Zhu Liu

Zhu Liu
Tsinghua University | TH · Center for Earth System Science

Ph.D

About

175
Publications
105,991
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
15,122
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - September 2017
California Institute of Technology
Position
  • Resnick Prize Fellow in Applied Physics
September 2013 - present
Harvard University
Position
  • Giorgio Ruffolo Research Fellow
January 2012 - September 2012
University of Cambridge
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (175)
Article
Full-text available
International trade has become the fastest growing driver of global carbon emissions, with large quantities of emissions embodied in exports from emerging economies. International trade with emerging economies poses a dilemma for climate and trade policy: to the extent emerging markets have comparative advantages in manufacturing, such trade is eco...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. T...
Article
Full-text available
Regional targets and improved market mechanisms could enable the nation's carbon dioxide emissions to peak by 2030, say Zhu Liu and colleagues.
Book
Anthropogenic climate change driven by human induced carbon emissions, is one of the most serious challenges facing human development. China is currently the world largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. The nation releases one quarter of the global total (9.2 Gt CO2 in 2013), 1.5 times that from US. Nearly three...
Preprint
Full-text available
We constructed a frequently updated, near-real-time global power generation dataset: Carbon Monitor-Power since January, 2016 at national levels with near-global coverage and hourly-to-daily time resolution. The data presented here are collected from 37 countries across all continents for eight source groups, including three types of fossil sources...
Article
Full-text available
Building on near-real-time and spatially explicit estimates of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, here we present and analyze a new city-level dataset of fossil fuel and cement emissions, Carbon Monitor Cities, which provides daily estimates of emissions from January 2019 through December 2021 for 1500 cities in 46 countries, and disaggregates f...
Article
Full-text available
Day-to-day changes in CO2 emissions from human activities, in particular fossil-fuel combustion and cement production, reflect a complex balance of influences from seasonality, working days, weather and, most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we provide a daily CO2 emissions dataset for the whole year of 2020, calculated from inventory and nea...
Preprint
Russia is the largest natural gas supplier to the EU. The invasion of Ukraine was followed by a cut-off of gas supplies from Russia to many EU countries, and the EU is planning to ban or dramatically reduce its dependence from Russia. We provide a dataset of daily gas consumption in five sectors (household and public buildings heating, power, indus...
Article
Background There is limited knowledge on the distribution of the health co-benefits of reduced air pollutants and carbon emissions in the transport sector across populations. Methods This Article describes a health impact assessment used to estimate the health co-benefits of alternative land passenger transport scenarios for the city of Beijing, C...
Article
Full-text available
About two-thirds of global CO2 emissions from the energy and industry sectors are generated in China, accounting for approximately 30% of total global CO2 emissions. These carbon-intensive processes usually produce a large amount of so-called alkaline solid wastes e.g. blast furnace slag (BFS), which have shown great potential to serve as CO2 absor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Building on near-real-time and spatially explicit estimates of daily carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, here we present and analyze a new city-level dataset of fossil fuel and cement emissions. Carbon Monitor Cities provides daily, city-level estimates of emissions from January 2019 through December 2021 for 1500 cities in 46 countries, and disaggrega...
Article
Full-text available
In support of the global stocktake of the Paris Agreement on climate change, this study presents a comprehensive framework to process the results of an ensemble of atmospheric inversions in order to make their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) carbon dioxide (CO2) flux suitable for evaluating national greenhouse gas inventories (NGHGIs) submitted by cou...
Article
Global CO2 emissions in 2021 were only 1% less than the record levels of 2019, driven by increases in power- and industry-related emissions from China and India and a return of the carbon intensity of electricity to pre-pandemic levels. Is this resumed growth in fossil energy, or a final fleeting surge before a long decline?
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is the greatest environmental threat to humans and the planet in the 21st century. Global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main causes of the increasing number of extreme climate events. Cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions showed a linear relationship with cumulative temperature rise since the pre-industria...
Article
Following record-level declines in 2020, near-real-time data indicate that global CO2 emissions rebounded by 4.8% in 2021, reaching 34.9 GtCO2. These 2021 emissions consumed 8.7% of the remaining carbon budget for limiting anthropogenic warming to 1.5 °C, which if current trajectories continue, might be used up in 9.5 years at 67% likelihood.
Article
China is currently the world’s largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2). China therefore has a key role in global climate change mitigation. Policies and commitments are required to enable decarbonization. In this Perspective, we summarize the key features of China’s CO2 emissions, its reduction processes and successes in meeting climate targets. Ch...
Article
Full-text available
The world-wide lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in year 2020 led to economic slowdown and large reduction in fossil fuel CO2 emissions, but it is unclear how much it would slow the increasing trend of atmospheric CO2 concentration, the main driver of climate change, and whether this impact can be observed in light of large biosphere an...
Article
Full-text available
As the COVID‐19 virus spread over the world, governments restricted mobility to slow transmission. Public health measures had different intensities across European countries but all had significant impact on people's daily lives and economic activities, causing a drop of CO2 emissions of about 10% for the whole year 2020. Here, we analyze changes i...
Article
Full-text available
Significance The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns caused significant changes to human activity that temporarily altered our imprint on the atmosphere, providing a brief glimpse of potential future changes in atmospheric composition. This event demonstrated key feedbacks within and between air quality and the carbon cycle: Improvements in...
Article
Activity reductions in early 2020 due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic led to unprecedented decreases in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite their record size, the resulting atmospheric signals are smaller than and obscured by climate variability in atmospheric transport and biospheric fluxes, notably that related to the 2019–2020 India...
Article
Full-text available
Precise and high-resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission data is of great importance of achieving the carbon neutrality around the world. Here we present for the first time the near-real-time Global Gridded Daily CO2 Emissions Dataset (called GRACED) from fossil fuel and cement production with a global spatial-resolution of 0.1° by 0.1° and a temp...
Preprint
Global CO2 emissions have rebounded strongly from the historic decrease caused by the COVID 19 pandemic in 2020. We project 2021 emissions will be only 0.9% less than the record levels of 2019. In particular, power- and industry-related emissions in China and India have increased relative to 2019, and the carbon intensity of electricity used worldw...
Preprint
Full-text available
In support of the Global Stocktake of the Paris Agreement on Climate change, this study presents a comprehensive framework to process the results of atmospheric inversions in order to make them suitable for evaluating UNFCCC national inventories of land-use carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and removals, corresponding to the Land Use, Land Use Change...
Preprint
Full-text available
Precise and high-resolution carbon dioxide (CO2) emission data is of great importance of achieving the carbon neutrality around the world. Here we present for the first time the near-real-time Global Gridded Daily CO2 Emission Datasets (called GRACED) from fossil fuel and cement production with a global spatial-resolution of 0.1{\deg} by 0.1{\deg}...
Article
Full-text available
Background The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. Although all people are exposed to air pollution, the older population (ie, those aged ≥60 years) tends to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population age...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tracking China's national and regional CO2 emission trends is becoming ever more crucial. The country recently pledged to achieve ambitious emissions reduction targets, however, high-resolution datasets for provincial level CO2 emissions in China are still lacking. This study provides daily CO2 emission datasets for China's 31 provinces, including...
Article
Full-text available
Because of the alkaline nature and high calcium content of cements in general, they serve as a CO 2-absorbing agent through carbonation processes, resembling silicate weathering in nature. This carbon uptake capacity of cements could abate some of the CO 2 emitted during their production. Given the scale of cement production worldwide (4.10 Gt in 2...
Preprint
Full-text available
In October of 2020, China announced that it aims to start reducing its carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions before 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality before 20601. The surprise announcement came in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic which caused a transient drop in China's emissions in the first half of 2020. Here, we show an unprecedented de-carbonizati...
Preprint
Full-text available
The diurnal cycle CO$_2$ emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production reflect seasonality, weather conditions, working days, and more recently the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, for the first time we provide a daily CO$_2$ emission dataset for the whole year of 2020 calculated from inventory and near-real-time activity data (...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most important atmospheric pollutants and the precursors of acid rain, tropospheric ozone, and atmospheric aerosols. However, due to the poor quality of source data and the computing power of the models, current ground-level NO2 concentration data lack either high-resolution coverage or full nation-wide coverage...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted human activities, leading to unprecedented decreases in both global energy demand and GHG emissions. Yet a little known that there is also a low carbon shift of the global energy system in 2020. Here, using the near-real-time data on energy-related GHG emissions from 30 countries (about 70% of global power genera...
Article
Ambient air pollution is one of the leading environmental risk factors to human health, largely offsetting economic growth. This study evaluated health burden and cost associated with the short-term and long-term exposure of major air pollutants (fine particulate matter [PM2.5] and ozone [O3]) during 2013−2018. We developed a database of gridded da...
Article
As national efforts to reduce CO2 emissions intensify, policy-makers need increasingly specific, subnational information about the sources of CO2 and the potential reductions and economic implications of different possible policies. This is particularly true in China, a large and economically diverse country that has rapidly industrialized and urba...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de...
Article
Full-text available
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20254-5
Article
Full-text available
We use a global transport model and satellite retrievals of the carbon dioxide (CO2) column average to explore the impact of CO2 emissions reductions that occurred during the economic downturn at the start of the Covid‐19 pandemic. The changes in the column averages are substantial in a few places of the model global grid, but the induced gradients...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the most important atmospheric pollutants. However, current ground-level NO2 concentration data are lack of either high-resolution coverage or full coverage national wide, due to the poor quality of source data and the computing power of the models. To our knowledge, this study is the first to estimate the ground-le...
Article
Full-text available
We constructed a near-real-time daily CO2 emission dataset, the Carbon Monitor, to monitor the variations in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production since January 1, 2019, at the national level, with near-global coverage on a daily basis and the potential to be frequently updated. Daily CO2 emissions are estimated from a div...
Preprint
Full-text available
The world-wide lockdown in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in year 2020 led to economic slowdown and large reduction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions, but it is unclear how much it would reduce atmospheric CO2 concentration, and whether it can be observed. We estimated that a 7.9% reduction in emissions for 4 months would result in a 0.25 ppm decreas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Because of the alkaline nature and high calcium content of cements in general, they serve as a CO2 absorbing 15 agent through carbonation processes, resembling silicate weathering in nature. This carbon uptake capacity of cements could abate some of the CO2 emitted during their production. Given the scale of cement production worldwide (4.10 Gt in...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting human activities, and in turn energy use and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. Here we present daily estimates of country-level CO2 emissions for different sectors based on near-real-time activity data. The key result is an abrupt 8.8% decrease in global CO₂ emissions (−1551 Mt CO₂) in the first half of 2020 compare...
Article
Full-text available
China's fossil-fuel CO2 (FFCO2) emissions accounted for approximately 28 % of the global total FFCO2 in 2016. An accurate estimate of China's FFCO2 emissions is a prerequisite for global and regional carbon budget analyses and the monitoring of carbon emission reduction efforts. However, significant uncertainties and discrepancies exist in estimati...
Article
Full-text available
Future climate change may worsen air quality in many regions. However, evaluations of this ‘climate penalty’ on air quality have typically not assessed the radiative effects of changes in short-lived aerosols. Additionally, China’s clean air goals will decrease pollutant emissions and aerosol loadings, with concomitant weakening of aerosol feedback...
Article
China-US trade holds great significance for the world’s political and economic landscape. Since 2018, the US government has imposed additional tariffs on Chinese exports on the grounds of the US trade deficit with China. However, the transfer of pollutants embodied in trade and the differences in environmental costs between China and the US have no...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract As energy saving and emission reduction become a global action, the disparity in energy intensity between different regions is a new rising problem that stems a country's or region's energy‐saving potential. Here we collect China's provincial panel data (1995–2017) of primary and final energy consumption to evaluate China's unequal and pol...
Article
Full-text available
There are substantial differences in carbon footprints across households. This study applied an environmentally extended multiregional input–output approach to estimate household carbon footprints for 12 different income groups of China’s 30 regions. Subsequently, carbon footprint Gini coefficients were calculated to measure carbon inequality for h...
Preprint
Full-text available
We constructed a near-real-time daily CO2 emission dataset, namely the Carbon Monitor, to monitor the variations of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production since January 1st 2019 at national level with near-global coverage on a daily basis, with the potential to be frequently updated. Daily CO2 emissions are estimated from a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The health impacts of ambient air pollution impose large costs on society. While all people are exposed to air pollution, older individuals tend to be disproportionally affected. As a result, there is growing concern about the public health impacts of air pollution as many countries undergo rapid population ageing. We investigated the sp...