Zhi Gao

Zhi Gao
Nanjing University | NJU · Department of Architecture

Ph.D (Syracuse Univ. USA); MEng. & BEng. (Tianjin Univ. China)

About

46
Publications
11,626
Reads
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590
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - February 2012
Syracuse University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2010 - September 2011
Health Canada
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1991 - September 1995
Tianjin University
Field of study
  • Thermal Engineering

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
The transformation of urban and building design into green development is conducive to alleviating resource and environmental problems. Building design largely determines pollutant emissions and energy consumption throughout the building life cycle. Full consideration of the impact of urban geometries on the microclimate will help construct livable...
Article
The deterioration of the urban environment has captured the attention of governmental departments and research institutions, which aim to improve the urban environment from the perspective of optimizing urban morphology. Although ideal building arrays and residential building morphologies have been previously studied, research on the relationship b...
Article
The influence of roadside morphology and the movement of vehicles on street canyon ventilation is important, but their coupling effect is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the best structural design for roadside buildings while considering moving vehicles’ effect on ventilation. The morphologies examined were podium, cantilever, rain she...
Article
Forty-two scenarios were simulated, using the OpenModelica platform, to study the impact of different factors on the transport of kitchen pollutants. In summer, an increase in outdoor wind velocity can improve natural ventilation and reduce kitchen pollutant concentrations. In winter, natural ventilation is mainly driven by thermal pressure, and ou...
Article
COVID-19 has forced people to spend more time working and studying at home; in particular, people who share an apartment stay in their respective bedrooms almost all day. This study investigated the impact of ventilation modes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) of 24-hour occupied bedrooms and provided ventilation suggestions for people who stay in th...
Article
Full-text available
The morphology of urban residential blocks in China, which is strictly affected by regulations, can potentially improve or deteriorate microclimates. This paper first proposes a framework for identifying typical residential block typologies using Nanjing as an example. A thorough investigation, consisting of 114 samples, was conducted, and 18 typic...
Chapter
This study investigates the effect of urban vegetation on thermal comfort in a neighbourhood of Lahti (Finland) by means of modeling simulations performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics-based and microclimate model ENVI-met. A scenario without vegetation and the current one (with vegetation) are considered to assess the effects of vegetation...
Article
Full-text available
To gain further insight into the ventilation at urban street intersections, this study conducted 3D simulations of the ventilation at right- and oblique-angled intersections under eight wind directions by using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) κ-ε turbulence model. The divergent responses of ventilation and pollution concentration for the...
Article
As more megacities emerge owing to urbanization and industrialization, the subway has become the main public transportation mode worldwide, providing punctuality and convenience. The subway environment, including its ventilation, thermal comfort, air quality, and energy consumption, remains an area of great focus for scientists and passengers. In a...
Article
Full-text available
Focusing on the effect of street morphology on the ventilation efficiency, this paper presents 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow and pollutant dispersion within urban-like three-way intersections, four-way intersections and roundabouts. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) k-ε turbulence model is adopte...
Article
To improve ventilation efficiency and reduce pollution concentration in urban spaces, eco-strategies, including greening, have been suggested. However, there is still very little evidence to assert the benefits of such greening options, particularly at urban street intersections. Therefore, in this work, air flow and pollutant dispersion within urb...
Article
To conduct a more comprehensive evaluation regarding the correlations between urban form, microclimate and energy performance of buildings, this study investigates eight generic residential district prototypes in Nanjing, China. Cases are characterized based on form indices such as the floor area ratio (FAR), surface area ratio (SAR) and mean sky v...
Article
Full-text available
The present work aims at studying the annual stack ventilation of solar chimney in multi-storey buildings and evaluating the ventilation potential. A simulation workflow coupling Honeybee and RhinoCFD, performance simulation tools on design platform, is proposed to calculate the hourly ventilation rate of chimney driven by solar energy. Then the ef...
Article
This paper numerically investigates the ventilation of residential streets bounded by buildings of different forms. The aim is to provide suggestions for the design of environmentally sustainable urban streets in residential areas. Four representative building form variations along residential streets in Nanjing, located in the Yangtze River Delta...
Article
A modular-based Green Design Studio (GDS) platform has been developed in this study for fast and accurate performance analysis for early stage green building design. The GDS platform aims to simplify the design and analysis process by embedding performance parameters into design elements in modules and employing near-real-time model for whole build...
Article
Full-text available
This paper is devoted to the assessment of urban greening effects on two important ecosystem services, i.e., air quality and CO 2 storage, including the corresponding economic impacts in a real urban area, i.e., a district located in the Mediterranean city of Lecce (southern Italy). Two tools were employed, i-Tree Canopy and the computational fluid...
Article
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This paper presents a conceptual framework that looks at photovoltaic systems in synergy with ecosystem services. The focus is to connect business success with social and ecological progress based on the operative concept of multifunctional land use. Such an approach attempts to harmonise the needs of the industrial processes of photovoltaic system...
Article
The accurate identification of the characteristics of pollutant sources can effectively prevent the loss of human life and property damage caused by the sudden release of harmful chemicals in emergency situations. Machine learning algorithms, artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM), k-nearest neighbour (KNN) and naive Bayesian...
Article
In recent years, several ventilation indices have been proposed and applied to assess the efficiency of “urban outdoor ventilation”, i.e. the ability of an urban area to dilute pollutants, heat and moisture by exchanging air between inside and above of the urban canopy. Here, focusing on the pollutant dispersion, the definition of 13 ventilation in...
Article
Full-text available
As near-ground ozone is toxic to the human body,a number of standards have been promulgated by many countries and regions to limit indoor and outdoor ozone concentrations. The stipulation and development of indoor and outdoor ozone limit concentration standards at home and abroad are introduced in this paper. Evaluation indexes and methods in China...
Article
This paper investigates the correlation between street morphology and thermal environment of six street models representing the central morphology of Barcelona (Spain), Berlin (Germany), London (UK), New York (US), Nanjing (China) and Paris (France). The morphology is first characterized through morpho- logical indices (i.e. opening and closing rat...
Article
Full-text available
In the context of urbanization, research on urban microclimate and thermal comfort has become one of the themes of eco-city design. Sky view factor (SVF), one of the parameters of urban spatial form, combines multiple morphological information, such as plane opening, aspect ratio, and building density and has an important impact on the urban microc...
Article
Full-text available
M.V.) † Equal contribution to this work. Abstract: This paper is devoted to the analysis of the impact of changes in olive urban forests affected by Xylella fastidiosa on ecosystem services. The focus is on microclimate and thermal comfort evaluated by two indices: the temperature of equivalent perception (TEP) and the predicted mean vote (PMV), wh...
Article
Full-text available
Ozone has become one of the most serious air pollutants in China in recent years. Since people spend most of their time indoors, the ozone in the indoor environment could be a major factor affecting the occupants' health. The indoor ozone in residential buildings mainly comes from two sources: outdoor atmosphere and indoor ozone produced by electri...
Article
As a strong oxidizing gas, ozone can damage the human respiratory tract and cardiovascular system. Aside from ambient outdoor ozone that enters buildings, indoor ozone emission devices (IOEDs) such as disinfectors, air purifiers, and printing devices are the primary source of indoor ozone. This review briefly presents the types and ozone emission m...
Article
This paper discusses current state-of-the-art features of the “plant evaluation model”, a framework which, starting from the representation of vegetation and its effects in microclimate models, defines a number of indices which can be employed for the evaluation of outdoor microclimate in terms of thermal environment and comfort in the urban enviro...
Article
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major air pollutants in China. Traffic-related microenvironments are the typical scenarios exposed to high PM concentrations. This paper investigates the personal exposure to PM during commuting in Nanjing in four transportation modes, i.e. subway, bicycle, bus and walking. The measurements were conducted in a...
Article
Full-text available
The surface of the human body is abundant in organic compounds containing unsaturated carbon -carbon bonds,squalene and the fatty acids in skin oil,covering the human body,which can readily react with ozone. Ozone-initiated chemical reactions produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs),semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs),and secondary organic aer...
Article
Full-text available
Urban outdoor ventilation and pollutant dispersion have important implications for urban design and planning. In this paper, two urban morphology parameters, i.e. the floor area ratio (FAR) and the building site coverage (BSC), are considered to investigate their quantitative correlation with urban ventilation indices. An idealized model, including...
Article
This study quantifies the influence of green spaces on microclimate and PM10 concentration in a typical residential district of Nanjing (China) by employing the CFD-based and microclimate model ENVI-met 4. Five green indices, related to quantity and structure of vegetation, are employed to investigate the impact of different types (grass, shrub and...
Article
Full-text available
The Air quality in student dormitories can have a major impact on the health of millions of students in China. This study aims to investigate the ventilation and air quality in student dormitories. Questionnaire survey was conducted in eight dormitory buildings and field measurements were conducted in one dormitory during the summer in Nanjing. The...
Article
Full-text available
This study numerically investigates the influence of different vegetation types and layouts on microclimate and air quality in residential districts based on the morphology and green layout of Nanjing, China. Simulations were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics and the microclimate model ENVI-met. Four green indices, i.e., the green cover...
Article
Ozone is a reactive gas that can have negative health effects on human. Building materials can be significant sinks for indoor ozone, owing to the irreversible heterogeneous reactions between ozone and material surfaces. Therefore, the ozone removal on material surfaces is crucial for evaluating indoor ozone concentrations and human exposure. This...
Article
Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians’ health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the method of assessing regional spatial ventilation performance for the design of residential building arrangements at an operational level. Three ventilation efficiency (VE) indices, Net Escape Velocity (NEV), Visitation Frequency (VF) and spatial-mean Velocity Magnitude (VM), are adopted to quantify the influence of design va...
Article
Full-text available
Outdoor thermal comfort indices are used to characterize the thermal sensation of people in complex environmental conditions directly, which is important in the thermal comfort research. A review of the outdoor thermal comfort indices was made after consulting literatures and in the present paper, the indices were divided into three categories acco...
Article
Full-text available
Outdoor particles can penetrate through wall assemblies and influence the indoor air quality (IAQ). In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed for predicting the particle penetration through wood-framed residential wall assemblies. The model included a simplified approach to account for the particle loss due to the fibe...
Article
Full-text available
A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5-20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environment...
Article
Full-text available
The partition and effective diffusion coefficients of formaldehyde were measured for three materials (conventional gypsum wallboard, "green" gypsum wallboard, and "green" carpet) under three relative humidity (RH) conditions (20%, 50%, and 70% RH). The "green" materials contained recycled materials and were friendly to environment. A dynamic dual-c...
Article
Full-text available
Outdoor pollutants, such as ozone, can penetrate into the indoor environment through the wall assemblies and influence the indoor air quality (IAQ). Ozone can also react with chemical compounds (i.e., d-limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, styrene, etc.) within the wall assemblies to create secondary emissions causing IAQ concerns. This study developed a...
Article
An “Exposure Reduction Effectiveness” index is proposed to quantify the performance of room air cleaners based on their capability of reducing occupants' exposure to pollutants of interest. The index has advantages over existing index such as CADR. It is applicable to both room average and local breathing zones, and can be used to compare air clean...
Article
This paper describes a new experimental method for determining the initial concentrations of emittable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials and sorption isotherms for individual VOCs (IVOCs), which are required for modeling the VOC emission rates of building materials and assemblies. The method is also useful for the rapid scre...
Technical Report
Full-text available
According to the Freedonia Group, the consumer market for air cleaners, ranging from portable (room) to duct mounted (whole house) devices, grew 34% over a 5-year period to reach $395 million in 2004, and is estimated to reach $515 million by 2008. Homeowners, however, have only limited information available regarding their performance, especially...
Article
With the rapidly growing consumer markets for air cleaners, product performance evaluations are needed to assist the selection by consumers as well as design and manufacturing. VOCs (and odors) and particulates are two major contaminant categories for which many air cleaners are claimed to have good removal efficiency. However, no standard method f...
Article
A mathematical formulation was developed including an objective function that minimizes the cumulative exposure of occupants to pollutants under the constraints of pollutant dispersion pattern, evacuation paths, and their capacities. The formulation included airflow and pollutant dispersion models and optimization algorithms for evacuation planning...

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Bioclimatic design, which combines “biology” and “climate”, is an innovative approach to the design of buildings and landscapes that is based on local climate and involves solar heating, sun shading, natural ventilation, and the use of building materials, as well as urban greening for thermal time lag and storage. As an extension of bioclimatic design, urban and rural resilient design prioritizes health and safety, preparing buildings, communities, and regions for natural disasters and climate change by adding precautionary measures. Although some bioclimatic approaches have been widely studied and applied, there are still many new spaces worth exploring in the context of eco-civilization, human health, and carbon neutrality targets. For example, how can we apply climate science to “passive survivability” in architecture and urban designs confronting the evident trends of extreme weather and climate change? How can we apply bioclimatic design principles at multiple scales under the carbon neutral goal? How does bioclimatic design affect buildings, urban infrastructure, cities, rural settlements, and village capacity? These are important problems that need to be addressed through new studies on bioclimatic designs. Therefore, this Topic aims to encourage new exploration into bioclimatics for its combined advantages of comfort, health, environmental well-being, and resilience to extreme weather. Both original research papers and review papers are welcomed. Relevant themes include, but are not limited to: New interpretations of or improvements in bioclimatic design; New technologies for bioclimatic design; Bioclimatic techniques at multiple scales (building, community, urban, and region); Occupant behaviors in bioclimatic design; Bioclimatic design for carbon neutrality; Outdoor thermal comfort conditions in diverse climate regions: simulation, field study, and surveying; Thermal comfort integrated with other environmental factors (i.e., IAQ, lighting, and acoustics); New thoughts on urban/rural resilient design; Urban air quality and human health; Design for resilience to climate change; Green infrastructure and human health. Dr. Bo Hong Dr. Dayi Lai Dr. Zhi Gao Dr. Yongxin Xie Dr. Kuixing Liu Topic Editors Deadline for abstract submissions: 31 October 2023. Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2023. Submission online: https://www.mdpi.com/topics/urban_resilience