Zhi-De Deng

Zhi-De Deng
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) | NIMH · Computational Neurostimulation Research Program

Ph.D.
Dying to stay alive.

About

124
Publications
17,344
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3,012
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Publications

Publications (124)
Preprint
Full-text available
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for severe depression and works by applying an electric current through the brain. The applied current generates an electric field (E-field) and seizure activity, changing the brain’s functional organization. The E-field, which is determined by electrode placement (right unilateral or...
Article
Background: Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) is considered effective and safe for depression, albeit modestly, and prone to logistical burdens when performed in external facilities. Investigation of portable tES (ptES), and potentiation of ptES with remote psychological interventions have shown positive, but preliminary, results. Researc...
Article
Objective: A novel angle-tuned ring coil is proposed for improving the depth-spread performance of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) coils and serve as the building blocks for high-performance composite coils and multisite TMS systems Approach: Improving depth-spread performance by reducing field divergence through creating a more elliptical...
Article
Background Convergent neuroimaging and neuromodulation studies implicate the right dlPFC as a key region involved in anxiety-cognition interactions. However, neuroimaging data are correlational and neuromodulation studies often lack appropriate methodological controls. Accordingly, the current work is designed to explore the role of right prefronta...
Article
Full-text available
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the gold-standard treatment for patients with depressive episodes, but the underlying mechanisms for antidepressant response and procedure-induced cognitive side effects have yet to be elucidated. Such mechanisms may be complex and involve certain ECT parameters and brain regions. Regarding parameters, the el...
Preprint
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neuromodulation technique that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for several neuropsychiatric disorders, including major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the therapeutic efficacy of TMS treatment has been modest, despite decades of research. While there are...
Article
Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the benchmark for treatment resistant depression, yet its cognitive adverse effects have a negative impact on treatment. A predictive safety biomarker early in ECT treatment is needed to identify patients at cognitive risk to maximize therapeutic outcomes and minimize adverse effects. We used icta...
Preprint
Coordinated whole-brain neural dynamics are essential for proper control of the functionality of different brain systems. Multisite simultaneous or sequential stimulations may provide tools for mechanistic studies of brain functions and the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Conventional circular and figure-8 Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation...
Article
TMS has become a powerful tool to explore cortical function, and in parallel has proven promising in the development of therapies for various psychiatric and neurological disorders. Unfortunately, much of the inference of the direct effects of TMS has been assumed to be limited to the area a few centimeters beneath the scalp, though clearly more di...
Preprint
Background Electric fields (E-fields) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be modeled using partial differential equations (PDEs) with boundary conditions. However, existing numerical methods to solve PDEs for computing E-fields are usually computationally expensive. It often takes minutes to compute a high-resolution E-field usin...
Article
Full-text available
Dysfunction in a wide array of systems—including the immune, monoaminergic, and glutamatergic systems—is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. One potential intersection point for these three systems is the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. This study explored the impact of the prototypic glutamatergic modulator ketamine on the endogenous KYN pa...
Article
More than any other brain region, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) gives rise to the singularity of human experience. It is therefore frequently implicated in the most distinctly human of all disorders, those of mental health. Noninvasive neuromodulation, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and...
Article
Full-text available
Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) offers promise for individualizing stimulation targets for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments. However, current targeting approaches do not account for non-focal TMS effects or large-scale connectivity patterns. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel targeting optimization appr...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) applies electric currents to the brain to induce seizures for therapeutic purposes. ECT increases gray matter (GM) volume, predominantly in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The contribution of induced seizures to this volume change remains unclear. Methods: T1-weighted structural MRI was acquired from t...
Article
Full-text available
Although previous studies have reported correlations between alpha oscillations and the “retention” sub-process of working memory (WM), no direct causal evidence has been established in human neuroscience. Here, we developed an online phase-locking closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) system capable of precisely controlli...
Preprint
Although previous studies have reported correlations between alpha oscillations and the "retention" sub-process of working memory (WM), no direct causal evidence has been established in human neuroscience. Here, we developed an online phase-locking closed-loop transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) system capable of precisely controlli...
Article
Objective There is limited information regarding neurocognitive outcomes of right unilateral ultrabrief pulse width electroconvulsive therapy (RUL-UB ECT) combined with pharmacotherapy in older adults with major depressive disorder. We report longitudinal neurocognitive outcomes from Phase 2 of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) applies electric currents to the brain to induce seizures for therapeutic purposes. ECT increases gray matter (GM) volume, predominantly in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). The contribution of induced seizures to this volume change remains unclear. Methods T1-weighted structural MRI was acquired from thirt...
Article
Full-text available
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation intervention investigated for the treatment of depression. Clinical results have been heterogeneous, partly due to the variability of electric field (EF) strength in the brain owing to interindividual differences in head anatomy. Therefore, we investigated whether EF...
Article
Full-text available
The clinical effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is mediated by eliciting a generalized seizure, which is achieved by applying electrical current to the head via scalp electrodes. The anatomy of the head influences the distribution of current flow in each brain region. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in simulated local el...
Chapter
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is non-invasive brain stimulation procedure adopting the intense magnetic pulses to induce an electric field in neuronal tissue, modulating cortical excitability level. Computational modelling and simulation have played a major role in the development of many TMS therapeutic applications for adults such as Ma...
Preprint
Background Resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) offers promise for individualizing stimulation targets for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) treatments. However current targeting approaches do not account for non-focal TMS effects or large-scale connectivity patterns. To overcome these limitations, we propose a novel targeting optimiz...
Article
Full-text available
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method to stimulate the cerebral cortex that has applications in psychiatry, such as in the treatment of depression and anxiety. Although many TMS targeting methods that use figure-8 coils exist, many do not account for individual differences in anatomy or are not generalizable across target...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) pulse amplitude, which determines the induced electric field magnitude in the brain, is currently set at 800–900 milliamperes (mA) on modern ECT devices without any clinical or scientific rationale. The present study assessed differences in depression and cognitive outcomes for three different pulse ampl...
Article
Full-text available
Current first-line treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD) include pharmacotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. However, one-third of depressed patients do not achieve remission after multiple medication trials, and psychotherapy can be costly and time-consuming. Although non-implantable neuromodulation (NIN) techniques such as transcra...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that delivers constant, low electrical current resulting in changes to cortical excitability. Prior work suggests it may enhance motor learning giving it the potential to augment surgical technical skill acquisition. Objectives: The aim of th...
Article
Full-text available
Modulating the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), especially the right counterpart, shows promises in enhancing social cognitive ability. However, it is ambiguous whether the functional lateralization of TPJ determines people's responsiveness to brain stimulation. Here, this issue is investigated with an individual difference approach. Forty‐five part...
Article
Full-text available
In article number 1902863, Hai Li, Xiaochu Zhang, and co‐workers demonstrate the necessity and feasibility of pre‐stimulation screening before neurostimulation. A lesser degree of functional asymmetry of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and a higher degree of social‐related difficulties predicts more beneficial effects on social abilities for bot...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders, with few effective neuropharmacological treatments, making treatments development critical. While noninvasive neuromodulation can successfully treat depression, few treatment targets have been identified specifically for anxiety disorders. Previously, we showed that shock threat increases e...
Article
Background: The nicotine withdrawal syndrome remains a major impediment to smoking cessation. Cognitive and affective disturbances are associated with altered connectivity within and between the executive control network, default mode network (DMN), and salience network. We hypothesized that functional activity in cognitive control networks, and d...
Article
Full-text available
Device-based neuromodulation of brain circuits is emerging as a promising new approach in the study and treatment of psychiatric disorders. This work presents recent advances in the development of tools for identifying neurocircuits as therapeutic targets and in tools for modulating neurocircuits. We review clinical evidence for the therapeutic eff...
Conference Paper
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is non-invasive brain stimulation procedure adopting the intense magnetic pulses to induce an electric field in neuronal tissue, modulating cortical excitability level. Computational modelling and simulation have played a major role in the development of many TMS therapeutic applications for adults such as Ma...
Article
Full-text available
Much of the mechanistic research on anxiety focuses on subcortical structures such as the amygdala; however, less is known about the distributed cortical circuit that also contributes to anxiety expression. One way to learn about this circuit is to probe candidate regions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In this study, we tested the i...
Article
Full-text available
Recent longitudinal neuroimaging studies in patients with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) suggest local effects of electric stimulation (lateralized) occur in tandem with global seizure activity (generalized). We used electric field (EF) modeling in 151 ECT treated patients with depression to determine the regional relationships between EF, unbiase...
Article
Objective: There is limited information regarding the tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) combined with pharmacotherapy in elderly adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Addressing this gap, we report acute neurocognitive outcomes from Phase 1 of the Prolonging Remission in Depressed Elderly (PRIDE) study. Methods: Elderly adul...
Article
Full-text available
Although electromagnetic brain stimulation is a promising treatment in neurology and psychiatry, clinical outcomes are variable, and underlying mechanisms are ill-defined, which impedes the development of new effective stimulation protocols. Here, we show, in vivo and ex vivo, that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at low-intensity (LI-r...
Chapter
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating illness and closely linked to suicide risk. Currently available antidepressants take weeks to work and have low remission rates; indeed, about a third of individuals with MDD fail to fully remit in response to these agents. Novel therapies that target the glutamatergic system, s...
Chapter
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent condition and present first-line treatment options are inadequate. Among nonpharmacological treatment alternatives, noninvasive brain stimulation shows tremendous promise. There are two approved brain stimulation techniques for the treatment of MDD: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and repetitive...
Chapter
Chronic pain represents a major health problem. Approximately 100 million US adults suffer from common chronic pain conditions, more than the number affected by heart disease, diabetes, and cancer combined. The economic cost of chronic pain in adults is $560–630 billion annually. Chronic low back pain accounts for 22% of all cases of chronic pain a...
Article
Full-text available
Online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), applied while subjects are performing a task, is widely used to disrupt brain regions underlying cognition. However, online rTMS has also induced "paradoxical enhancement". Given the rapid proliferation of this approach, it is crucial to develop a better understanding of how online stimula...
Article
Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) are widely used for biomarkers and dose individualization in transcranial stimulation. The large variability of MEPs requires sophisticated methods of analysis to extract information fast and correctly. Development and testing of such methods relies on the availability for realistic models of MEP generation, which are...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The mesial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum are key nodes of the human mesial fronto-striatal circuit involved in decision-making and executive function and pathological disorders. Here we ask whether deep wide-field repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the mesial prefrontal cortex (...
Article
Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a noninvasive neuromodulation therapy under investigation for the treatment of severe neuropsychiatric disorders. MST involves inducing a therapeutic seizure under anesthesia in a setting similar to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). To date, randomized controlled trials suggest that MST has similar antidepressant ef...
Preprint
Full-text available
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating illness and closely linked to suicide risk. Currently available antidepressants take weeks to work and have low remission rates; indeed, about a third of individuals with MDD fail to fully remit in response to these agents. Novel therapies that target the glutamatergic system—su...
Article
Background: Low field magnetic stimulation is a potentially rapid-acting treatment for depression with mood-enhancing effects in as little as one 20-min session. The most convincing data for LFMS has come from treating bipolar depression. We examined whether LFMS also has rapid mood-enhancing effects in treatment-resistant major depressive disorde...
Preprint
Full-text available
Low Field Magnetic Stimulation is a potentially rapid-acting treatment for depression with mood-enhancing effects in as little as one 20-minute session. The most convincing data for LFMS has come from treating bipolar depression. We examined whether LFMS also has rapid mood-enhancing effects in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, and whe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent condition associated with considerable metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurocognitive morbidity. Childhood OSAS is underdiagnosed due to a limited number of sleep laboratories and the lack of a screening test, and the subtlety of daytime symptoms in children compared to adults. A potentia...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study aimed to test the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during laparoscopic skill training to determine if it has the capacity to accelerate technical skill acquisition. tDCS is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that delivers constant, low electrical current resulting in changes to cortical excitability and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The mesial prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum are key nodes of the human mesial fronto-striatal circuit involved in decision-making and executive function and pathological disorders. Here we ask whether deep wide-field repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) influen...