Zhuo Job Chen

Zhuo Job Chen
Clemson University | CU · Department of Psychology

PhD Psychology, MS Mathematics, MS Psychology, BA Philosophy

About

109
Publications
42,264
Reads
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1,383
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2016 - present
Oregon Enterprise Data Analytics
Position
  • Senior Researcher
September 2012 - present
University of Oregon
Position
  • Graduate Teaching Fellowship
August 2011 - April 2012
University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
Full-text available
The Integrative Islamic Personality Inventory (IIPI) is a newly developed measure evaluating Muslim ideal of testification and self-development with four factors: belief in God, awareness of prophetic teaching, self-striving, and self-regard. In a Malaysian Muslim student sample (n = 254), the four-factor structure of IIPI received psychometric sup...
Preprint
Progress in psychology of religion and spirituality benefits from advancement and enrichment of definitions. Dozens of definitions of religion and spirituality have been offered in the history of the field, however, most of them were generated from a top-down, theory-driven process. This study utilized a bottom-up approach to examine folk definitio...
Article
Spiritually incorporating couple therapy (SICT)-couple therapy that incorporates spiritual interventions-has a growing research base. Information is limited on how spiritual interventions are used in practice; thus we studied treatment-as-usual (TAU). SICT is treatment that, at a couple's request, sometimes draws upon spiritual resources when addre...
Article
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Research on the subjective experience of suffering has typically focused on older clinical samples living in Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) countries. To further extend the existing body of empirical research on suffering to less WEIRD contexts, we use three waves of data (Wave 1: December 2020; Wave 2: January 2021...
Article
Full-text available
Hope has been conceptualized as agency and pathways to achieve goals. However, this goal-directed conceptualization does not encapsulate all situations in which hope may be beneficial. To address the dispositional motivation to endure when a desired goal seems unattainable, unlikely, or even impossible (i.e., goal-transcendent hope), we provide ini...
Article
This longitudinal intervention study examines the effectiveness of a 6-day intensive experiential group therapy program for survivors of mass shootings. The sample consisted of 36 participants (83.33% female; Mage = 41.66, SDage = 22.52) who survived a mass shooting episode in the U.S. Self-reported mental health (i.e., PTSD, depression, and anxiet...
Article
Full-text available
Religious coping is a double-edged sword. Clarification of the psychological benefits for positive religious coping requires statistical controls for negative religious coping and vice versa. This study sought to further explore the complexities of Muslim religious coping by extending the analysis to Afghans who coped with the sufferings associated...
Article
Full-text available
In Ghana, collectivism holds people together in marital relationships, even if partners are religiously different. Married partners still hurt, betray, or offend each other and might develop avoidance or vengeful (i.e., unforgiving) motives. We investigated whether religious homogamy moderated connections of personality and marriage variables to un...
Article
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This article reports the results of a series of experiments examining the potential psychological link between spatial and temporal prospects, specifically between variations in the degree of foreground obstruction and spatial depth of external window views and an observer’s sense of connection to the future. It was found that external views from i...
Article
A growing body of research is emerging on the role of adaptive resources and processes that support positive transformation in the aftermath of adversity. However, few studies in this strand have focused on people who have had prolonged exposure to a complex climate of trauma through long-term civil war. This study examined wisdom as a process by w...
Article
Objective: This study tested three conceptual explanatory models that have been theorized to account for the linkages between religious/spiritual (R/S) struggles and psychological distress: the primary model (i.e., R/S struggles lead to psychological distress), the secondary model (i.e., psychological distress leads to R/S struggles), and the comp...
Preprint
How are mystical experiences related to self-rated spirituality? Is the recently developed short 8-item version of Hood’s (1975) Mysticism Scale an efficient measurement? The current study expands evidence for both questions using N = 1,582 American and N = 1,492 German samples measured in three waves, average 4 to 5 years apart. Results show that...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter presents results about one of the questions that our research has focused from the beginning: religious change and deconversion. While in the Deconversion Study (2001-2005) we could use only cross-sectional data to estimate characteristics of deconverts in the U.S.A. and Germany, the analyses reported in this chapter are based on repea...
Article
Mysticism has so far been studied primarily at an individual level and often in the context of a religious tradition. However, one can and often does acquire strong spiritual experience in a mundane and interpersonal context, such as with one’s soulmate. The current study used a semistructured interview to investigate mystical experiences in the de...
Article
How are mystical experiences related to self-rated spirituality? Is the recently developed short 8-item version of Hood’s Mysticism Scale an efficient measurement? The current study expands evidence for both questions using N = 1,582 American and N = 1,492 German samples measured in three waves, average 4 to 5 years apart. Results show that the 8-i...
Article
Full-text available
Prayer is an important aspect of many religions. Existing measures of prayer have mostly originated from the Christian West and emphasized various “verbal” aspects of making a supplication. An “active” aspect of prayer, in which the supplicants strive for what they pray, has not received sufficient attention despite being crucial to Muslim belief....
Article
Full-text available
Aims To describe turnover intention of emergency nurses and clarify the effects of organizational commitment, job satisfaction and workplace violence on turnover intention. Background Research has showed the predictors of turnover intention differed among nurses of different specialties. However, research on turnover intention has mostly focused o...
Preprint
Religion, as a way of how people understand God and the world and make or discover meaning in their life, changes over the lifetime. Based on a wide conceptualization of religion, our research investigates change over the lifespan in terms of hierarchically ordered religious types that are the elements in our model of religious development, which i...
Preprint
This article presents a typology that categorizes people according to their profile of religious styles, which concerns, among other things, the sources where they derive validity and stability, when confronted with religious and existential questions or inter-religious challenges. The modeling of this typology is an empirical complement to Streib’...
Article
Full-text available
The current research investigated whether various aspects of mindfulness were differentially associated with risk preference in decision-making. In Studies 1 and 2, attention and present-focus aspects of trait mindfulness were associated with lower risk preference in making monetary gains. In Study 3, participants completed either a mindfulness tra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spiritually integrated couple therapy addresses spiritual needs, strivings and struggles as part of a couple’s therapeutic process. It is common for couples to have spiritual distress that coincides with their relationship distress. Research has indicated that marital relationships are often perceived as sacred parts of the couple’s life, and there...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of this research was to determine whether visual cues in indoor environments could evoke positive connections to the past and present, and what, if any, psychological benefits might flow from such links. Subjects preferred spaces with sloping ceilings, hearths, and refuge and prospect to spaces without these features, and this was positi...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last two decades the psychological benefits of mindfulness, a state of heightened awareness of the present centered on one’s own thoughts, have been widely reported. Typically this is achieved through deliberate meditation or during activities that require little or no direct attention. Such self-awareness is difficult to combine with task...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over the last two decades the psychological benefits of mindfulness, a state of heightened awareness of the present centered on one's own thoughts, have been widely reported. Typically this is achieved through deliberate meditation or during activities that require little or no direct attention. Such self-awareness is difficult to combine with task...
Article
Full-text available
Amanah refers to the accountability of Muslims to their community. In Malaysian Muslim university students (N = 209), an Amanah Scale predicted a stronger sense of identity along with more adaptive religious and psychosocial functioning. Multiple regression analyses identified Accountability to Society as especially influential, but Accountability...
Article
The Christian REACH Forgiveness intervention is a 5-step psychoeducation program that focuses on promoting decisional and emotional forgiveness for an identified transgression and fostering forgivingness in general. In this study, the Christian REACH Forgiveness model was used with Ghanaian Christians (N = 264; 260 are analyzed) who experienced spe...
Article
This first analysis of the Religious Fundamentalism Scale in Iran further examined findings that conservative religious commitments have positive adjustment implications outside the West. Religious Fundamentalism in a sample of 385 Iranian university students displayed direct relationships with Muslim religiosity and spirituality and correlated pos...
Article
Full-text available
The current study’s aims were to develop and validate a measure of acculturative stress among Iranian diaspora population. The instrument of 27 items was administered to a total of 610 Iranian students studying in Malaysian universities. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses offered evidence for a reliable and valid six-factor construct that...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a typology that categorizes people according to their profile of religious styles, which concerns, among other things, the sources where they derive validity and stability, when confronted with religious and existential questions or inter-religious challenges. The modeling of this typology is an empirical complement to Streib’...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This conference presentation examines how indoor spaces could better connect their occupants to the present. It explains why this is psychologically and physiologically important, how extending the moment is central to the process, and how natural phenomenal movement could be a practical means of achieving it in the indoor environments where most p...
Article
These two cross-sectional studies examined whether trauma impacts disaster survivors’ psychological well-being through its influence on positive and negative religious coping and on dispositional forgivingness and hope. Colombia was selected because it is a highly religious country that has endured a protracted armed conflict (1964-present) and rec...
Article
In this book review, we offer chapter-by-chapter review and general comments of Hadley Wickham’s (2016) ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Two examples of 2-way interaction plots were included to highlight the flexibility and power of the ggplot2 package in R.
Article
Purpose: The chemotherapy-induced taste alteration scale (CiTAS) is a reliable and valid instrument to comprehensively assess patients' taste alterations in an easy way. We aimed to translate it and test its psychometric properties among Chinese cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Method: A convenience sample of 227 cancer patients were rec...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents two studies concerned with developing a brief version of the 32-item God Mysticism Scale (GMS; Hood Jr. and Williamson Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 19(3), 232–244, 2000). Study 1 submitted 12 representative items from the GMS to an exploratory factor analysis and found a two-factor solution (Interpretation, 6 items; E...
Article
Full-text available
Few existing research has tested the effects of gratitude in risk decisions. The current study conducted four experiments with MTurk samples to test the primary hypothesis that gratitude promotes risk aversion in decision making. Results from Study 1 (N = 228) with a measure of dispositional gratitude and Study 2 (N = 125) by priming grateful exper...
Article
Bifactor models were applied to the NEO-FFI-3, HEXACO PI-R, and BFI-2 questionnaires. Factor scores of factors representing the domains of the questionnaires, evaluation, and acquiescence were estimated. Simple and multiple validities of the factor scores were compared with summated scale validities. The evaluation factor was a significant predicto...
Article
Full-text available
Self-compassion is natural, trainable and multi-faceted human capacity. To date there has been little research into the role of culture in influencing the conceptual structure of the underlying construct, the relative importance of different facets of self-compassion, nor its relationships to cultural values. This study employed a cross-cultural de...
Article
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Assumptions associated with Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) suggest that self-compassion, but not self-esteem, should be incompatible with irrational beliefs and with the emotional disturbances that they produce. In this study, 184 university students responded to a self-compassion scale along with measures of irrational beliefs, self-este...
Article
Background While previous studies have investigated the interplay between affect and health (1) over an extended period of time, (2) in a representative population, and (3) while modelling positive and negative affect simultaneously, no single study has done all three at once. Methods The present study accomplishes this by sampling adults from the...
Article
While research documents conservative religious tendencies towards a fear (“phobia”) of the stranger (“xeno”), this investigation sought to evaluate possible additional potentials for a love (“philia”) of the stranger (“xeno”). Procedures explored a preliminary measure of religious xenophilia that defined xenophilic love and xenophilic grace factor...
Article
Previous research indicates that spirituality expressed in tradition-specific terms may initiate, invigorate, and integrate Muslim religious commitments, suggesting a 3-I Model of Religious Spirituality. In a test of this model, Islamic seminarians, university students, and office workers in Iran (N = 604) responded to Muslim Experiential Religious...
Article
Development of a Greater Jihad Scale sought to record “jihad” as a Muslim spiritual struggle. Pakistani madrassa and university students responded to items that described Self Jihad as a struggle against corruptions within the self and Societal Jihad as an effort to bring social life into conformity with Islamic ideals. Greater Jihad factors correl...
Article
Religious groups outside the West have displayed a positive correlation between faith and intellect-oriented reflection in contrast to the negative relationship found with American Christians. This study extended the analysis to Pakistani Muslims. University students (N = 180) responded to religious reflection scales along with measures of religiou...
Article
Exploratory bifactor models with keying factors were applied to item response data for the NEO–FFI–3 and HEXACO–PI–R questionnaires. Loadings on a general factor and positive and negative keying factors correlated with independent estimates of item valence, suggesting that item valence influences responses to these questionnaires. Correlations betw...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the results of a preliminary investigation into whether indoor environments that evoke positive associations with the past, present, and future could be psychologically beneficial for building occupants. Subjects were asked to numerically evaluate a series of drawn images of rooms in which a range of visible temporal cues was ind...
Article
Poetic and mystical consciousness may be related, and transliminality may be a thread that ties mystical with poetic but not with religious experience. In the present project, Iranian poets and nonpoets responded to measures of mystical experience, transliminality, religious commitment, and psychological adjustment. Poets scored higher on mystical...
Article
Negative relationships between Post-Critical Beliefs in Iran imply that Muslim perspectives are closed-minded, but positive correlations between Religious Reflection factors point instead toward a Muslim open-mindedness. The hypothesis of this study was that this contrast reveals the Post-Critical Belief of Symbolism to be a questionable index of M...
Article
According to Kahn’s theoretical model (1990), the following three psychological conditions - meaningfulness, safety, and availability - are the key proximal predictors of job engagement. The current study examined the effects of these three psychological conditions (meaningfulness, safety, and availability) on three aspects of job engagement (JE),...
Article
Weber’s association of a work ethic with Protestantism has been extended to religions, including Islam, more generally. Managers and staff in a bank and department store in Tehran responded to Muslim religiousness measures along with the multidimensional work ethics profile (MWEP). The MWEP is a 7-factor instrument that records Weber’s interpretati...
Article
Four studies investigated the causal link of affect intensity with risky decisions, and showed a striking contrast of life-saving and valuables-saving domains. When social distance is small people are more risk-seeking in the life-saving domain but less risk-seeking in the valuables-saving domain (Study 1), and the results remain robust under diffe...
Article
Objective: Previous studies of American-English isms terms have uncovered as many as five broad factors: Tradition-oriented Religiousness (TR), Subjective Spirituality (SS), Communal Rationalism (CR), Unmitigated Self-Interest (USI), and Inequality Aversion (IA). The present studies took a similar lexical approach to investigate the Chinese-langua...
Article
This study examined religious-spiritual types in Iran by comparing seminary and university students on self-compassion, self-forgiveness, and other measures of religious and psychological functioning. Islamic seminarians (N = 198) more frequently self-identified as both religious and spiritual or as religious only. University students (N = 302) mor...
Article
Iranian teachers (N = 250) responded to Muslim attitude and spirituality measures in a project testing the hypothesis that Muslim personality functioning will reflect beliefs in the beneficence of society and a consequent need to restrain personal desires. Muslim attitudes were especially noteworthy in displaying negative relationships with disturb...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the religious and psychological implications of religious coping in Iran. University students (N = 224) responded to the Brief Positive and Negative Religious Coping Scales along with measures of Religious Orientation, Integrative Self-Knowledge, Self-Control, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem, Guilt, Shame, and Self-Cri...
Article
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Pakistani Muslim university students (N = 207) displayed Personal Distress, Public Distress, and Personal Defeat Reactions to Terrorism. All three reactions predicted poorer mental health with Personal Defeat being especially disturbed in its adjustment implications. In line with the assumptions of coping theory, scores on the Negative Religious Co...
Article
With Religious Schema Scales in the West, Truth of Texts and Teachings correlates negatively with the commitment to interreligious dialogue recorded by Xenosophia. This measure of fundamentalism also predicts problematic religious and psychosocial functioning. The present project examined Religious Schema Scales in university students and Islamic s...
Article
Muslim religious coping may include distress mobilisation effects that explain why adaptive and maladaptive forms of religious coping correlate positively rather than nonsignificantly, as they usually do in the West. In this study, 147 Iranian university students responded to Islamic Positive Religious Coping (IPRC) and Punishing Allah Reappraisal...
Article
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The ideological surround model (ISM) of the relationship between religion and the social sciences uses innovations in standard research methods to demonstrate how the challenges of postmodern relativism can be addressed. In this project, ISM methodologies evaluated the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF), a measure relevant to posi...
Article
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This study extended the analysis of attachments to God to Islam. Shiite Muslim university students from Iran (N = 243) responded to the Attachment to God Inventory, religious orientation scales, and an array of mental health variables that included empirical markers of an Iranian Muslim personality ideal called the “Perfect Man” (Ensān-e Kāmel). An...
Article
Full-text available
The current studies investigated the influence of affect intensity on risk preference in life-saving decisions. Results from 4 experiments found that people are more risk-seeking when affect intensity is higher. This effect occurs in both gain and loss framing conditions (Study 2 and Study 3) and is robust in both between-subject design (Studies 1–...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the research in recent decades has associated religiousness with positive psychological outcomes. Recently, it has been shown that scientific belief can substitute religion as a source of comfort. In a sample of 474 Iranian Muslim university students, we examined how religious and scientific attitudes predicted life satisfaction, happiness,...
Article
Full-text available
Religious Reflection Scales yield cross-cultural data suggesting that religious traditions have potentials to integrate intellect with faith. This investigation extended analysis of that possibility to Sunni Muslim university students in Malaysia (N =211) and also examined the hypothesis that Islamic commitments to knowledge (Ilm) promote religious...
Article
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This study examined relationships of Muslim spirituality with positive psychology in Pakistan. In a sample of 200 university students and community members, the spirituality of Muslim Experiential Religiousness displayed direct linkages with Meaning in Life and General Well-Being subscales. Muslim Experiential Religiousness also correlated positive...
Article
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Theory and research suggest that an internalization of psychological " structure " related to self-esteem may mediate relationships of Maladaptive Narcissism with higher and Adaptive Narcissism with lower Anger. In the present study (N = 623), Self-Esteem and Contingency of Self-Worth Scales served as presumed indices of the presence or absence of...
Article
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This project applied a bifactor model, which specifies a general factor that accounts for the common variance among all scale items, and group factors that reflect additional common variance among clusters of items. This general factor is designated as “M” because of a presumption in the research literature that its origins are to be found in metho...
Article
This investigation examined Pakistani Muslim understandings of the animal sacrifice that occurs during Eid-ul-Adha at the end of the Hajj. Pakistani university students (N = 156) responded to a number of items expressing possible interpretations of this ritual. A Faithful Sacrifice factor operationalized sincere religious reasons for the sacrifice...
Article
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We know that there are cross-cultural differences on psychological variables, such as individualism/collectivism. But it has not been clear which of these variables show relatively the greatest differences. The Survey of World Views project operated from the premise that such issues are best addressed in a diverse sampling of countries representing...