Zohaib Khurshid Sultan

Zohaib Khurshid SultanThe University of Western Ontario | UWO · Department of Dentistry and Biomedical Engineering

26.58
· MRes in Biomaterials, MFGDP (UK), MADM (US), FICD (USA)
  • About
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    Research Experience
    Aug 2017 - Nov 2017
    Researcher
    The University of Western Ontario · Department of Dentistry and Biomedical Engineering
    London, Canada
    Aug 2017
    PhD Student
    The University of Western Ontario · Department of Dentistry
    Canada
    Oct 2016
    Group Leader
    Pakhsrg
    Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
    Description
    The Pakistan Human Salivary Research Group (PakSRG) forms the leading foremost systematic group within the country putting emphasis on uncovering facts and multi-level relationships between saliva and health.
    Education
    Sep 2014 - Sep 2014
    British Institute of Laser Dentistry
    Laser Dentistry
    Aug 2014 - Aug 2014
    King's College London
    Aesthetic Dentistry
    Sep 2013 - Sep 2014
    University of Birmingham
    Biomaterials
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    Awards & Achievements (1)
    Apr 2017
    Member of Faculty of General Dental Practitioners (MFGDP) UK
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    Current research
    Projects (9)
    Project
    Biological, chemical and mechanical characterization of a novel bioresorbable as component of a functionally graded guided tissue regeneration membrane for periodontal applications.
    Research
    Research Items
    Cathelicidins are a group of oral antimicrobial peptides that play multiple vital roles in the human body, such as their antimicrobial (broad spectrum) role against oral microbes, wound healing, and angiogenesis, with recent evidences about their role in cancer regulation. Cathelicidins are present in humans and other mammals as well. By complex interactions with the microenvironment, it results in pro-inflammatory effects. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have been conducted to ultimately conclude that these unique peptides play an essential role in innate immunity. Peptides are released in the precursor form (defensins), which after cleavage results in cathelicidins formation. Living in the era where the major focus is on non-invasive and nanotechnology, this ultimately leads to further advancements in the field of salivaomics. Based on current spotlight innovations, we have highlighted the biochemistry, mode of action, and the importance of cathelicidins in the oral cavity.
    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders among undergraduate students. In addition, the severity of TMD was examined in terms of its relationship with gender, age and field of study. Methods: A total of 439 undergraduate students of both genders (age range: 20-27 years) who were studying at various colleges at Taibah University were invited to participate in this study. Each student was provided with a questionnaire, and the significance and purpose of the study were explained. The data were collected using Fonseca's questionnaire, an instrument that assessed the demographic characteristics of the students and included ten key questions. The severity of TMD was categorized as no, mild, moderate or severe. The data were analysed using SPSS Version 22 (IBM, Illinois, USA). The chi-square test was used to compare the data from different groups and to determine whether the differences were statistically significant. Results: Of those who were invited, 78 students did not return the questionnaires, whereas another 11 were excluded due to their submitting an incomplete questionnaire. A majority of the students reported no TMD (46.7%) or mild TMD (42.7%). A moderate level of TMD was reported by 8.8% of students. Only 1.7% of students reported severe TMD. No significant differences were observed in the severity of TMD in terms of student age or field of study. Conclusion: TMD is more prevalent among female students than male students. However, its occurrence is not affected by the age and field of study of the student.
    Objective: To measure the effect of in vitro nicotine on reconstituted oral mucosal culture and to study its effect after 5 minutes and 24 hours in normal healthy uninflammed oral mucosa. Material and Methods: This observational study was conducted at Department of Oral Pathology, Barts and London Queen Mary University London to measure the effect of in vitro nicotine on reconstituted oral mucosal model. The reconstituted human epithelium model was used and was supplied by Skin Ethic Laboratories, Nice, France. Cells viability was assessed by MTT assay. Working solutions (10μM, 100µM, 1mM, and 10mM) of nicotine were primed from 2.5M stock solution (Sigma,UK). The effect of nicotine was studied after 5 minutes and 24 hours in normal healthy uninflamed oral mucosa. Results: It was found that that application of nicotine after 5 minutes and 24 hours' treatment on uninflamed oral mucosal model and did not significantly affect the viability at all concentrations used. Conclusion: Nicotine did not show any effect on uninflamed mucosa and also had no momentous effect after 5 minutes and 24 hours respectively. Further workup on proteomics and genomics is suggested to confirm our observations.
    Articular cartilage is a vascular tissue with limited repair capabilities, leaving an afflicted person in extreme pain. The tissue experiences numerous forces throughout its lifetime. This study focuses on development of a novel hydrogel composed of chitosan and β-glycerophosphate for articular cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties and swelling behaviour of a novel hydrogel composed of chitosan and β-glycerophosphate for cartilage repair. The mechanical properties were measured for compression forces. Mach-1 mechanical testing system was used to obtain storage and loss modulus for each hydrogel sample to achieve viscoelastic properties of fabricated hydrogels. Two swelling tests were carried out to compare water retaining capabilities of the samples. The hydrogel samples were made of five different concentrations of β-glycerophosphate cross-linked with chitosan. Each sample with different β-glycerophosphate concentration underwent sinusoidal compression forces at three different frequencies -0.1Hz, 0.316Hz and 1Hz. The result of mechanical testing was obtained as storage and loss modulus. Storage modulus represents the elastic component and loss modulus represents the viscosity of the samples. The results obtained for 1Hz were of interest because the knee experiences frequency of 1Hz during walking.
    Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been used in regenerative medicine and dentistry. Recently, its use has been advocated for regenerative periodontics and wound healing. The randomized control trials have assessed the regenerative efficacy of the PRF for restoring intrabony periodontal defects. The objectives are to critically analyze and appraise the currently available literature, focusing on the use of PRF in regenerating periodontal bone defects. An electronic search was conducted (PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI-WOS). Various combinations of following keywords were used: ‘platelet-rich fibrin’, ‘intrabony’, ‘periodontal’, ‘bone defect’ and ‘guided tissue regeneration’. A secondary search was conducted by analyzing the reference lists of the articles obtained in initial search. The final search resulted in 13 randomized controlled trials being included. In majority of studies, PRF resulted in better clinical/radiographic outcomes than open flap debridement and augmented therapeutic effects of bone grafts. The combination of bovine bone substitutes and PRF resulted in better performance compared to alone. Similarly better outcomes were observed while using PRF in combination with nanohydroxyapatite, metformin and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. It can be concluded that PRF produces better outcomes than open flap debridement alone and augments the regenerative effects of bone substitutes.
    The study aims to explore the properties and chemistry of propolis concerning biomedical and dental applications. In addition, status and scope of propolis for current and potential future in bio-dental applications have been discussed. This review gives an insight to the reader about the possibile use of propolis in modern-day dentistry.
    Human body is made up of proteins, called “building blocks”. The role of proteins is important in both healthy and disease conditions. Human whole mouth saliva (WMS) is purely secreted by body glands namely parotid, submandibular/sublingual and other minor glands of the oral cavity. They are secreted through systematic way and bring informative proteins and peptides for the early detection of contagious diseases and organ related diseases. The role of WMS as liquid biopsy for the detection of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) through Myoglobin (MYO), Cardiac troponin I (cTnI), Creatine phosphokinase MB (CK-MB), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), Exosomal miRNA, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of MMP-8 (TIMP-1) is well reported in last decade and we have reviewed them in comprehensively below.
    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field for the encroachment of point of care technology (PoCT). The necessity of the development of point-of-care (PoC) technology, the potential of saliva, identification and validation of biomarkers through salivary diagnostic toolboxes, and a broad overview of emerging technologies is discussed in this review. Furthermore, novel advanced techniques incorporated in devices for the early detection and diagnosis of several oral and systemic diseases in a non-invasive, easily-monitored, less time consuming, and in a personalised way is explicated. The latest technology detection systems and clinical utilities of saliva as a liquid biopsy, electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM), biosensors, smartphone technology, microfluidics, paper-based technology, and how their futuristic perspectives can improve salivary diagnostics and reduce hospital stays by replacing it with chairside screening is also highlighted.
    Objective The aim of the current study was to carry out a preliminary validation of devices for standardized collection of whole mouth fluid (WMF) in comparison to the passive drooling method for protein analysis in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A carefully designed sample collection/pretreatment protocol is crucial to the success of any saliva proteomics project. In this study, WMF was collected from healthy volunteers (n = 10, ages: 18–26 years). Individuals with any oral disease were excluded from the study group. In our study, we evaluated the following collection methods; the classical passive drooling method (unstimulated whole saliva) and standardized tools for saliva collection (Pure·SAL™, and RNAPro·SAL™) from Oasis Diagnostics® Corporation (Vancouver WA, USA). For estimation of protein levels, we used the bicinchoninic acid assay and protein assay kit (Thermo Fisher). The two-dimensional gel electrophoresis sample analysis was carried out for the estimation of proteins in one of the samples. Results When gels were compared, the difference was seen in the resolution of spots. Protein spots were fading from high- to low-molecular weight masses. Hence, advanced devices in comparison to spitting method resulted in much clearer protein spots which in turn prove the validation of devices. Conclusions In this study, we concluded that protein extraction could be possible by both methods such as passive drooling method and through advanced saliva collection devices (Pure·SAL™ and RNAPro·SAL™).
    Objectives: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of drugs that are used to treat osteoporosis. It has been suggested that BP coatings on dental implants have a positive effect on new bone formation. The purpose of this review is to analyse the currently available data concerning the clinical and experimental efficacy of BP-releasing titanium implants such that their potential in clinical oral implant dentistry may be ascertained. Methods: Based on a literature review, a focused research question was constructed: what is the effect of a BP-releasing coating on the osseointegration of titanium dental implant? The databases of PubMED/MEDLINE; ISI Web of Knowledge; Embase and Google Scholar were searched electronically using the keywords ‘dental implant’; ‘bisphosphonate’ and ‘titanium.’ The quality; general characteristics and outcomes of each study were summarized and analysed systematically. Results: A total of eleven articles fulfilled the criteria to be included in this review. Eight studies were experimental; two studies were clinical; and one study was experimental and clinical. In nine studies (82%), BP-coated implants resulted in higher osseointegration, as indicated by higher resonance frequency values, removal torque, bone-implant contact and new bone formation. In two studies (18%), there was no difference between the osseointegration of BP-coated implants and controls. Conclusions: Bisphosphonates-loaded implants may have a positive effect on osseointegration. However, more well-designed clinical studies are required to demonstrate their osseoconductive effects.
    Chitosan (CHS) is a very versatile natural biomaterial that has been explored for a range of bio-dental applications. CHS has numerous favourable properties such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and a broad antibacterial spectrum (covering gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria as well as fungi). In addition, the molecular structure boasts reactive functional groups that provide numerous reaction sites and opportunities for forging electrochemical relationships at the cellular and molecular levels. The unique properties of CHS have attracted materials scientists around the globe to explore it for bio-dental applications. This review aims to highlight and discuss the hype around the development of novel chitosan biomaterials. Utilizing chitosan as a critical additive for the modification and improvement of existing dental materials has also been discussed.
    Objectives: Patients with Down’s syndrome (DS) require an earlier and more frequent tooth replacement than rest of the population. The objective of this systematic review is to critically analyze and summarize studies to ascertain the outcomes and survival of dental implants placed in jaws of DS patients. Methods: Using the key words ‘dental implants’, ‘Down syndrome’ and ‘prosthodontics’, an electronic search was conducted via PubMED/Medline, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, Embase and Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases by two authors, SN and ZK independently. Retrieved studies were screened against the predefined exclusion and inclusion criteria. In order to estimate the risk of bias, quality assessment of included studies was carried using the Methodological Index For Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS). Results: Primary search resulted in 156 studies. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria and reporting a total of 81 dental implants placed in 36 DS patients. Type of implant loading ranged from immediate to a delay of 1 year after placement of implant. Range of implant diameter ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 mm and height ranged between 8.5 and 18 mm. The follow up ranged between 1 to 6 years. Out of 81 implants placed, 21 implants (26%) were reported as failed. Conclusions: Patients with Down’s syndrome have a higher risk of implant failure. However, the reason for the failure is not very well understood. Although, case reports and series suggest that implant survival is diminished in DS patients, large scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine the exact mechanism which may have led to a higher risk of implant failure.
    Introduction Vital pulp therapy (VPT) aims to preserve the health and maintain life of the tooth pulp which has been compromised by caries, trauma or restorative procedures. Recently, enamel matrix derivative (EMD) has been introduced as a material for vital pulp therapy. The aim of this review is to critically analyze and summarize the available literature on EMD for VPT. Methods and Materials Online databases (PubMED/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science, and Wiley-Online) were searched by using the following keywords in various combinations: Enamel Matrix Derivative, Emdogain, ‘Vital Pulp Therapy, ‘Apexogenisis’, Apexification, Pulp Capping, Endodontics, Dentine and Pulpotomy for studies indexed from January 1949 to April 2016. We used an English-limited search in Google.co.uk for the missing grey literature. All studies fulfilling the selection criteria were carefully reviewed for the focused question: “Does using EMD in VPT, compared with other materials, result in better clinical, radiographic and histological outcomes?”. Results The primary search resulted in 18 articles of which, 14 articles (including 6 animal studies and 6 clinical trials and 2 case reports) met the inclusion criteria for this review and hence were included. The number of teeth tested in the animal studies ranged from 8 to 144 including pigs, rats and dogs teeth. A number of studies used EMD in the experimental group in comparison with calcium hydroxide, propylene glycol alginate (PGA) and MTA as a control. The observation period ranged from 1 to 2 months and 4 out of 6 animal trials reported more favorable outcomes with EMD while two studies reported comparable outcomes. Conclusion Although EMD has potential for various applications in endodontics, studies conducted to date have failed to demonstrate any significant advantage of EMD over conventional VPT materials. Additionally, the 5-year and 10-year survival rate of EMD-treated teeth is not yet known. Hence, studies with a longer follow-up periods are required to deduce the long-term viability of teeth treated with EMD.
    Nanotechnology brings emerging changes in translational research in the last couple of decades. This evidence reflects from Science Citation Index [PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus databases] using the keyword ‘nanotechnology’ reveals 53117 articles published from 1978 to 2015. Nanomaterials have gained popularity for countless applications in various fields including clinical dentistry. In dentistry, nanotechnology has revolutionized the materials interaction and behaviour with oral structures such as antibacterial dental adhesive, nanoparticles based aesthetic restorative materials, surface decoration on dental implants, high strength denture bases. Better understanding of materials and oral tissues interface at nanoscale has attracted many researches for therapeutic dental applications such as fluoride release, drug delivery. The major aim of the proposed chapter will be to highlight recent developments regarding therapeutic applications of nanomaterials in dentistry. In addition, chemistry, synthesis, properties and benefits of therapeutic nanomaterials over conventional materials in relation to dentistry will be discussed.
    Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines.
    Biomaterials have always been used for the replacement, repair and regeneration of dental hard tissues. As the research continues, there is a significant development in the field of dental materials in terms of either developing new materials or improving the performance of the existing materials. Contrary to the development of bioinert materials, the recent hard tissue research has witnessed the development and subsequent applications of bioactive materials, a hallmark of which is the development of bioactive glass. Originally discovered in 1969, bioactive glasses have provided a reliable alternative to inert implant materials by virtue of their ability to form a stable bond with host tissues and induce subsequent remineralization especially of the dental hard tissues. This article comprehensively reviews the early development, chronological applications and mechanism of action of bioactive glasses in general and briefly encompasses their applications in clinical dentistry.
    Like other fluids of the human body, a gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains proteins, a diverse population of cells, desquamated epithelial cells, and bacteria from adjacent plaque. Proteomic tools have revolutionized the characterization of proteins and peptides and the detection of early disease changes in the human body. Gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs) are a very specific oral cavity fluid that represents periodontal health. Due to their non-invasive sampling, they have attracted proteome research and are used as diagnostic fluids for periodontal diseases and drug analysis. The aim of this review is to explore the proteomic science of gingival crevicular fluids (GCFs), their physiology, and their role in disease detection.
    Dear Dr 
    You can use commercially available perio paper strip from the different company.  And you can read my paper will help you. Best Regards
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) may adversely affect periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this review is to systematically analyze and review animal studies investigating the effect of DM on periodontal tissues during OTM. An electronic search was conducted via PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge,and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CONTROL) using the keywords“diabetes,”“orthodontics,”and“tooth movement”for studies published between January 2000 and August 2016. After elimination of duplicate items, the primary search resulted in 89 articles. After exclusion of irrelevant articles on the basis of abstract and title, full texts of 25 articles were read to exclude additional irrelevant studies. Seven animal studies were included in this review for qualitative analysis. When compared to healthy animals, more bone resorption and diminished bone remodeling were observed in diabetic animals in all studies. Furthermore, DM decreased the rate of OTM in one study, but in anotherstudy, DM accelerated OTM. DM may adversely affect bone remodeling and tooth movement during application of orthodontic forces. However, a number of potential sources of bias and deficiencies in methodology are present in studies investigating the association between OTM and DM. Hence, more long-term and well-designed studies are required before the exact mechanism and impact of DM on outcomes of orthodontic treatment is understood.
    Project - Saliva and Zika Virus
    Update
    This review paper sums up various researches that have been conducted on human saliva and its composition with physiological aspects. It mainly highlights the composition, physiology, and how biomolecules came to saliva via a blood and role of saliva as a diagnostic fluid in oral and systemic health. Over 33,000 published papers were found electronically when search keywords – such as humans, diagnosis, salivary, etc. were used. We have been very specific in including recent research papers for the literature search and aim to provide a comprehensive overview ofthe current status of human saliva and its importance as a diagnostic fluid in disease detection such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), endocrine and contiguous diseases. A number of psychological and pathological factors contribute towards variations in salivary flow. This paper further illustrates major factors, which cause alterations in salivary secretion and the importance of saliva along with its role as a diagnostic agent for certain pathologies.
    Oral cancer refers to malignancies that have higher morbidity and mortality rates due to the late stage diagnosis and no early detection of a reliable diagnostic marker, while oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is amongst the world's top ten most common cancers. Diagnosis of cancer requires highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools which can support untraceable hidden sites of OSCC, yet to be unleashed, for which plenty of biomarkers are identified; the most recommended biomarker detection medium for OSCC includes biological fluids, such as blood and saliva. Saliva holds a promising future in the search for new clinical biomarkers that are easily accessible, less complex, accurate, and cost effective as well as being a non-invasive technique to follow, by analysing the malignant cells' molecular pathology obtained from saliva through proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches. However, protein biomarkers provide an immense potential for developing novel marker-based assays for oral cancer, hence this current review offers an overall focus on the discovery of a panel of candidates as salivary protein biomarkers, as well as the proteomic tools used for their identification and their significance in early oral cancer detection.
    Background/aim: Replantation of avulsed teeth may lead to root resorption. Bisphosphonates (BPs), a class of drugs of used to treat resorptive diseases of the bone such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, have been observed to exert an antiresorptive effect on periodontal bone as well. The antiresorptive properties of BPs could prove them useful in preventing root resorption of replanted avulsed teeth. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze and summarize the currently available literature concerning the use of BPs in preventing root resorption of avulsed teeth. Materials and methods: PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Embase databases were searched using keywords 'bisphosphonate', 'replantation', and 'tooth'. Quality assessment of each study was carried out. In addition, general characteristics and outcomes of each study were summarized. Results: After exclusion of 116 irrelevant articles, 10 animal studies were included in this review. The majority of the studies suggest that surface application of zoledronate or alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. Surface treatment with etidronate had no significant effect on root resorption, and intracanal etidronate accelerated resorption. Conclusion: Surface application of zoledronate and alendronate reduces root resorption of replanted teeth in animal models. However, the efficacy of intracanal usage of BPs is still debatable.
    Few studies have described ZIKV manifestations in the mouth of infected patients. Recently, Brasil et al. reported local hyperemia and petechiae on the hard palate of an infected patient. 1 Some viruses are transmitted through saliva, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1, HSV2) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). 2 Notably, HSV and ZIKV display common characteristics, despite being from different families. They are both neurotropic viruses capable of infecting and replicating in neural cells. 3 Moreover, ZIKV, HSV2, and CMV are able to cross the placental membrane causing congenital microcephaly. 4 However, it is not known whether ZIKV can persist in a latent state and be reactivated like HSV, which causes recurrent ulceration of oral tissues including gingiva and oral mucosa.
    Summary Background: The prevalence of oral diseases including dental caries and periodontal conditions is remarkably higher in people with disabilities. The provision of accessible oral health services for people with learning disabilities may be challenging. Objectives: The objectives of the review were to identify barriers in accessing oral health care that persists within society, enabling or disabling people with learning disabilities. Methods: Using the Arksey O’Malley framework, a scoping review was conducted on PubMed/Medline, OVIDSP, and EMBASE. Studies were evaluated and short-listed based on the inclusion criteria, which consisted of: (1) study participants or population with learning disabilities, (2) aged 16 years or over, (3) reporting on access to oral health services, (4) published in the English language. Those that justify the inclusion criteria were carefully chosen after a blind peer-reviewed process when relevance and quality were debated. Results: Nine studies were eventually included from searches. Tabulation of data was done under the heading of study type, outcomes, the year of publication and patient selection. The majority of studies provided a biomedical overview of access for adults with learning disabilities. Conclusions: The concept of access for people with a disability is still ill-defined and obscure. Access to oral health care and needs of people with learning disabilities are complex and multi-facet.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the severity of adverse effects of tobacco consumption using the saliva flow rate and pH as diagnostic parameters. In addition, the effects of the chewing tobacco and smoking tobacco have been compared. METHODOLOGY: A total of 210 patients participated in this study and were divided in three groups; [tobacco chewers, group A; smokers, group B and non-tobacco consumers, group C]. A questionnaire was developed to collect demographic and habitual information of subjects. The salivary flow rate (SFR) was recorded by asking patient to spit in a graduated container at each minute for 5 minutes. Mean SFR was calculated. Salivary pH was assessed with salivary pH strip. RESULTS: Results showed that there is no effect of tobacco consumption on resting mouth salivary flow rate. But tobacco has significant effect on salivary pH. Lesser pH levels were noted in group A and group B in comparison to Group C. Present study indicates that resting mouth SFR does not get affected by tobacco consumption. Low pH levels were shown in tobacco consumers, especially smokers, which can lead to decreased salivary defence mechanism against various mucosal and dental diseases. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that the mean resting mouth SFR does not get affected by consumption of tobacco, however the pH levels certainly decreases with tobacco consumption.
    Project - Human Whole Mouth Fluid (Saliva) Protein Analysis for Oral and Systemic Diseases in Pakistan Population
    Update
    By the combine collaboration of Pakistan Human Saliva Research Group (Pakhsrg) and Islamabad Medical and Dental College (IMDC) this workshop arranged at Islamabad Dental Hospital (IDH).
    The idea behind this presentation is to elaborate the importance of research social media in biomedical sciences.
    What is Omics Technology? What is Saliva? What is the impact of Saliva on health? Why Saliva is Liquid Biopsy? How we do Saliva Collection and Banking? What is Point of Care Technology (POC)?
    Objectives: The aim of the current study was to carry out a preliminary validation of devices for standardized collection of whole mouth fluid (WMF) in comparison to the passive drooling method for protein analysis in healthy subjects. Methods: A carefully designed sample collection/pretreatment protocol is crucial to the success of any saliva proteomics project. In this study WMF was collected from healthy volunteers (n=10, ages: 18-26 years). Individuals with any oral disease were excluded from the study group. In our study we evaluated the following collection methods; the classical passive drooling method (unstimulated whole saliva) and standardized tools for saliva collection [PureSAL™, and RNAProSAL™] from Oasis Diagnostics® Corporation [Vancouver WA, USA] (See Figures-1 and 2 below) (Chiang et al., 2015). For estimation of protein levels, we used the Bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) protein assay kit (Thermo Fisher) (Krieg et al., 2005). Results: In the case of circle ‘c’ this showed a few spots that are much clearer in saliva samples collected using the PureSAL™ device. The noted differences may be observed due to the intrinsic properties of the RNAProSAL™ and PureSAL™ technologies (see Figure-3), which both use highly absorbent pad materials to collect saliva and act to remove a high percentage of mucinous material (>70%). The recovery of a highly purified sample is readily obtained by compression through a proprietary medium to clear potential interferences likely to cause problems with downstream assays. Conclusions: We concluded that passive drooling, which is a method that requires practice and is less desirable and more time consuming for participants, and also provides an unfiltered sample but these two devices provide a readily purified sample directly into a standard collection tube that is stabilized independently for immediate use or stored for long term storage pending analysis.
    Gene therapy holds a promising future for bridging the gap between the disciplines of medicine and clinical dentistry. The dynamic treatment approaches of gene therapy have been advancing by leaps and bounds. They are transforming the conventional approaches into more precise and preventive ones that may limit the need of using drugs and surgery. The oral cavity is one of the most accessible areas for the clinical applications of gene therapy for various oral tissues. The idea of genetic engineering has become more exciting due to its advantages over other treatment modalities. For instance, the body is neither subjected to an invasive surgery nor deep wounds, nor is it susceptible to systemic effects of drugs. The aim of this article is to review the gene therapy applications in the field of dentistry. In addition, therapeutic benefits in terms of treatment of diseases, minimal invasion and maximum outcomes have been discussed.
    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been used in various fields of medicine such as drug delivery, tissue regeneration and gene therapy. Although there has been research carried out investigated the potential of these remarkable materials in dentistry, to date no review has been published to summarize the studies conducted. Due to their target cell specificity, small size and fluorescence they have also been found to be usefulness in dentistry. Main applications of NDs in dentistry and medicine include guided tissue regeneration, reinforcement of polymers and drug delivery to treat infections and cancers. Recent research also suggests that NDs can also be used as bioactive or antibacterial dental implant coatings. However, to date, the research conducted on their biocompatibility is limited and inconclusive. Hence, substantially more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to envisage the future of NDs in dentistry. It is hoped that in the next decade these promising materials will find a variety of uses in routine dentistry.
    Background and objective: The exact etiology of recurrent aphthous ulcers (RAS) is unknown. The management of RAS is not always straightforward. The aim of this review is to critically analyze and summarize the clinical literature focusing on the management of aphthous ulcers using low-level lasers. Materials and methods: The Medline (PubMed), Web of Knowledge (ISI), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Embase databases were searched electronically for studies published in last 20 years (1995-2015) using the keywords "recurrent aphthous stomatitis," "aphthous ulcers," and "laser." Results: A total of 85 articles were found during the initial search; 76 studies were excluded for not fulfilling the criteria whereas nine studies were deemed suitable for this review. Among the included studies, two articles were case reports and seven were randomized clinical trials. Study design, sample size, type of intervention and control of each study were critically analyzed and summarized according to the CONSORT protocol. In majority of the patients, immediate pain relief and accelerated ulcer healing was observed following irradiation with lasers. Conclusions: Although various types of lasers have succeeded in providing immediate pain relief to patients, carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have the unique advantage of requiring a short exposure time (5-10s). In order to ascertain the efficacy of laser for treating ulcers in the clinical setting, more clinical trials are required.
    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has been suggested as an alternative to replace titanium as a dental implant material. However, PEEK's bioactivity and osseointegration are debatable. This review has systematically analyzed studies that have compared PEEK (or PEEK-based) implants with titanium implants so that its feasibility as a possible replacement for titanium can be determined. The focused question was: ''Are the bioactivity and osseointegration of PEEK implants comparable to or better than titanium implants?'' Using the key words ''dental implant,'' ''implant,'' ''polyetheretherketone,'' ''PEEK,'' and ''titanium'' in various combinations, the following databases were searched electronically: PubMED/MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Database. 5 in vitro and 4 animal studies were included in the review. In 4 out of 5 in vitro studies, titanium exhibited more cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, osteoblast maturation, and osteogenesis compared to PEEK; one in vitro study observed comparable outcomes regardless of the implant material. In all animal studies, uncoated and coated titanium exhibited a more osteogenic behavior than did uncoated PEEK, while comparable bone-implant contact was observed in HA-coated PEEK and coated titaniumimplants. Unmodified PEEK is less osseoconductive and bioactive than titanium. Furthermore, the majority of studies had multiple sources of bias; hence, in its unmodified form, PEEK is unsuitable to be used as dental implant. Significantly more research and long-term trials must focus on improving the bioactivity of PEEK before it can be used as dental implant. More comparative animal and clinical studies are warranted to ascertain the potential of PEEK as a viable alternative to titanium.
    Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed.
    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1-100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.
    Research has shown that tooth loss results in morphological changes in alveolar ridge that may influence the subsequent implant placement. Immediate implant placement was introduced as a possible means to limit bone resorption and reduce the number of surgical procedures following tooth extraction. Histological and clinical evidence from human clinical studies showing efficacy of immediate implants has come to light over the last decade or so. However, immediate implant placement is a challenging surgical procedure and requires proper case selection and surgical technique. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of clinical guidelines for immediate implant placement case selection. Therefore, the aim of this mini-review is to analyze critical evidence from human studies in order to establish clinical guidelines which may help clinicians in case selection when considering immediate implant placement protocol.
    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials which have the size in the range of 1-100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.
    Objective: This study is aimed to establish the microtensile bond strength of enamel following exposure to an aerated drink at various time intervals with/without application of remineralization agent. In addition, degree of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel has been assessed using polarized light microscopy. Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human incisors split into two halves were immersed in aerated beverage (cola drink) for 5 min and stored in saliva until the time of microtensile bond testing. Prepared specimens were divided randomly into two study groups; remineralizing group (n = 70): specimens were treated for remineralization using casein phosphopeptides and amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) remineralization agent (Recaldent™; GC Europe) and control group (n = 70): no remineralization treatment; specimens were kept in artificial saliva. All specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength at regular intervals (1 h, 1 days, 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks) using a universal testing machine. The results statistically analyzed (P = 0.05) using two-way ANOVA test. Results: Results showed statistically significant increase in bond strength in CPP-ACP tested group (P < 0.05) at all-time intervals. The bond strength of remineralizing group samples at 2 days (~13.64 megapascals [MPa]) is comparable to that of control group after 1 week (~12.44 MPa). Conclusions: CPP-ACP treatment of teeth exposed to an aerated drink provided significant increase in bond strength at a shorter interval compared to teeth exposed to saliva alone.
    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine) is a substance produced and secreted by multiple organs in vertebrates. In addition to playing a part in the circadian cycle of the body, melatonin is known to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-oncotic effects on human tissue. Oral cavity is affected by many inflictions such as periodontitis, mucositis, cancers and cytotoxic effects of various drugs and biomaterials. Research has suggested that melatonin is effective in treating the aforementioned pathologies. Further, melatonin has also been observed to enhance osseointegration and bone regeneration. The aim of this review is to critically analyze and summarize the research focusing on the potential of melatonin in the field of oral medicine. Topical administration of melatonin has a positive effect on periodontal health and osseointegration. Furthermore, melatonin is particularly effective in improving the periodontal parameters of diabetic patients with periodontitis. Melatonin also exerts a regenerative effect on periodontal bone and maybe used component of periodontal scaffolds. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of various drugs and dental materials maybe countered by the anti-oxidant properties of melatonin. Topical melatonin promotes the healing of tooth extraction sockets and may also impede the progression of oral cancer. There are many current and potential applications of melatonin. However, more long-term clinical and animal research is needed to assess its efficacy. Moreover, the role of melatonin supplements in the management of periodontitis should also be assessed.
    There has been a rapid growth in the interest and adaptation of saliva as a diagnostic specimen over the last decade, and in the last few years in particular, there have been major developments involving the application of saliva as a clinically relevant specimen. Saliva provides a “window” into the oral and systemic health of an individual, and like other bodily fluids, saliva can be analyzed and studied to diagnose diseases. With the advent of new, more sensitive technologies to detect smaller concentrations of analytes in saliva relative to blood levels, there have been a number of critical developments in the field that we will describe. In particular, recent advances in standardized saliva collection devices that were not available three to four years ago, have made it easy for safe, simple, and non-invasive collection of samples to be carried out from patients. With the availability of these new technologies, we believe that in the next decade salivary proteomics will make it possible to predict and diagnose oral as well as systemic diseases, cancer, and infectious diseases, among others. The aim of this article is to review recent developments and advances in the area.
    This aim of the classification chart to bring all dental biomaterials in one platform with their types and uses. This classification map is very handily for undergraduate and postgraduates students, also for dental nurses and hygienists.
    Project - Human Whole Mouth Fluid (Saliva) Protein Analysis for Oral and Systemic Diseases in Pakistan Population
    Update
    In this study we targeted healthy Pakistan population for validation of saliva collection devices with classical method of saliva collection of these devices.
    We use different sampling methods such as classical method, RNAPro•SAL™ and Pure•SAL™ by Oasis Diagnostics ® Corporation.
    Results:
    We achieved proteins in all samples which validate that these sampling beneficial for all in-vitro diagnostics.
    Dear Dr 
    Can you please write a comprehensive review on  "Hydroxyapatite Role in  Regenerative Dentistry". 
    Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.
    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health
    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.
    There are many human oral antimicrobial peptides responsible for playing important roles including maintenance, repairing of oral tissues (hard or soft) and defense against oral microbes. In this review we have highlighted the biochemistry, physiology and proteomics of human oral histatin peptides, secreted from parotid and submandibular salivary glands in human. The significance of these peptides includes; capability for ionic binding that can kill fungal Candida albicans. They have histidine rich amino acids sequences (7-12 family members; corresponding to residues 12-24, 13-24, 12-25, 13-25, 5-11, and 5-12, respectively) for Histatin-3. However, Histatin-3 can be synthesised proteolytically from histatin 5 or 6. Due to their fungicidal response and high biocompatibility (little or no toxicity), these peptides can be considered as therapeutic agents with most probable applications for example, artificial saliva for denture wearers and salivary gland dysfunction conditions. The objectives of current article are to explore the human histatin peptides for its types, chemical and biological aspects. In addition, the potential for therapeutic bio-dental applications has been elaborated.
    Omic science brings a new discipline in medical and dental sciences by viewing the molecules that make up a cell, tissue or an organism. The term “salivaomics” was coined in 2008 to reflect the rapid development of knowledge about the various “omics” constituents of saliva. Omic science has a number of applications not only to understanding of normal physiology but also pathology of various diseases. This technology detected biological samples on different levels such as genomics (genes), transcriptomics (mRNA), proteomics (proteins) and metabolomics (metabolites).
    From an ancient tool to a modern way of improving oral health, miswak (chewing stick) has proven to be an effective tool for oral health. The miswak removes the bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical actions. It provides a cheap and easily accessible way of improving oral health of the individuals and populations. The use of miswak was promoted centuries ago by Prophet Muhammad (Peace be Upon Him). In the modern era, the beneficial role of using miswak such as antiseptic, antimicrobial, anticariogenic and analgesic effects have been proven scientifically. This article reviews the various oral health benefits of miswak in the light of religious, scientific and social evidences.
    Human saliva is a mouth fluid produced by a combination of three major glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) and more than 400 minor glands located within the oral cavity [1]. Saliva performing dynamic roles in the oral cavity such as protection of oral mucosa, maintenance of oral homeostasis, facilitates taste perception, contains enzymes (amylase) for preliminary food digestion, help in healing of mucosa (oral, gastric, and oropharynx), contain proteins (statherin, proline rich proteins) help in tooth enamel mineralization [2]. Saliva is first line of defence against pathogen through antimicrobial peptides (defensins, cathelicidins, histatin and adrenomedullin)
    Aims: Chemo-mechanical preparation continues to be one of the most challenging steps in root canal treatment procedures. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of procedural errors during root canal treatment performed by interns. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Methodology: A total of 200 patients scheduled for root canal treatment in the permanent first molar were selected and pre-operative radiographs were taken before the procedure. After achieving a straight line access, the interns performed conventional step back technique to prepare the canals and irrigation was done using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. After completion of the instrumentation procedure, two experienced endodontists evaluated the cases both clinically and radiographically. Results: Results showed that a total of 78 (39%) cases received procedural errors, and the remaining cases received appropriate instrumentation procedures. Apical Transportation (12%) presented the highest percentage for procedural errors followed by ledge formation (10%), strip perforation (5%), apical perforation (5%), instrument separation (4%) and perforation during access (3%). Conclusion: The present study suggests a high frequency of procedural errors 39% in all cases performed by interns. This reflects the amount of clinical knowledge and skill possessed and applied by operator during the course of the treatment.
    Electrospinning is a versatile technique that has gained popularity for various biomedical applications in recent years. Electrospinning is being used for fabricating nanofibers for various biomedical and dental applications such as tooth regeneration, wound healing and prevention of dental caries. Electrospun materials have the benefits of unique properties for instance, high surface area to volume ratio, enhanced cellular interactions, protein absorption to facilitate binding sites for cell receptors. Extensive research has been conducted to explore the potential of electrospun nanofibers for repair and regeneration of various dental and oral tissues including dental pulp, dentin, periodontal tissues, oral mucosa and skeletal tissues. However, there are a few limitations of electrospinning hindering the progress of these materials to practical or clinical applications. In terms of biomaterials aspects, the better understanding of controlled fabrication, properties and functioning of electrospun materials is required to overcome the limitations. More in vivo studies are definitely required to evaluate the biocompatibility of electrospun scaffolds. Furthermore, mechanical properties of such scaffolds should be enhanced so that they resist mechanical stresses during tissue regeneration applications. The objective of this article is to review the current progress of electrospun nanofibers for biomedical and dental applications. In addition, various aspects of electrospun materials in relation to potential dental applications have been discussed.
    The aim of this chapter is to compile history, chemistry and other properties of resin polymers in dentistry. Today, teeth can be filled with gold, porcelain and amalgam; or tooth-coloured resin based materials such as glass-ionomer cements and polymer composites [1]. The location and extent of the decay, cost of filling materials, patients' insurance coverage, and dentist's recommendation assist in determining the type of filling used. Polymer based composites were commercially introduced in the mid – 1960s. Initially it was indicated for restoration of anterior teeth. Since then dental composites have gone through marked improvement in its mechanical and physical properties, durability, wear resistance, and manipulative qualities. More recently, research has been carried out on re-mineralising, anti-bacterial, and self-adhesive properties of dental resin composites. As a result, dental resin composites are widely used instead of conventional amalgam. Today, they are the most commonly available materials in dentistry as they are used for a number of clinical applications in dental clinics. It can be used as a filling material, as a luting agent, sealant, and in indirect restorations. Dental polymer composites mainly have three major components: inorganic fillers, an organic polymer matrix, and a coupling agent. The fillers can be glass or other reinforcing fillers. The matrix is mainly formed from high molecular weight monomers such as urethane di-methacrylate (UDMA), and bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) see figure-1 [2]. Fillers are added to increase strength, reduce polymerisation shrinkage and heat generation. A silane coupling agent is used to augment the bond between these two components and to aid filler distribution [3]. An initiator and activator are usually added to begin and later control the polymerisation process when external energy (light) is applied. The choice of appropriate monomers for the composite formulation strongly influences the viscosity, reactivity, and polymerization shrinkage of the composite paste, as well as the mechanical properties, water uptake and swelling of the cured composite. The properties of dental composites are significantly influenced by the fillers employed. According to the nature and the particle size of the filler the dental composites have been classified into four main groups, traditional composites, micro-filled composites, hybrid composites, and small particle hybrid composites [3]. The main drawbacks for most composite restorations are polymerisation shrinkage, complex adhesive procedures for bonding to dentine, and brittle fracture. Composites also have no anti-bacterial properties, and tend to accumulate more biofilm, and plaque in vivo than other restorative materials [4–6].
    Pregnancy is a dynamic state leading to several physiological transient changes in the body systems including the oral cavity. In order to maintain good oral health, the dental treatment should not be withheld. The dental management of pregnant patients involves special considerations. This review article discusses common dental problems a pregnant woman faces along with the relevant treatment implications, the risks of various medications to both mother and fetus and common dental problems a pregnant women faces. In addition, the management of related dental problems in the pregnant patients and appropriate scheduling of dental surgical procedures during pregnancy has been discussed.
    Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (Laser) is used widely in a range of biomedical and dental applications in recent years. In the field of restorative dentistry, various kinds of lasers have been developed for diagnostic (such as caries detection) and operative applications (such as tooth ablation, cavity preparation, restorations, bleaching). The main benefits for laser applications are patient's comfort, pain relief and better results for specific applications. Major concerns for using dental lasers frequently are high cost, need for specialized training and sensitivity of the technique thereby compromising its usefulness particularly in developing countries. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate and summarize the applications of lasers in restorative dentistry including a comparison of the applications of lasers for major restorative dental procedures and conventional clinical approaches. A remarkable increase in the applications of lasers for dental application is expected in the near future.
    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science. The progress of tissue engineering for dental tissues is promising and various dental soft and hard tissues have been regenerated successfully in vitro using stem cells. Prior to their applications practically, there are a number of challenges and unanswered questions that need to be resolved for further progress. It is expected that in next two to three decades, the field of dentistry will be changed significantly by the availability of innovative tissue engineered products in dental office. The objective of this review paper is to highlight the progress of tissue engineering for various dental hard and soft tissues such as enamel, dentin, alveolar bone, periodontium, oral mucosa, and salivary glands. In addition, the challenges in the progress of tissue engineering and future expectations have been discussed. © 2015, The Korean Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
    This book introduces and discusses the concepts pertaining to the subject and science of Oral Biology. It contains a unique and comprehensive introduction to oral biological systems and processes such as, Cranio-facial embryology, structure and development of bone, periodontal tissues, salivary glands, temporomandibular joint and its components to name a few topics covered. The book ends with a very unique discussion relating to the regenerative capacity and repair processes of the oral tissues. This book tries to avoid increasing the length and complexity of the text so as not to obscure the basic information necessary for readers to gain knowledge and develop a basic understanding of oral tissues. The readers can refer to the variety of images or use the tables for a quick reference present in the chapters to summarize the text and highlight important points. Full-color illustrations explain concepts graphically. Clear, precise figures and images show identifying details and the tables throughout the chapters provide at-a-glance reference material relating to specific topic under discussion. Students of dentistry, medicine and dental clinicians alike will benefit from the clear and consistent format of this book.
    Purpose: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a polymer that has many potential uses in dentistry. The aim of this review was to summarize the outcome of research conducted on the material for dental applications. In addition, future prospects of PEEK in the field of clinical dentistry have been highlighted. Study selection: An electronic search was carried out via the PubMed (Medline) database using keywords 'polyetheretherketone', 'dental' and 'dentistry' in combination. Original research papers published in English language in last fifteen year were considered. The studies relevant to our review were critically analyzed and summarized. Results: PEEK has been explored for a number of applications for clinical dentistry. For example, PEEK dental implants have exhibited lesser stress shielding compared to titanium dental implants due to closer match of mechanical properties of PEEK and bone. PEEK is a promising material for a number of removable and fixed prosthesis. Furthermore, recent studies have focused improving the bioactivity of PEEK implants at the nanoscale. Conclusion: Considering mechanical and physical properties similar to bone, PEEK can be used in many areas of dentistry. Improving the bioactivity of PEEK dental implants without compromising their mechanical properties is a major challenge. Further modifications and improving the material properties may increase its applications in clinical dentistry.
    This review discusses and summarizes the recent developments and advances in the use of biodegradable materials for bone repair purposes. The choice between using degradable and non-degradable devices for orthopedic and maxillofacial applications must be carefully weighed. Traditional biodegradable devices for osteosynthesis have been successful in low or mild load bearing applications. However, continuing research and recent developments in the field of material science has resulted in development of biomaterials with improved strength and mechanical properties. For this purpose, biodegradable materials, including polymers, ceramics and magnesium alloys have attracted Materials 2015, 8 5745 much attention for osteologic repair and applications. The next generation of biodegradable materials would benefit from recent knowledge gained regarding cell material interactions, with better control of interfacing between the material and the surrounding bone tissue. The next generations of biodegradable materials for bone repair and regeneration applications require better control of interfacing between the material and the surrounding bone tissue. Also, the mechanical properties and degradation/resorption profiles of these materials require further improvement to broaden their use and achieve better clinical results.
    Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of OPEN ACCESS Materials 2015, 8 718 dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a wide-ranging class of host-defense molecules that act early to contest against microbial invasion and challenge. These are small cationic peptides that play an important in the development of innate immunity. In the oral cavity, the AMPs are produced by the salivary glands and the oral epithelium and serve defensive purposes. The aim of this review was to discuss the types and functions of oral AMPs and their role in combating microorganisms and infections in the oral cavity.
    Purpose The aim of this review is to summarize and evaluate the relevant literature regarding the different ways how polyetheretherketone (PEEK) can be modified to overcome its limited bioactivity and thereby making it suitable as a dental implant material. Study selection An electronic literature search was conducted via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases using the keywords ‘PEEK dental implants’, ‘nano’ ‘osseointegration’, ‘surface treatment’ and ‘modification’. A total 16 in vivo and in vitro studies were found suitable to be included in this review. Results There are many viable methods to increase the bioactivity of PEEK. Most methods focus on increasing the surface roughness, increasing the hydrophilicity and coating osseoconductive materials. Conclusion There are many ways in which PEEK can be modified at a nano-meter level to overcome its limited bioactivity. Melt-blending with bioactive nano-particles can be used to produce bioactive nano-composites while spin-coating, gas plasma etching, electron beam and plasma-ion immersion implantation can used to modify to the surface of PEEK implants in order to make them more bioactive. However, more animal studies are needed before these implants can be deemed suitable to be used as dental implants. Keywords: Dental implants; PEEK; Surface treatment; Modification; Osseointegration
    It is an honor for me to be the Guest Editor for the periodontology special edition issue by the IDJSR. The primary purpose of this special edition is to present the research and clinical case reports in the field of periodontology in order to stimulate a critical analysis and a discussion on the future of the periodontal practice and research. The initiatives being taken by this journal paves the way for dental students/clinicians/researchers from all over the world to contribute and share their research. I can only see this journal go from strength to strength and I wish the whole team of IDJSR the very best and look forward to being associated with them in the future. We know from the current data from USA alone that about 46% of the population has some form of periodontitis. This when coupled with an increase in life-expectancy leading to an aging population, means that the importance of managing and treating periodontal disease is more important than ever. There is a need to develop more effective strategies for periodontal therapy to achieve optimal outcomes with high levels of clinical success. Most of the activities within the field of periodontology are largely focused on the development of implant placement techniques, implant-related materials and state-of-the-art implant systems. As dentists, we treat patients by acknowledging the importance of prevention by maintenance of oral hygiene, early diagnosis and intervention for appropriate management of periodontal health. The same approach must be adopted for implant patients and a risk assessment should be performed. Presence of different medical conditions, susceptibility to periodontal disease and use of certain drugs can limit the success of implants. Implant loss, mucositis, marginal bone loss and peri-implantitis are the more common types of complications reported in implant therapy. With the increasing number of implants being placed currently, it can be expected that the frequency with which we encounter peri-implant lesions will increase as well. There are constant advances being made in periodontal regenerative therapy, immunoregulation, vaccination and community based approach to prevention. The knowledge and technology that is available today makes it an exciting time in the field of periodontology. It is imperative that we decide wisely how these professionals aids are going to be of benefit to our patients.
    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a wide-ranging class of host-defense molecules that act early to contest against microbial invasion and challenge. These are small cationic peptides that play an important in the development of innate immunity. In the oral cavity, the AMPs are produced by the salivary glands and the oral epithelium and serve defensive purposes. The aim of this review is to discuss the types and functions of oral AMPs and their role in combating microorganisms and infections in the oral cavity.
    The aim behind this chart is to bring all dental materials classification and their application in one platform.
    Rationalizing has become a new trend in the world of science and technology. Nanotechnology has ascended to become one of the most favorable technologies, and one which will change the application of materials in different fields. The quality of dental biomaterials has been improved by the emergence of nanotechnology. This technology manufactures materials with much better properties or by improving the properties of existing materials. The science of nanotechnology has become the most popular area of research, currently covering a broad range of applications in dentistry. This review describes the basic concept of nanomaterials, recent innovations in nanomaterials and their applications in restorative dentistry. Advances in nanotechnologies are paving the future of dentistry, and there are a plenty of hopes placed on nanomaterials in terms of improving the health care of dental patients.
    Oral health is defined as a standard of the oral and related tissues which enables an individual to eat, speak and socialize without active disease, discomfort or embarrassment and which contributes to general well-being. The traditional biomedical approach towards oral as well as general health is now being considered inappropriate to meet the health challenges of a population. A basic knowledge and application of social determinants of health is necessary at every level of a country’s healthcare system, so that effective preventive and efficient treatment strategies can be adopted by the various stakeholders in the healthcare system in order to meet those challenges. This review article presents a synopsis of the oral health challenges faced by the Pakistani population in the light of the determinants of health and gives a critical appraisal of the current as well as possible future public health approaches to overcome these challenges. It is aimed to contribute towards the existing knowledge about the public health aspects of oral health for medical and dental students, professionals and policy makers.
    This book introduces the latest advances in dental and biomaterial sciences. It includes a very unique yet comprehensive to modern aspects related to biomaterials and covers topics such as ceramic, metallic and polymeric oral biomaterials. It addresses teachers, instructors, tutors, undergraduate students and postgraduate students at dental and medical schools to provide them an insight into the materials being used in clinical practice. The contributing authors of this book are from all over the world and are distinguished in their respective disciplines. In addition to dental undergraduate and postgraduate student, this book is also recommended for students of this book is also recommended for students of biomedical engineering and basic sciences who want to gain an insight into contemporary biomaterials science. For clinical practitioners, this book offers an invaluable opportunity to learn at about the latest dental biomaterials.
    Dental student currently are facing a number of challenges such as encountering various types of examinations, assessments and competitions. Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are one of the most popular assess tool that is being used for medical and dental examinations. It is of vital importance for candidates to understand the method and have a good practice of solving such questions. The "BCQ’s ON DENTAL BIOMATERIALS" is a contemporary book covering a wide range of dental biomaterials speciality topics. More than 500 MCQs to assess the knowledge and cognitive skills covering different areas of dental biomaterials have been included. Answer keys have been provided on separate pages for ease of use. This book will not only be a great practicing tool but also be helpful to improve and endorse the knowledge. This book is the first book of its kind and expected to gain popularity globally among dental students.
    OBJECTIVE: To radiographically measure the thickness of dentin and width of pulp space for different age groups. METHODOLOGY: Non-pathological mandibular 2nd premolars with closed apices of 200 patients were evaluated radiographically using the Digora®radiographic imaging system. The sample was categorized into three groups; 15-29 years, 30-44 years and 45-59 years old. The dentin thickness and pulp space width were measured at different levels and recorded. SPSS version 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. One way ANOVA testing was done to statistically test the results. Level of significancewas kept at p value <0.05. RESULTS: It was observed that the mean dentin thickness was highest at levelA; 4.45mm+-0.54 in the 15-29 year age group.Whereas, the dentin thickness was highest at level B for the other age groups i.e., 4.59mm +- 0.56mm(30-44 years) and 4.69mm+- 0.39 (45-59 years) respectively.However, the lowestmean dentine thickness of all age groups was found at level E. Moreover, readings at levels B, C and E were statistically significant p<0.05,suggesting continuous dentin deposition with age in all age groups. The results of pulp space analysis revealed that the highestmeanwidth of pulp space for age groups, 15-29 and 30-44was at level B; 1.13mm+-0.43 and 1.03mm+- 0.34 respectively.Whereas, the oldest age group (45-59) had the highest width of pulp space at levelA; 0.84mm+- 0.42. Furthermore, the lowestmeanwidth of pulp space of all the age groupswas seen at level Eand the results were statistically significant for all levels p<0.05 suggesting a reduction in pulp spacewidthwith age. CONCLUSION: In this study dentin thickness and pulp space width have shown variation with age due to continued dentin deposition which can be a factor effecting the success of treatment for different groups, hence ages pecific treatment tools should be developed.
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