Zoe Smith

Zoe Smith
Loyola University Chicago | LUC · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

37
Publications
7,237
Reads
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384
Citations
Introduction
Zoe Smith (she/her) is an assistant professor of psychology at Loyola University Chicago in the clinical program. Dr. Smith is the leader of ACCTION Lab (Advancing Community CenTered IntervenIONs) and is working on multiple projects focused on creating culturally responsive interventions. Her research also focuses on academic motivation for youth with ADHD and the construct of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo. She has expertise in longitudinal data analyses and psychometrics.
Additional affiliations
July 2020 - June 2021
Loyola University Chicago
Position
  • PostDoc Position
July 2019 - June 2020
University of Chicago
Position
  • Child/Pediatric Psychology Intern
August 2015 - July 2019
Virginia Commonwealth University
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
August 2015 - May 2020
Virginia Commonwealth University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2015 - May 2017
Virginia Commonwealth University
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology
August 2011 - May 2015
Kenyon College
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (37)
Article
Full-text available
Preeminent theories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest that motivation deficits are core underlying features of the disorder. However, it is currently unclear whether empirical evidence supports the assertion that significant group (ADHD v. comparison) differences in motivation exist or that problems with motivation contribu...
Article
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) consists of symptoms of slowness, sluggishness, daydreaming, and low motivation. SCT has been linked to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), internalizing symptoms, and daytime sleepiness. Although there is clear evidence that SCT and ADHD symptoms are distinct constructs, the distinction between SCT, anxi...
Article
Background: Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is a construct that includes symptoms of slowness, excessive daydreaming, and drowsiness. SCT is often comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and SCT symptoms are associated with significant academic impairment above the influence of ADHD. Despite the overlap between ADHD and SCT a...
Article
Full-text available
The present study evaluates differences in self-reported intrinsic and extrinsic academic motivation and amotivation between eighth-grade adolescents with (n = 162) and without (n = 140) ADHD. This study also examines associations between motivation and academic functioning with objective (i.e., grade point average, standardized reading and math sc...
Article
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is characterized by behavioral symptoms reflecting slowness and lethargy (e.g., sluggishness, appearing sleepy) and inconsistent alertness/mental confusion (e.g., daydreaming, fogginess). SCT is substantially correlated with the inattentive symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be part of...
Article
The current study seeks to understand the potential benefits of culturally matched cross-age peer mentoring for Black and Latinx adolescent mentors residing in low-income, urban communities. Data for the study were derived from a 4-year longitudinal project examining the effectiveness of community-based cross-age mentoring. Data from the current sa...
Article
In this article, the authors highlight their experience in navigating outdated, inequitable policies at institutions and in advocating for changes that support health equity research with a focus on participant compensation. As two new assistant professors establishing their programs of health equity research, they call on colleagues to examine the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective (1) Evaluate current knowledge and identify key directions in the study of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and (2) arrive at a consensus change in terminology for the construct that reflects the current science and may be more acceptable to researchers, clinicians, caregivers, and patients. Method Convened an international Work Group that...
Article
Objective This study examined marital satisfaction among parents of youth with spina bifida (SB) over an 8-year period and investigated the usefulness of the double ABCX model for understanding factors that predict change in marital satisfaction across child age. Methods Data from five time points of a longitudinal investigation of psychosocial ou...
Article
This study explored the experiences of Head Start parents becoming involved in their pre-school age children’s individualized education program (IEP) process. Seven participants from the rural Midwest engaged in focus group ( N = 2) or interview ( N = 1) format discussions regarding barriers to involvement in the IEP process and recommendations to...
Article
As sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) shows similar inattention and neuropsychological dysfunction as youth with spina bifida (SB), it is important to examine whether neuropsychological functioning may affect the development of SCT in this population. Participants were 140 youth with SB and their parents who participated in five waves of a longitudinal...
Article
Objective: This study examined the transition to adult health care for individuals with spina bifida (SB) and explored demographic and relational associations with transition status. Method: Young adults with SB (18-30; n = 326) were recruited to complete an anonymous, online survey. Frequencies of reported experiences, behaviors, and satisfacti...
Article
Objective This study examined bidirectional associations between mother- and father-reported medical responsibility and medical skill mastery in youth with spina bifida (SB). Methods Participants were 140 youth with SB and their parents who participated in three waves of a longitudinal study across four years (ages 8–15 years at Time 1). Mother- a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Suicide is one of the leading mental health crises and takes one life every 40 seconds. Four out of every five suicides occur in low- and middle-income countries. Despite religion being a protective factor against suicide, the estimated number of suicides is rapidly increasing in Pakistan. Aims Our review focuses on the trends of suicid...
Article
Objective: The primary goal of this study was to examine the factor structure of a spina bifida (SB) medical responsibilities measure and a medical regimen skills scale across time in families of youth with SB. Method: One-hundred and forty youth with SB and their parents were assessed in both childhood/adolescence and adolescence/young adulthoo...
Article
Objective To examine the predictive role of social skills in youth with spina bifida (SB) on growth in medical responsibility across development. Methods As part of a larger, longitudinal study, 140 youth with SB were assessed across four time points (ages 8–22 across time points). Mixed-effects models were investigated for change with: (a) no p...
Article
Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at high risk for tobacco use, but tobacco use prevention strategies are not regularly incorporated into evidence-based ADHD interventions. We conducted a pilot randomized-controlled trial to determine the feasibility of integrating tobacco use prevention skills into a behavioral t...
Article
Objective: Examine individual factors associated with peer victimization (PV) in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the association between PV and educational outcomes. Method: Participants were 121 adolescents ( M age = 13.62, SD = 1.03; 89% boys) with diagnosed ADHD. Using path analysis, we tested whet...
Article
A growing number of studies support the internal and external validity of youth self-reported sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms. However, no study has examined SCT in adolescents without ADHD, examined whether adolescent self-reported SCT is distinct from adolescent self-reported ADHD inattention (ADHD-IN), or evaluated whether links between...
Article
Background: Prior studies examining the sleep of adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have relied on mean values such as average sleep duration, which masks intraindividual variability (IIV). The objective was to investigate whether adolescents with ADHD have greater IIV of sleep/wake patterns than adolescen...
Article
Objectives: This study used a multi-informant approach to examine differences in types and rates of technology used by adolescents with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), associations between technology use and sleep/daytime sleepiness, and whether technology use was differentially related to sleep/daytime sleepiness in a...
Article
The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative importance of adolescent and parent skills acquired during participation in the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention in predicting intervention response. A sample of 111 middle school students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (66% male; Mage = 11.99,...
Article
In the present study, we sought to examine response trajectories to brief (11-week) school-based homework interventions and factors that may help schools predict responses. Participants included 222 middle-school students (72% boys; M <sub>age</sub> = 12.00 years, SD = 1.02) who had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD...
Article
Deficits in organization, time management, and planning (OTMP) abilities are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and contribute to impairment. Assessment of these skills is vital, but few measures have been validated for youth with ADHD. The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) task is frequently used in resea...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the importance of therapeutic processes in two brief school-based psychosocial treatments targeting homework problems in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as delivered by school mental health professionals. Method: A sample of 222 middle school students (72% male; Mage = 12.00 years, SD = 1.0...
Article
Objective: This study evaluated which Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) factors (i.e., Slow, Sleepy, Daydreamer) are most strongly associated with homework motivation, and whether homework motivation mediates the path between SCT and academic impairment. Method: Participants were 285 middle school students (boys 209) in Grades 6 to 8 (ages 10-15 ye...
Article
Parenting stress is common in families with an adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents (SIPA) was developed to assess parenting stress but has not been validated outside of the original development work. This study examined the factor structure and sources of convergent validity o...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 2 brief school-based interventions targeting the homework problems of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-the Homework, Organization, and Planning Skills (HOPS) intervention and the Completing Homework by Improving Efficiency and Focus (CHIEF) intervention, as implemented by...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) exhibit symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. Although many symptoms of SCT reflect internalizing states, no study has evaluated the clinical utility of self-report of SCT in an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) sample....
Article
Many students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit deficits in motivation to pursue long-term goals. Students with ADHD have particular difficulty with motivation to complete homework-related tasks and often fail to complete assignments. Although these problems are common and may impact academic performance, no homework-moti...
Article
Full-text available
Children and adolescents with ADHD often have difficulties with organization, time management, and planning skills, and these skills are a common target of intervention. A limited array of tools for measuring these abilities in youth is available, and one of the most prominent measures is the Children’s Organizational Skills Scale (COSS). Although...
Article
The primary goals of this study were to evaluate the dimensionality of the Penny et al. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Scale and to compare model fits for parent- and youth self-report versions. Participants were 262 young adolescents (ages 10-15) comprehensively diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Both confirmatory factor analysis (...
Article
The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed wi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate longitudinal pathways to impairment as outlined in the cognitive-behavioral model of ADHD in a sample of 59 college students diagnosed with ADHD. Method: Serial mediation models were used to test whether underachievement, defined as prior year GPA, would longitudinally predict self-reporte...
Article
Sleep restriction (SR) impairs adolescents' attention, which could contribute to high rates of driving crashes. Here, we examine the impact of experimental SR on adolescent drivers, considering whether that impact is moderated by the nature of the drive (urban/suburban vs. rural) or how vulnerable each adolescent is to attentional decline after SR....

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Create liberation and healing focused culturally responsive assessments for Black and Latina/e/o adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Increase access to services for adolescents and families. Use community-based participatory research methods to learn what adolescents and families need.