Zoe Chi Ngo

Zoe Chi Ngo
Max Planck Institute for Human Development | MPIB · Center of Lifespan Psychology

PhD

About

34
Publications
5,637
Reads
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289
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2019 - present
Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2013 - August 2019
Temple University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (34)
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory relies on memory for the relations among multiple elements of an event and the ability to discriminate among similar elements of episodes. The latter phenomenon, termed pattern separation, has been studied mainly in young and older adults with relatively little research on children. Building on prior work with young children, we cre...
Article
Full-text available
Although the hippocampus is implicated in both spatial navigation and associative memory, very little is known about whether individual differences in the 2 domains covary. People who prefer to navigate using a hippocampal-dependent place strategy may show better performance on associative memory tasks than those who prefer a caudate-dependent resp...
Article
Full-text available
Remembering arbitrary associations, such as unrelated word pairs or object-background pairs, appears to depend on recollection (reviewed in Yonelinas, 2002). However, for cases in which the components of an association share pre-existing semantic relations, can familiarity support associative recognition? In two experiments with congruent object-ba...
Article
Full-text available
Five experiments were conducted to test whether encoding manipulations thought to encourage unitization would affect fluency attribution in associative recognition memory. Experiments 1a and 1b, which utilized a speeded recognition memory test, demonstrated that definitional encoding increased reliance on familiarity during the recognition memory t...
Article
The ability to detect differences among similar events in our lives is a crucial aspect of successful episodic memory performance, which develops across early childhood. The neural substrate of this ability is supported by operations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). Here, we used representational similarity analysis (RSA) to measure neural patter...
Preprint
Adaptive memories are formed in the face of a fundamental tension: extracting commonalities across experiences to generate novel inferences (i.e., generalization), while simultaneously forming separate representations of similar events (i.e., memory specificity). Theoretical memory models suggest that specific experiences are initially encoded as h...
Preprint
Cumulative science hinges on consolidating empirical evidence. However, both narrative reviews and meta-analyses often restrict integration by using construct labels in searches, which vary greatly across traditions and eras in psychology. An alternative is the mapping review, more common in other disciplines, which focuses on operational definitio...
Preprint
Over the past five decades, there has been a tremendous effort to better understand the nature of memory in infancy and early childhood. These findings are beginning to address the puzzle of how it is possible to build an impressive semantic memory during periods of development when episodic memories for events are unlikely to be retained (infantil...
Article
Episodic memory relies on the coordination of widespread brain regions that reconstruct spatiotemporal details of an episode. These topologically dispersed brain regions can rapidly communicate through structural pathways. Research in animal and human lesion studies implicate the fornix—the major output pathway of the hippocampus—in supporting vari...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory binds together diverse elements of an event into a cohesive unit. This property enables the reconstruction of multidimensional experiences when triggered by a cue related to a past event via pattern completion processes. Such holistic retrieval is evident in young adults, as shown by dependency in the retrieval success for different...
Article
Semantic memory-general knowledge of ideas and concepts-includes generalization processes that support inference. Episodic memory, on the other hand, preserves the specificity of individual events by binding together unique combinations of elements from an episode and relies on pattern separation to distinguish similar experiences. These two memory...
Article
Episodic memories typically share overlapping elements in distinctive combinations, and to be valuable for future behavior they need to withstand delays. There is relatively little work on whether children have special difficulty with overlap or withstanding delay. However, Yim, Dennis, and Sloutsky (Psychological Science, 2013, Vol. 24, pp. 2163–2...
Preprint
Full-text available
Episodic memories typically share overlapping elements in distinctive combinations, and, to be valuable for future behavior, they need to withstand delays. There is relatively little work on whether children have special difficulty with overlap or withstanding delay. However, Yim, Dennis, and Sloutsky (2013) suggested that extensive overlap is more...
Preprint
Full-text available
Popular computational models of memory have posited that the formation of new semantic knowledge relies on generalization from memories of specific but related episodes, at least when it occurs rapidly. This view predicts a contingency between new generalizations and episodic memory. However, very young children readily accumulate semantic knowledg...
Preprint
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) undergoes critical developmental change throughout childhood, which aligns with developmental changes in episodic memory. We used representational similarity analysis to compare neural pattern similarity for children and adults in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex during naturalistic viewing of clips from the sam...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory capacity requires several processes, including mnemonic discrimination of similar experiences, termed pattern separation, and holistic retrieval of multidimensional experiences given a cue, termed pattern completion. Both computations seem to rely on the hippocampus proper, but they also seem to be instantiated by distinct hippocamp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Episodic memory binds together diverse elements of an event into a cohesive unit. This property enables the reconstruction of multidimensional experiences when triggered by a cue related to a past event via pattern completion processes. Such holistic retrieval is evident in young adults, as shown by dependency in the retrieval success for different...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The fornix is the primary axonal tract of the hippocampus, connecting it to modulatory subcortical structures. This review reveals that fornix damage causes cognitive deficits that closely mirror those resulting from hippocampal lesions. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the fornix, spanning non-human animal lesion research, clini...
Preprint
Episodic memory consists of distinctive experiences, with specific spatiotemporal information about what happened maintained over time. These memories typically share overlapping elements in distinctive combinations. In this study, we evaluated: (1) whether overlapping elements pose a differential challenge for younger children; and (2) whether a s...
Preprint
Episodic memory requires several processes, including mnemonic discrimination of similar experiences, termed pattern separation, and holistic retrieval of multidimensional experiences given a cue, termed pattern completion. Both computations seem to rely on the hippocampus proper, but they also seem to be instantiated by distinct intrahippocampal s...
Preprint
The fornix is the primary axonal tract of the hippocampus, connecting it to modulatory subcortical structures. This review reveals that fornix damage causes cognitive deficits that closely mirror those resulting from hippocampal lesions. In rodents and non-human primates, this is demonstrated by deficits in conditioning, reversal learning, and navi...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory relies on discriminating among similar elements of episodes. Mnemonic discrimination is relatively poor at age 4, and then improves markedly. We investigated whether motivation to encode items with fine‐grain resolution would change this picture of development, using an engaging computer‐administered memory task in which a bird ate...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory binds together the diverse elements of an event into a coherent representation. This property allows for the reconstruction of multidimensional experiences when triggered by a cue related to a past event—a process of pattern completion. Such holistic recollection is evident in young adults, as shown by dependency in the retrieval su...
Article
Full-text available
Our capacity to form and retrieve episodic memories improves over childhood but declines in old age. Understanding these changes requires decomposing episodic memory into its components. Two such components are (a) mnemonic discrimination of similar people, objects, and contexts, and (b) relational binding of these elements. We designed novel memor...
Article
Full-text available
Dominant theories of episodic memory propose that a key mechanism of memory consolidation is replay—a process, whereby neural patterns of activation during learning are reinstated during offline post-learning periods. Here, we tested whether key signatures of replay defined by studies in rodents, such as recapitulation of specific memory traces, as...
Preprint
Episodic memory binds together the diverse elements of an event into a coherent representation. This property allows for the reconstruction of multidimensional experiences when triggered by a cue related to a past event—a process of pattern completion. Such holistic recollection is evident in young adults, as shown by dependency in the retrieval su...
Preprint
Episodic memory relies on discriminating among similar elements of episodes. Mnemonic discrimination is relatively poor at age 4, and then improves markedly. We investigated whether motivation to encode items with fine grain resolution would change this picture of development, using an engaging computer-administered memory task in which a bird ate...
Article
The ability to keep similar experiences separate in memory is critical for forming unique and lasting memories, as many events share overlapping features (e.g., birthday parties, holidays). Research on memory in young children suggests their memories often lack high-resolution details, i.e., show impoverished pattern separation (PS). Recently devel...
Article
During early ontogeny, the rapid and cumulative acquisition of world knowledge contrasts with slower improvements in the ability to lay down detailed and long-lasting episodic memories. This emphasis on generalization at the expense of specificity persists well into middle childhood and possibly into adolescence. During this period, recognizing reg...
Preprint
Our capacity to form and retrieve episodic memories improves over childhood but declines in old age. Understanding these changes requires decomposing episodic memory into its components: (1) mnemonic discrimination of similar people, objects and contexts, and (2) relational binding of these components. We designed novel memory tasks to assess these...
Article
Full-text available
Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasc...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory undergoes dramatic improvement in early childhood; the reason for this is poorly understood. In adults, episodic memory relies on a distributed neural network. Key brain regions that supporting these processes include the hippocampus, portions of the parietal cortex, and portions of prefrontal cortex, each of which shows different d...