Zinatul Zainol

Zinatul Zainol
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia | ukm · Faculty of Law

About

43
Publications
22,454
Reads
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169
Citations
Citations since 2016
6 Research Items
113 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, the rapid development of biotechnology has become a main concern for a larger part of the world. It has become one of the most promising fields which guarantee returns to businesses and offers benefits to the society. When dealing with biotechnology, the first issue that comes to mind is the safeness of the technology from tip to toe, tha...
Article
Reverse Domain Name Hijacking is a unique concept under the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy. Its main purpose is to protect domain name registrants against unjustified claims of overreaching trademark rights by allowing domain name registrants, in some limited circumstances to retort against trademark owners.
Article
Out of ten member countries of ASEAN, only Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines and Laos have some form of Domain Names Dispute Resolution mechanism. The wordings of the respective DRPs are closely modelled from the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), but of course with some variations to reflect the local flavour. Thus, it is not surprising that...
Article
This article examines how synthetic biology, which is the construction of novel biological parts, devices, and systems, as well as the modification of regular organisms, impacts biosafety regimes in the European Union (EU) and the United States (US). The article examines the nature and benefits of synthetic biology. It then reviews associated biosa...
Article
Pokémon Go is an augmented reality game that uses integrated virtual and physical movements to allow players to interact with virtual characters. This game was introduced in 2016 for smartphones and is interactive in that it involves physical activity. This mobile application has become a social media phenomenon around the world and is seen as pion...
Article
This paper investigates liquidity risk, cost efficiency and profitability relationships in Islamic banking. It also assesses the mediating effects of profitability (ROE and PBTZ) on the two variables. The study uses panel data techniques and mediation to assess 28 Islamic banks from ten countries over 2005 to 2015 periods. The result shows that pro...
Article
In the era of technology revolutionisation, universities have taken a huge step forward embarking on research, development, innovation and commercialisation. In order to successfully carry out these missions, a clear ownership of intellectual property generated at the university is crucial to avoid future disputed transactions. Thus, as part of the...
Article
University ownership model of intellectual property rights (IPR) has been widely used by universities around the world. With the new awareness of the importance of IPR, universities are keener to obtain ownership of any intellectual property (IP) created within the university in order to ensure smooth technology transfer and commercialization of th...
Article
This paper reviews the mechanisms and the Malaysian government initiatives to support commercialization and technology transfer from universities. To be more precise, this study attempts to demarcate the role of the Malaysian government by examining the initiatives for promoting commercialization of university research. Commercialization is still n...
Article
Nanotechnology has been facing multiple obstacles related to the applicability of patentability criteria. In this article, the authors addressed the novelty requirement in nanotechnology inventions in Iraqi and Malaysian patent acts. First, novelty was discussed to determine its applicability in the field of nanotechnology. Then, problems on nanote...
Article
‘Innovate or perish’. Universities in this age have evolved far beyond the traditional settings where university was an institution for disseminating knowledge, but today university has been running the role of country’s innovation excellence where it has become a place for disseminating and producing knowledge as well as commercializing their rese...
Article
Malaysia is well known for her cleanliness in the most of the countries in the world. But her environment has been worsening due tosome grounds such as waste management problems, rapid growth of industrialization, urbanization, lack of facilities, unawareness, weakness of law enforcement, lack of technology etc. Particularly, waste management has b...
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Iraq is estimated to play a key economic role in the future of its region, and its patent system is a significant component in that industrial progress. This article outlines the Iraqi patent system to assess its worthiness as legal protection for industrial property: a brief history of the legal system in Iraq is also given with a focus on the his...
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This article seeks to determine whether a mandatory labelling system of genetically modified (GM) food is justified or misconceived and therefore whether legal transformations are necessary. Although numerous benefits have been attributed to GM foods, they pose serious hazards to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. Much of the argument ma...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic meetings may offer a low cost and borderless medium of communication. Hence, shareholders' rights to participate may be enhanced. Legislatures in various jurisdictions have given electronic meetings a statutory recognition. This paper analyses the effectiveness of electronic corporate meetings from a legal perspective as provided by the...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses two main issues on integrated electronic land administrative system (e-Tanah) in Malaysia. As an integrated electronic processing of applications on land matters, registration of titles, documents required to be prepared thereby and any documents of titles through the use of a computer which includes both manual and computeri...
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The Straits of Malacca and Singapore are national asset to the strait states (Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore). Strategically, economically and environmentally significant, the strait states must be proactive in protecting and preserving the Straits. In June 2005, e-navigation system, known as Marine Electronic Highway (MEH) has been started to b...
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Full-text available
One of the issues currently being addressed concerning the management of biological resources is the protection of indigenous peoples’ resources and traditional knowledge. The reason is the existing legal frameworks especially with regards to intellectual property (IPR) system do not provide adequate protection for the indigenous peoples’ resour...
Article
The 'class' structure, in particular 'middle class' is a concept that has always been a discussion and debate in the field of the social sciences today. Although Islam does not recognize the existence of classes in the community structure, the study of 'class' structure should be highlighted in order to comprehend this concept from the perspectives...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, Malaysia does not have specific national legislation to regulate access to its genetic resources and ensure equitable sharing of benefits derived from their commercialisation (ABS legislation). However, the States of Sabah and Sarawak in Malaysia have enacted their ABS legislations to be implemented within their States territories. This...
Article
The purpose of this study is to determine and examine Internet marketing strategies that can be implemented by medical doctors/practitioners in Malaysia. Despite the increasing importance among many organizations of the Internet as a marketing tool, few studies have been conducted to examine the potential of the Internet as a marketing platform for...
Article
In this era of world without borders, mankind needs leadership with authority to discharge the responsibility of shaping a civlized and competitive society. This article discusses leadership generally. Two leadership theories are the subject of this study, including leadership principles which encompass the followers, the head, communication and si...
Article
Full-text available
Biotechnology has been applied as one of the eco-techno-political technologies in the 21st century. Many countries have developed their technological strategies to improve their productivity in different fields. As Malaysia embarks on its drive to pursue biotechnology as one of the new income sources of the nation, biosafety and the safe transfer,...
Article
This study analyse the important contribution of the Internet through online marketing for commercialization university research. Most of the commercialization of university research focus on the spin-off company or licensing as the principles for commercialization of university research. However, this study deviates from previous studies as it foc...
Article
Risk assessment is a procedure normally carried out prior to decision-making on the release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment. Most countries dealing with the release of GMOs have appropriate guidelines. The objectives of this paper are to critically examine the risk assessment provisions of the Malaysian Biosafety Act (...
Article
Full-text available
There are claims that fear towards new technology has been caused by the lack of information and education on the subject to the public. Modern biotechnology and its applications have been receiving the same criticism. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the trends and coverage of genetically modified food (GMF) related issues available...
Article
Full-text available
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) has reawakened old arguments over the impact of the intellectual property (IP) system on public access to essential medicines. As used here, essential medicines are those needed in symptom management, palliative care, and in the treatment o...
Article
Earlier studies on public attitude and risk perception have concluded that the public's attitudes towards biotechnology was primarily driven by several factors such as familiarity, perceived benefits, perceived risks, risk acceptance, moral concerns and encouragement. Demographic characteristics have been known to affect attitudes towards science....
Article
This article reviews the literature related to the main idea of the study, rooting from the definition of biotechnology, global status of commercialized biotechnology products, and global and local public attitudes towards modern biotechnology and past models for attitude towards modern biotechnology. The first section of the review will be the in-...
Article
The Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) is a unique process that resolves domain name disputes effectively and inexpensively. This paper, through an analysis of the UDRP three-prong test, revealed that even though the UDRP affords a great degree of discretion to the WIPO Panels deciding any given case, there is some consistency and predictabil...
Article
Full-text available
In the last several decades, indigenous communities had to contend with the misappropriation of their biological resources and associated traditional knowledge (TK) through the inappropriate exercise of intellectual property rights (IPRs). The advent of modern biotechnology has intensified this problem leaving indigenous communities increasingly vu...
Article
Six Sigma have been used as the tool to reduce cost and risk in manufacturing companies. Motorola is the company that developed this mechanism in order to reduce their cost and increase their profits. However, Six Sigma also can be used in other industries such as airlines, music, marketing, services and many more. Based on present literature, ther...
Article
An increasing number of consumers are using internet to search for information and solutions online, including legal services. It is therefore important for law firms to understand how internet is changing the purchasing behaviour of consumers. This article presents internet marketing strategies for lawyers in Malaysia in order to ensure the law fi...
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This study examines the value of integrating exposure to and knowledge of the commercialisation of university research into engineering education. By including courses or programs addressing research commercialisation as offered by Faculty of Engineering, the commercialisation process within the university is both more reliable and better sustained...
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The subject of the commercialization of University's Research often associated with issues like roles and functions of the office technology transfer, incentives for researchers, licensing procedures, mechanism of commercialization like spin-offs and start-ups. The main purpose of this study is to provide some explanations of the principle of undue...
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The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) eUDRP Initiative that received approval by the Internet Cooperation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recently is reviewed. This is done by outlining WIPO's case for a paperless UDRP (eUDRP). Specific amendments to the UDRP Rules and WIPO Supplemental Rules are discussed. The comments receive...
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This paper analyses the importance of embedding the importance of commercialisation of University's research in the Engineering education in Malaysia. By conducting courses or program about this commercialization aspects by the engineering faculty, the commercialization process for the university will be sustained in future. The literature so far r...
Article
Collaboration between Malaysian industry and local university is still very low, having in mind that Malaysia is striving to boost up her economy through knowledge economy. University which is considered as hub of excellence and generation of new knowledge should be a perfect place for the industry to develop new technology and upgrade their existe...
Article
Although the subject of legal marketing as an evolution of legal service has been widely discussed in countries like the USA, especially after the US Supreme Court ruling in Bates v. State Bar of Arizona in 1977, it is far from clear whether internet legal service marketing in Malaysia is currently given a similar emphasis by local lawyers to indic...
Article
Much has been written about Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and the legal issues surrounding its implementation albeit there is little discussion in the Malaysian context. The subject is still new to many Malaysians. EDI made its first appearance in Malaysia less than twenty years ago and with the advent of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), EDI wa...

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