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    Hungarian Academy of Sciences | HAS
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    Júlia Katalin Jósvai
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    Pseudovadonia livida (F.) (Coleoptera Cerambycidae Lepturinae) is a widely distributed and common species across Europe. This study was undertaken to investigate some aspects of the sensory and behavioural ecology of P. livida adults in relation to flowering plants they visit. First, their electroantennogram (EAG) responses to 42 synthetic plant volatile compounds were recorded. The antennae gave the strongest EAG responses to methyl anthranilate, methyl salicylate and 2-phenylethyl alcohol. In a field trapping experiment, P. livida beetles preferred fluorescent yellow and yellow traps over white, blue and transparent traps. When we compared different chemical lures, loaded with EAG-active compounds and their blends, in fluorescent yellow traps, we found that the beetles responded stronger to the two-component blend of methyl anthranilate and 2-phenylethyl alcohol than to other lures tested. In a subsequent experiment testing different ratios of these two compounds, the highest number of P. livida adults was recorded in traps baited with a ratio of 1:1 (100 mg of each compound) of methyl anthranilate and 2-phenylethyl alcohol, followed by traps with the 10:1 ratio. Thus, 1:1 and 10:1 blends of methyl anthranilate and 2-phenylethyl alcohol in fluorescent yellow traps are suitable for detection and monitoring of P. livida. © 2016, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Department of Agroenvironmental Sciences and Technologies. All rights reserved.
    Spectral mating preferences were examined in male Agrilus angustulus (Buprestidae:Coleoptera), a member of a taxon known for its high species diversity and striking metallic coloration. The spectral emission profile of a typical A. angustulus female displays low chroma, broadly overlapping that of the green oak leaves they feed and rest upon, while also including longer wavelengths. To pinpoint behaviorally significant spectral regions for A. angustulus males during mate selection, we observed their field approaches to females of five Agrilus planipennis color morphs that have greater chroma than the normal conspecific female targets. A. angustulus males would initially fly equally frequently toward any of the three longest wavelength morphs (green, copper and red) whose spectral emission profiles all overlap that of typical A. angustulus females. However, they usually only completed approaches toward the two longest wavelength morphs, but not the green morphs. Thus spectral preference influences mate selection by A. angustulus males, and their discrimination of suitable targets became greater as these targets were approached. This increasing spectral discrimination when approaching targets may have evolved to allow female emissions to remain somewhat cryptic, while also visible to conspecifics as distinct from the background vegetation and heterospecific competitors.
    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5mg a.e./l glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated impacts of herbicides under natural conditions and studies identifying key factors determining the applicability of experimental results are urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    We describe a trap comprised of both chemically and visually attractive stimuli for the alfalfa longhorn beetle, Plagionotus floralis (Pallas) (Coleoptera Cerambycidae Clytini), a pest causing increasingly serious damage each year in alfalfa fields in Central and Eastern Europe. Fluorescent yellow funnel traps caught significantly more P. floralis than traps with other colours, although in some tests non-fluorescent yellow traps also attracted more beetles than non-yellow traps. Fluorescent yellow reflects at a high intensity at wavelengths of 500 to 550 nm, which may account for the far better response of P. floralis. A ternary synthetic chemical lure of (E)-anethol, 1-phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-methyl-eugenol (TERN lure) generally increased the catches of P. floralis in the fluorescent yellow traps. 1-phenylethyl alcohol or 3-methyl eugenol used alone in fluorescent yellow traps caught significantly more P. floralis beetles than fluorescent yellow traps with no odour bait. The establishment of a threshold for fluorescent yellow traps with the floral attractant to monitor P. floralis populations would assist in decision making regarding the optimal application of agrotechnical measures. This protocol would improve plant protection practice with respect to both an economic and an environmental concern.
    Recent advances in nanoscale bioreplication processes present the potential for novel basic and applied research into organismal behavioral processes. Insect behavior potentially could be affected by physical features existing at the nanoscale level. We used nano-bioreplicated visual decoys of female emerald ash borer beetles (Agrilus planipennis) to evoke stereotypical mate-finding behav-ior, whereby males fly to and alight on the decoys as they would on real females. Using an industrially scalable nanomolding pro-cess, we replicated and evaluated the importance of two features of the outer cuticular surface of the beetle's wings: structural in-terference coloration of the elytra by multilayering of the epicuti-cle and fine-scale surface features consisting of spicules and spines that scatter light into intense strands. Two types of decoys that lacked one or both of these elements were fabricated, one type nano-bioreplicated and the other 3D-printed with no bioreplicated surface nanostructural elements. Both types were colored with green paint. The light-scattering properties of the nano-biorepli-cated surfaces were verified by shining a white laser on the decoys in a dark room and projecting the scattering pattern onto a white surface. Regardless of the coloration mechanism, the nano-biore-plicated decoys evoked the complete attraction and landing se-quence of Agrilus males. In contrast, males made brief flying approaches toward the decoys without nanostructured features, but diverted away before alighting on them. The nano-biorepli-cated decoys were also electroconductive, a feature used on traps such that beetles alighting onto them were stunned, killed, and collected. nanofabrication | structural color | spectral emission | visual response |
    The superfamily Scarabaeoidea comprises a large and diverse monophyletic group. Members share ancestral characteristics, but often exhibit considerable differences in their ecology, physiology, or mating strategies. A large number of species are regarded as pests of crop or amenity plants, while others are beneficial to humans and even may be extremely rare as a result of anthropogenic activities. A significant number of chemical ecology-based studies have been conducted with the Scarabaeoidea in order to characterize semiochemicals influencing their behavior, such as pheromones and plant-derived allelochemicals. These may be used either to control or preserve populations of the beetles, depending upon pest or beneficial status. This paper is a review of the role and identity of the semiochemicals of the Scarabaeoidea, with comments on possible future research and applied opportunities in the field of chemical ecology.
    Five compounds known to be pheromone components of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Cerambycinae were field-tested as attractants and possible pheromones for the cerambycid fauna of Hungary. Nine cerambycid species were caught in baited traps. Large numbers of both sexes of the cerambycine species Molorchus umbellatarum Schreb. were caught in traps baited with (2R*,3S*)-octanediol, while the diastereomeric (2R*,3R*)-octanediol was to some extent attractive as well. This is the first report on an aggregation attractant and a likely pheromone for a species in the cerambycine tribe Molorchini. The results of our study support the hypothesis that the diol/hydroxyketone pheromone motif is characteristic of and highly conserved within the subfamily Cerambycinae. Intraspecific chemical communication is summarized for the subfamily Cerambycinae, and possible links between taxonomy, insect behaviour, and pheromone structures are described.
    Trapping approaches developed for the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were adapted for trapping several European oak buprestid species. These approaches included the use of natural leaf surfaces as well as green and purple plastic in sticky trap designs. Plastic surfaces were incorporated into novel ‘branch‐trap’ designs that each presented two 5 × 9‐cm2 rectangular surfaces on a cardboard structure wrapped around the leaves of a branch. We used visual adult Agrilus decoys in an attempt to evoke male mating approaches toward the traps. Our first experiment compared the attractiveness of visual characteristics of the surfaces of branch‐traps. The second looked at the effect on trap captures of adding semiochemical lures, including manuka oil, (Z)‐3‐hexen‐1‐ol, and (Z)‐9‐tricosene. In total, 1 962 buprestid specimens including 14 species from the genus Agrilus were caught on 178 traps in a 22‐day time‐span. Overall, the green plastic‐covered branch‐traps significantly out‐performed the other trap designs. We further found that the presence of an EAB visual decoy placed on the trap surface often increased captures on these green traps, but this effect was stronger for certain Agrilus species than for others. The visual decoy was particularly important for the most serious pest detected, Agrilus biguttatus Fabricius, which was captured 13 times on traps with decoys, but only once without a decoy. There were some small but significant effects of odor treatment on the capture of buprestids of two common species, Agrilus angustulus Illiger and Agrilus sulcicollis Lacordaire. There were also 141 Elateridae specimens on these traps, which were not influenced by trap type or decoys. The results suggest that small branch‐traps of this nature can provide a useful new tool for monitoring of buprestids, which have the potential to be further optimized with respect to visual and olfactory cues.
    Adults of the blossom chafer, Epicometis hirta Poda (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), are economically important horticultural pests in Central and Southern Europe, damaging the generative parts of plants. Although a funnel trap exploiting visual (light blue colour) and olfactory (synthetic floral blend) cues is available for detection and monitoring[1], joint application of the sex pheromone of E. hirta would presumably enhance trap efficacy. Here, we report on the first results of studies towards the identification of a pheromone in E. hirta. Preliminary field observations on the behaviour of the day-flying E. hirta suggested that males are attracted to females sitting on flowers, predominantly dandelions (Taraxacum officinale Weber, Compositae). In order to quantify male attraction to females, E. hirta were first field collected in the early part of the flight period in large numbers using colour traps baited with floral volatiles. Beetles were separated into males and females by outer morphological characteristics. Ten individuals of each sex were put into cages with a piece of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), a food source previously found to be suitable for keeping E. hirta alive for a long period. Apple pieces in cages served as control treatments. Funnel traps were baited with the cages, adding another piece of apple in the catch container to keep captured insects alive. Males were attracted to female + apple baited traps, but not to either the male + apple or apple baited traps (P<0.000 and P<0.0001) at two experimental sites. Females were not attracted to either sex or to apple pieces alone; however, simultaneously operating colour traps baited with floral volatiles, caught significant numbers. Based on the present results, the existence of a female produced sex pheromone is highly probable for E. hirta. A further proof of this is that stimuli from extracts of female full body washes and female air entrainment samples evoked EAG responses from male antennae which were significantly stronger than the solvent control (P = 0.013).
    Western corn rootworm (WCR) ( Diabrotica v. virgifera Le Conte) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) adults were attracted only during daytime hours and showed a bimodal diel activity pattern when responding to the synthetic floral bait in the field. On the other hand, to the synthetic pheromone bait, good responses were recorded apart from daytime hours also well into the night. The present results suggest that in WCR the pheromonal communication channel and the channel connected with feeding (= floral lure) are separated.
    Compounds that are structurally closely related to the western corn rootworm (WCR) (Diabrotica v. virgifera, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) pheromone were prepared and screened for biological activity in the field, presented alone or in combination with the pheromone 8-methyldecan-2-yl propanoate. None of the synthetic compounds showed attraction when presented alone. However, when presented in combination with the pheromone, catches in traps containing 8-methyldecan-2-yl acetate as a second component were dramatically reduced, suggesting strong inhibitory activity for this compound. The addition of the inhibitory acetate to the known floral WCR lure (4-methoxycinnamaldehyde plus indole) did not influence male (or female) catches suggesting that the inhibitor interferes in the perception process of the pheromone and not by exerting repellency per se. To our knowledge, this is the first report on an inhibitor of response to pheromone in WCR. 8-Methyldecan-2-yl acetate has previously been described as a sex attractant of Diabrotica cristata, so its inhibitory activity towards males of WCR may reflect a role in maintaining reproductive isolation between the two taxa.
    To improve the efficiency of the known floral attractant of Cetonia aurata aurata and Potosia cuprea [3-methyl eugenol, 1-phenylethanol and (E)-anethol] electroantennographic tests were conducted using the antennae of both species. Among synthetic floral compounds eliciting the highest responses from the antennae, geraniol, (±)-lavandulol and ß-ionone, were chosen for field experiments. In field trapping tests in Hungary the addition of (±)-lavandulol to the known attractant resulted in significantly higher catches of both scarabs than the ternary blend alone or the single compounds. Only geraniol resulted in higher catches of P. cuprea when added to the ternary attractant. The addition of ß-ionone to the known attractant decreased catches. In further tests the addition of geraniol in the same single dispenser as the known ternary mixture plus (±)-lavandulol did not increase catches of C. a. aurata and P. cuprea. The improved bait consisting of 3-methyl eugenol/1-phenylethanol/(E)-anethol/(±)-lavandulol described in this study is recommended for use in trapping of C. a. aurata and P. cuprea for agricultural purposes.
    In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.
    During our screening studies, attractiveness of a ternary mixture of synthetic Grandlure I [racemic cis-1-methyl-2-(1-methylenethenyl)-cyclobutane ethanol], Grandlure II [(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl)cyclohexylidene ethanol], and Grandlure III–IV [(Z)- and (E)-2-ochtodenal; (Z)- and (E)-(3,3-dimethyl)cyclohexylidene acetaldehyde] for the sugar-beet weevil, Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was observed in field-trapping tests at several sites in Hungary and Serbia. The mixture attracted both males and females. Later tests revealed that of the components in the ternary mixture, only Grandlure III–IV were responsible for attraction, and the addition of Grandlures I or II in varying percentages had no influence on trap captures. Traps baited with 50–50 000 µg of Grandlure III–IV on rubber or polyethylene dispensers yielded high catches of weevils. When testing synthetic samples enriched in the respective geometrical isomer, Grandlure IV had a tendency of catching more weevils, but differences were not significant from lower catches by a 1:1 Z:E blend or Grandlure III. In gas chromatography–flame ionization detection/electroantennographic detection studies, antennae of both female and male weevils were more responsive to the (E)- than to the (Z)-isomer suggesting a more important role for Grandlure IV. Efforts to verify the presence of Grandlure III or IV in volatiles collected from either sex of live sugar-beet weevils or body washings with pentane remained inconclusive. Traps baited with Grandlure III–IV can now be used as sensitive and powerful trapping tools in the control of the sugar-beet weevil.
    In the course of research aimed at the development of non-sticky, easy-to-use alternative trap designs for the capture of selected beetle pests, a newly designed “hat” trap, codenamed CSALOMON® KLP+, was compared with conventional trap designs. In the case of the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica v. virgifera (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) the new KLP+ traps baited with pheromonal or floral baits were equally sensitive as the former PAL or PALs sticky “cloak” designs, but the KLP+ traps catch capacity and selectivity was much higher. When baited with the floral WCR bait, the KLP+ trap proved to be more sensitive in capturing female WCR, than the former sticky PALs trap design. In capturing cabbage flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp., Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), the new KLP+ trap design baited with allyl isothiocyanate performed better than the previously used VARL+ funnel traps in all respects studied. In conclusion, the new KLP+ trap design, baited with the respective attractants, appears to be advantageous to use for the trapping of both WCR and cabbage flea beetles, and can be recommended for use as a trapping tool in plant protection practice in the detection and monitoring of these pest Coleoptera.
    rovarferomonok, attraktáns, csapda, Csalomon, ormányosbogarak, Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Bothynoderes, glandlure, structure, szerkezet, izolálás, analízis, előállítás, stabilitás, izomerizáció
    In field trapping tests in Hungary cinnamyl alcohol (3-phenyl-2-propen-l-ol) and transanethole [(1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene)] attracted significantly more adult Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) when presented together in the same bait compared to the single compounds Best attraction was recorded by a 1:1 mixture. Addition of other common floral scent compounds, ie. 3-methyl eugenol, 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, anisylacetone, beta-ionone, cinnamyl acetate, cinnamic aldehyde, eugenol, indole, 2-phenylethanol or phenylacetaldehyde did not influence catches. The binary cinnamyl alcohol/trans-anethole bait described in this study is recommended for use in traps of E. hirta for agricultural purposes.
    Trap designs baited with the synthetic sex pheromone have been optimized for trapping of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (WCR), which has recently been introduced into Europe. The best trap design proved to be the sticky "cloak" trap (code name "PAL"), which catches only males, and is being used in many countries of Europe for detection and monitoring the spread of the new pest. Preliminarily the range of attraction (as defined by Wall and Perry, 1987) of the pheromone traps was estimated to be < 10 m. The performance of yellow sticky plates (used by others for monitoring of the pest) was insignificant as compared to the activity of the pheromone baited traps, and yellow colour had no discernible effect on catches in pheromone traps. The known floral lure of WCR containing 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde and indole proved to be active also towards the population in Europe, attracting both females and males. Yellow colour slightly increased catches by the floral lure, hence a yellow sticky "cloak" trap has been developed (code name PALs). Pheromone baited PAL traps caught a total of about 4 times more beetles than the floral baited PALs, which latter however appeared to be preferentially active for females. When placed into the same trap, the pheromonal and floral lures did not interfere with each other's activity.
    In field screening tests conducted on selected pest scarabaeids in Hungary, Epicometis (Tropinota) hirta (subfamily Cetoniinae) was attracted to traps baited with either cinnamyl alcohol or trans-anethol. In some tests attraction was also detected to phenethyl alcohol or cinnamyl acetate. In other tests, adults of Cetonia aurata aurata and Oxythyrea funesta (subfamily Cetoniinae) also were attracted to trans-anethol, while the ternary mixture of phenethyl propionate, eugenol and geraniol attracted Potosia cuprea (subfamily Cetoniinae). Some attraction of Valgus hemipterus (subfamily Valginae) to cinnamyl alcohol also was observed. All of the above species are pests of more or less economic importance in Hungary. The attractant chemicals discovered in the present study will form a starting point for the development of effective attractants for the respective pest scarab species.
    Based on analysis of pheromone gland extracts, highly attractive new baits have been developed for three click beetle pests. That for Agriotes brevis is a mixture of geranyl butanoate and (E,E)-farnesyl butanoate, and that for A rufipalpis and A sordidus contains geranyl hexanoate alone. From known data from species populating Russia, optimized bait compositions for species in Central and Western Europe were developed as follows: geranyl octanoate + geranyl butanoate for A lineatus, geranyl isovalerate for A litigiosus, geranyl hexanoate + geranyl octanoate for A obscurus, geranyl butanoate alone for A sputator and (E,E)-farnesyl acetate alone for A ustulatus. Although slight differences were found in gland contents with A litigiosus var laichartingi and fenotypus typicus, nevertheless there were no differences in response to the optimum bait. There were no differences in pheromone composition or response to the optimized bait between the two morphological forms (‘black’ and ‘red’) of A ustulatus. As a result of these studies, highly effective pheromone baits are now available for monitoring and population reduction in all important pest click beetle species in Central and Western Europe.© 2003 Society of Chemical Industry
    Geranyl butyrate (GB) and (E, E)-farnesyl butyrate (FB) were identified in the pheromone gland extract of females of the click beetle, Agriotes brevis (Candeze) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) as the major sex pheromone components. Polyethylene vial dispensers containing 20-200 mg of a 1:1 mixture caught high numbers of beetles. Captures did not decrease even after 73 days of field exposure of dispensers. At sites where both Agriotes sputator L. and A. brevis were present, the above baits were selectively catching only A. brevis, despite the fact that GB is also the main pheromone component of A. sputator, suggesting that FB has a role in reproductive isolation. In the early part of the season, traps into which the insects could both crawl and fly captured more A. brevis than designs where the insects could only fly in. Trap design was not important later in the season. This indicates the need for future development of a trap suitable for use throughout the whole season.
    Two candidate attractants, phenol and 1,4-benzoquinone, a synthetic mixture of typical compounds from green-leaf odours [(Z)-3-hexenyl acetate: (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol: benzaldehyde: (E)-2-hexen-1-ol: 1-hexanol; 100:20:10:1:1] and freshly damaged oak leaves were screened for field attractancy in funnel traps in Hungary. Males of two Rhizotrogus spp. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae), R. aestivus 01. and R. vernus Germ. were caught in larger numbers. While R. aestivus catches were probably chance captures, male R. vernus was significantly attracted to the baits containing 1,4-benzoquinone. This compound represents a promising basis for the development of a monitoring trap for R. vernus.
    A synthetic mixture of typical compounds from green-leaf odours [(3Z)-3-hexenyl acetate : (3Z)-3-hexen-1-ol : benzaldehyde : (2E)-2-hexen-1-ol : 1-hexanol; 100:20:10:1:1] or freshly damaged oak leaves (Quercus sessiliflora SALISB.) were tested for field attraction using fun-nel traps in Hungary. Males of the European common cockchafer Melolontha melolontha L. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Melolonthinae) were significantly attracted to both baits, confirm-ing recent findings of RUTHER et al. (2000) on the closely related M. hippocastani FABR. The phenomenon that volatiles from damaged leaves from host plants are attractive towards adult males seems to be widespread in the genus Melolontha. The present results may form a good basis for starting the development of a monitoring trap for M. melolontha.
    The main sex pheromone of Megalophanes viciella (Denis & Schiffermüller 1775), 1-methylethyl octanoate (MEO), and R and S isomers of four other long-chain fatty acid esters, were tested both for electroantennographic (EAG) activity on antenna of conspecific males and as possible modifiers of male attraction in the field. MEO gave the highest EAG response on M viciella male antenna followed by the two isomers of 1-methylbutyl octanoate (MBO) and 1-methylbutyl nonanoate (MBN). One of the latter compounds, R-MBO, applied as a 10 or 30% additive to MEO reduced significantly catches of M. viciella males in the field.
    In field tests in Hungary, traps baited with 4-methyl-3, 5-heptanedione, the aggregation pheromone of the pea and bean weevil Sitona lineatus, caught significant numbers of several other species including S. crinitus (syn. S. macularius) and S. humeralis. Lower numbers of S. suturalis, S. hispidulus and S.inops were also caught. Of the species captured in higher numbers in this study, S. crinitus is one of the most important pests of peas in Hungary, and S. humeralis causes damage to alfalfa. The other species are usually regarded as pests of secondary importance. The fact that the S. lineatus pheromone trap caught other Sitona species is very useful, since crop damage usually results from attack by a complex of pests rather than a single species. A trap capable of catching several of the pest Sitona species will be able to detect and predict overall pest pressure more effectively than a trap highly selective for a single species.
    Megállapítottuk, hogy a Phyllotreta fajok nem mutatnak speciális preferenciát a káposztafélék fajtái iránt sem. 11 Phyllotreta faj esetében igazoltuk az allil-izotiocianát csalogató hatását, ezek közül 10 faj esetében a világon elsőként. Megállapítottuk, hogy nincs különbség a növényeken előforduló és csapdákban megfigyelt földibolha fajok dominanciája között. Különböző diszpenzerk és csapdatestek tesztelésével sikerült detektálásra, monitorozásra, sőt tömeges csapdázásra is alkalmas csapdatípust kifejleszteni. Mintegy tucatnyi izotio- és tiocianát származék szabadfödi tesztetlésével meghállapítottuk, hogy megfelelő izotiocianátot választva fajspecifikusabb, ill. hatékonyabb csalogatóanyagok fejleszthetők ki az egyes célkártevőkre. A Phyllotreta cruciferae populációinak feromon kivonatait vizsgálva megállapítottuk, hogy biológiai hatás és kémiai összetétel tekintetében nincs különbség az észak-amerikai és az európai populációk feromonjai között. Világelsőként azonosítottunk hímspecifikus himachalén típusú vegyületeket a Ph. vittula, Ph. undulata, Ph. nigripes, Ph. nemorum fajokból. Adatok alapján valószínűsíthető, hogy közeli rokon káposztabolha fajok feromon összetételében számos hasonlóság van. Megfigyeltük, hogy a Phyllotreta fajok nőstényeiben palpus vaginalis csúcsi része és receptaculum seminis a hozzá csatlakozó nyúlvánnyal (appendix) fajonként eltérő formát mutat, ami felhasználható e nehezen identifikálható fajok nőstényeinek biztos elkülönítésére. | No specific preference was detected at 10 Phyllotreta species towards different types cabbages. Reliable attractivity of allyl-isothiocyanate bait was proved for 11 Phyllotreta species; this finding is new to science at 10 of them. By testing the efficiency of different types of dispensers combined with different types of sticky and non-sticky trap designs an effective type of trap has been developed being suitable in detecting, monitoring and mass-trapping cabbage flea beetles. As a result of field testing of more than a dozen of thyocyanate derivates synthesized at our lab some differences were detected between individual species and so highly efficient species specific traps can be developed by selecting the proper derivates. No reliably differences were established between chemical structure and biological field activity of natural pheromone taken at North-American and European Phyllotreta cruciferae populations. Male specific hymachelen compounds were identified at first time from the following species: Ph. vittula, Ph. undulata, Ph. nigripes, Ph. nemorum. Data show that there are several similarities in the composition of natural pheromones of the species in question. Identification of Phyllotreta females has been uncertain so far. We have detected that the apical part of females' palpus vaginalis and the appendix of receptaculum seminis is different among species and so these features can be utilized to identify these hardly separable species.
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