decision making. The ever-present danger of unin-tended behavior of neural networks has given cause for concern in safety-critical applications and has spurred research towards the establishment of certified properties. In our wor...
Conference Paper
The presence of highly automated vehicles and driver assistance systems is expected to grow in the future. In recent years, these systems offer assistance for the driver but, in the future, the human driver will be increasingly replaced by automated vehicle functions. In order to achieve this, the vehicle must be able to plan and safely follow a tr...
Conference Paper
The paper presents a novel simulation concept for autonomous and highly automated road vehicles, called Scenario-in-the-Loop (SciL) testing. SciL can contribute to a more efficient development, testing and validation of driverless cars, which is a pressing question of our days. SciL based testing introduces a new approach capable to simulate and co...
Conference Paper
With the advent of cypher-physical (systems of) systems, new challenges for safety and security arise. Especially in the context of autonomous driving we are currently facing a complex environment, where security problems can easily result in safety-relevant issues, and vice versa. There have been multiple approaches in the past to combine the appr...
Article
Full-text available
The main goal of this article is to determine a comprehensive and well applicable model architecture, which is adequate to estimate the system level advantages with regard to automated transportation and which is appropriate to determine possible costs and losses with regard to the approach of such transport modes. In the study the Budapest Transpo...
Article
The assurance of process safety plays an important role in the field of information technology. Securing the information has become one of the biggest challenges in the present day. Whenever we think about the protected systems the first thing that comes to our mind can be malicious interventions which are increasing immensely day by day. Nowadays...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As autonomous and driver assistance functions become more and more complex, novel testing method-ologies are required. Introduction of highly automated and autonomous vehicles on public roads alters traffic flow dynamics. Therefore, it is not enough to test only the single vehicle itself, but it will also be required to test its interaction with th...
Article
Full-text available
Fuel consumption prediction and recharging strategies are crucial fields of autonomous hybrid vehicles. In our paper based on literature review the currents trends of hybrid vehicles are compared and working principals of hybrid strategies created for different types of hybrid drivetrains were described. The fuel management, basics of the range est...
Article
Cybersecurity is becoming more and more relevant. Autonomous vehicles handle large amounts of data and can connect to more and more existing devices, smartphones, tablets, or even other cars and systems. This poses the risk of unauthorized access to data. Theoretically cars have separate computer units, operate in isolation, and are not connected,...
Article
Full-text available
With the emergence of autonomous vehicles, safety and environmental sensing systems are becoming increasingly important that support drivers. For the autonomous functions and the complexity of the systems, more emphasis should be placed on testing and safe implementation on advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) systems. This is made possible by...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, besides the conventional systems, the automated functions of the automotive industry are becoming more and more important. With the emergence of autonomous vehicles, more emphasis should be placed on safe testing. The complexity of the systems makes the tests more difficult and complex. This is made possible by the creation of tests in th...
Article
Full-text available
With the recent emergence of new and statistically safety-enhancing ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance) systems and autonomous driving technologies-in particular machine learning based models-the risks we face are also changing, and their properties are often still poorly understood. This gives rise to new kinds of mistakes and more worryingly, new v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fuel consumption prediction and recharging strategies are crucial fields of autonomous hybrid vehicles. In our paper based on literature review the currents trends of hybrid vehicles are compared and working principals of hybrid strategies created for different types of hybrid drivetrains were described. The fuel management, basics of the range est...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous driving vehicles should be able to control themselves when handling limits have been reached in order to increase safety and robustness. The aim of the present work is to build and validate a mathematical model for car drifting that can be used as a base for further development of hardware and software. This paper describes the mathemati...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems is C-ITS a set of ITS technologies that can provide services supported by the permanent, real time, information circulation among the components of the system. The paper aims to give an overview related to the modelling and evaluation possibilities of cooperative intelligent transportation system and to cla...
Conference Paper
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) has been the driving forces to enable the paradigm of autonomous vehicles (AVs), smart roads and Internet of Things (IoT). For the safety and security of the traffic and transportation, stabilization of the technology and system is necessary. In addition to this, security of ITS also influences the smart secu...
Conference Paper
With the recent emergence of new and statistically safety-enhancing ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance) systems and autonomous driving technologies – in particular machine learning based models – the risks we face are also changing, and their properties are often still poorly understood. This gives rise to new kinds of mistakes and more worryingly, n...
Chapter
In response to the changing social demand for safer and more efficient transport in the last few years the development of autonomous driving functions has increased dramatically and in so created many challenges for the automotive industry. Since autonomous driving functions must handle nearly countless traffic participants and various situations,...