Zhe Qu

Zhe Qu
China Earthquake Administration · Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Administration

Ph. D.

About

84
Publications
53,658
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
995
Citations
Introduction
Dr Qu is a professor at the Institute of Engineering Mechanics, China Earthquake Aministration. His research interest is in the reduction of economic and functional loss of buildings under earthquakes by controlling the seismic damage to both structural and non-structural components. His academic awards in recent years include the Outstanding Young Engineers' Contribution Award by IABSE in 2015 and the AIJ Book Award by Architectural Institute of Japan in 2018.
Additional affiliations
December 2016 - August 2021
Institute of Engineering Mechanics
Position
  • Professor (Full)
December 2012 - December 2016
Institute of Engineering Mechanics
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2010 - March 2013
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
August 2001 - July 2010
Tsinghua University
Field of study
  • Civil Engineering

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) is widely used in automobile braking systems due to its low cost and stable performance. Meanwhile, NAO is also suitable for seismic energy dissipation of building structures, but further research was required. Configuration and loading rate are significant factors affecting the hysteretic performance of the friction damp...
Article
In a passive-controlled structure for seismic protection, energy dissipating devices such as steel dampers are supposed to concentrate earthquake energy dissipation and to sustain strain amplitudes and strain rates much larger than those in primary structural elements. The self-heating and the moderate strain rate in the order of magnitude of 1 s⁻¹...
Article
The design of acceleration-sensitive nonstructural elements is closely related to the peak floor acceleration (PFA) responses. We propose an improved method for estimating PFAs in buildings during earthquakes. This introduces a complementary mode accounting for the ground accelerations properly. It is equally practical as conventional response spec...
Article
Full-text available
Lightly reinforced concrete (LRC) walls have been widely used in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings in Japan as partitions and enclosure walls. Despite their contributions of considerable strength and stiffness to the structural system, they are generally classified as nonstructural elements and are not considered in seismic design. In recent decad...
Article
Full-text available
Out-of-plane collapse is one of the most important failure modes for masonry infill walls in frame structures during earthquakes and may result in significant economic loss, blocked evacuation pathways and even injuries and fatalities. To investigate the effect of prior in-plane damage on the out-of-plane behavior of masonry infill walls, a series...
Article
Full-text available
This paper proposes an algorithm for express solutions in nonlinear structural dynamics. Our strategy is to adopt a typical time integrator and accept the solution after a constant number of iterations using a constant Jacobian matrix. Its success may not be initially obvious, but we demonstrate that the proposed algorithm not only is fully operati...
Article
We subjected nine full-scale masonry infilled reinforced concrete frame specimens to quasi-static cyclic loading to critically review the methods for determining the damage state of masonry infill walls to develop reliable in-plane fragility functions. Among the three methods, the method based on maximum crack widths gave the smallest dispersion, w...
Article
Full-text available
Criteria are proposed for determining the stiffness and strength demands for the seismic design of pin-supported walls in low-and medium-rise reinforced-concrete moment frames. A plasticity ratio and a global stiffness ratio are introduced to evaluate the effect of pin-supported walls (PS walls) in mobilizing the seismic capacity of the moment fram...
Article
A community’s resilience relies on the resilience of its infrastructure systems and the many individual buildings that form the built environment. In evaluating the resilience of an individual building, it is fundamental to quantitatively define its functionality. In this paper, the functionality and its variation of a seismically based-isolated bu...
Article
Full-text available
The Chuandou timber frame is a traditional timber structural system widely used for nonengineered residential houses in southwestern China; this system is featured by beam-to-column joints with direct penetration tenons and free-standing column bases. As concluded by a previous study, the Chuandou timber frames with proper infills have exhibited be...
Article
In coupled wall systems, coupling beams distributed along the structural height are intended to yield and dissipate seismic energy under moderate and severe earthquakes. The use of specifically designed dampers in coupling beams can greatly enhance the seismic performance of a structure. In the present study, a friction damper incorporating brake p...
Article
Two groups of geometrically identical buckling-restrained braces (BRBs) were subjected to either dynamic or quasi-static uniaxial loading until the cores fractured to investigate the effect of the strain rate on the hysteretic behavior of BRBs. The test results show that the compression overstrength of the BRBs is significantly greater in dynamic l...
Article
In this paper, it is proposed to use an unconstrained gusset plate and a hinge relocation technique to control the damage to RC beam-column joints. The structural behavior of RC beams with BRB connections and relocated plastic hinges is investigated by cyclic loading tests. In the tests on RC beams with BRB connections, the BRB axial force was simu...
Article
In external retrofitting where a new structure is attached to the façade of an existing building, the connection between the two structures is critical for the seismic performance of the retrofitted building. Following a previous study that introduced a precast prestressed concrete frame system with mild press joints (PC-MPJ) for external seismic r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rayleigh damping model suggests high physical damping at high frequency. This is considered to be desirable to filter the inaccurate high-frequency responses in numerical transient analysis. However, with some widely adopted time integrators, the simulated system shows unexpected oscillation as if no damping is in effect. This paper presents an inv...
Article
A precast prestressed concrete frame system with mild press joints is introduced for the seismic retrofit of existing reinforced concrete frames. Cyclic loading tests are conducted on precast prestressed concrete and cast-in-situ reinforced concrete frame subassemblies to investigate the hysteretic behavior and damage characteristics of the frames....
Article
Full-text available
The fishbone model is a simplified numerical model for moment-resisting frames that is capable of modelling the effects of column-beam strength and stiffness ratios. The applicability of the fishbone model in simulating the seismic responses of reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames of different sets of column-beam strength and stiffness ratio...
Article
It is widely accepted that ductility design improves the seismic capacity of structures worldwide. Nevertheless, inelastic deformation allows serious damage to occur in structures. Previous studies have shown that a certain level of postyield stiffness may reduce both the peak displacement and residual deformation of a structure. In recent years, s...
Article
Full-text available
The seismic behavior of a school gymnasium, whose steel grid roof was heavily damaged during the Mw6.6 Lushan earthquake in 2013, is simulated through nonlinear dynamic analysis. The simulated damage is compared with field observations to validate the numerical model, based on which a parametric study was performed to provide insight into the failu...
Article
The experimental research on the seismic performance of non-structural components in China is still very limited. Following an introduction to the loading protocol of the Non-structural Component Simulator at the State University of New York at Buffalo (UB-NCS), this paper proposes to obtain the height-wise distributions of peak floor acceleration...
Article
Full-text available
This report presents studies on the construction performance of connecting buckling restrained braces in RC frames and the decrease in the tension of anchor PC rods. First, a construction test considering actual building conditions was carried out. From the test result, problems in actual construction were identified and the possible solutions were...
Article
Full-text available
In the mid‐18th century, Great Britain gave birth to the Industrial Revolution. The modern era started in Europe where there were no severe natural disasters caused by earthquakes. By the 19th century, the industrial movement had swept into Asia. In 1868, Japan began importing science and technology from Europe and USA. Subsequently, Japan's civili...
Article
Full-text available
In modern society, the population, wealth and social functions are increasingly concentrated in a few large cities. Such concentration brings about efficiency while at the same time it increases the vulnerability of the society. To address this issue, the Science Council of Japan (SCJ) published a proposal entitled “Shape Cities and Societies Safer...
Article
Full-text available
The existing design code has strict requirements for the seismic design of building structures, with little focus on the nonstructural components in buildings. Buildings may lose the function because of the damage to nonstructural components even though the structural damage is slight. As a type of typical nonstructural components, pipelines are of...
Article
Full-text available
Civil engineering works such as buildings and infrastructure are the carriers of human civilization. They are, however, also the origins of various types of disasters, which are referred to in this paper as civil engineering disasters. This paper presents the concept of civil engineering disasters, their characteristics, classification, causes, and...
Article
The reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall serves as one of the most important components sustaining lateral seismic forces. Although they allow advanced seismic performance to be achieved, RC shear walls are rather difficult to repair once the physical plastic hinge at the bottom part has been formed. To overcome this, a damage-controllable plastic h...
Article
Full-text available
With the increasing complexity of modern building functions and diversity of nonstructural components, seismic damage to nonstructural components may result in disruption of building functions and lead to huge economic losses. Conventional quasi-static, dynamic and shake table testing methods for structural experiments are also used for non-structu...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with connections for buckling restrained braces (BRBs) and relocated plastic hinges is investigated by cyclic loading tests and finite element analysis. In the tests on the RC beams with BRB connections, the BRB axial force was simulated by a force-controlled actuator. Two dif...
Article
Full-text available
To study the seismic performance of a new concrete filled tube-confined sandwich shear wall (CFT-SSW), cyclic loading tests were carried out on three CFT-SSW specimens with different depth-thickness ratios and one conventional concrete shear wall specimen for comparison. The load-carrying capacity, ductility, stiffness and their degradation, hyster...
Article
Although the unbalanced brace force at the mid-length of columns discourages the use of K- or double K-bracing in concentrically braced frames, this limitation needs re-evaluation when K- or double K-bracing is implemented in buckling restrained braced frames. Unlike ordinary steel braces, buckling restrained braces (BRBs) exhibit almost identical...
Article
Full-text available
A half-month seismic reconnaissance survey has been conducted two months after Nepal Ms. 8.1 earthquake. This paper reports the seismic hazards observed in reinforcement concrete (RC) frame structures at three sites. Only a few important RC frame buildings are anti-earthquake designed, such as hospitals, government buildings and schools, while the...
Article
A steel coupling beam equipped with a friction damper in the mid span is proposed for the use in high-rise buildings. Damage is only likely to take place on the brake pad-to-steel friction interface while the other parts of the steel coupling beam are expected to remain elastic under major earthquakes. High-strength bolts and disc springs are place...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the experimental results of various types of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) in the literature, equations of estimating the two over-strength factors of BRBs, namely the strain-hardening factor and the compressive over-strength factor, were proposed. A series of cyclic loading tests of BRBs made of Q235 steel were conducted. The effects...
Article
Civil engineering is the carrier of human civilization. It is also the carrier of various kinds of disasters that are defined as the civil engineering disasters in this paper. The paper presents the concept of civil engineering disaster, its characteristics, classification, causes and mitigation technologies. The civil engineering disaster is cause...
Article
Full-text available
Severe damage to suspended ceilings of metal grids and lay-in panels was observed in public buildings during the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake in China. Over the past several years, suspended ceilings have been widely used practice in public buildings throughout China, including government offices, schools and hospitals. To investigate the damage m...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the seismic response control of BRBs in super high-rise RC buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions is investigated by nonlinear time history analysis. The analysis model is a 36 stories super high-rise RC building. A bare frame structure is used as a reference model. The parameter of the analysis was the configuration of the...
Article
Full-text available
A new buckling restrained braced frame system was proposed in a previous study for reinforced concrete frames, which was featured by the zigzag configuration of buckling restrained braces to ease the steel-to-concrete connection. Experimental tests were conducted to establish realistic numerical models of the brace connections in the proposed syste...
Article
Full-text available
An unconstrained gusset connection for buckling restrained braces in reinforced concrete frame structures is proposed and tested as an effort to mitigate the complicated and usually harmful interactions between the steel gusset plate and the adjoining reinforced concrete column. Local damage control incorporating the rearrangement of beam flexural...
Article
Full-text available
An unconstrained gusset connection is proposed for buckling restrained braces in reinforced concrete frame structures in order to eliminate the detrimental frame action because of the interaction between the gusset plate and the adjoining reinforced concrete columns and beams, which may impair both the connection performance and the aseismic perfor...
Article
Full-text available
An unconstrained gusset connection for buckling restrained braces in reinforced concrete frame structures is proposed and tested as an effort to mitigate the complicated and harmful interactions between the steel gusset plate and the adjoining reinforced concrete components. A local damage control scheme is also proposed to enhance the gusset conne...
Article
A friction damper is proposed and tested for the use in steel coupling beams in high-rise buildings. Multiple brake pad-to-steel interfaces are jacketed by disc springs and high-strength bolts to yield stable frictional resistance. Damage is only likely to take place on the brake pad-to-steel friction interface. One can easily disassemble the dampe...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the passive control effect of BRBs in RC buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions is investigated by nonlinear time history analysis. In one model the RC frame was braced by BRBs in each story (each model) and in the other one, each BRB spans over two stories (over model). The analysis results indicate that the over model exh...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the seismic response control of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) in RC buildings subjected to earthquake ground motions is investigated by nonlinear time history analysis. In one model, the RC frame was braced by BRBs in each story (each model) and in the other one, each BRB spanned over two stories (over model). As a result of the...
Article
Full-text available
Masonry infilled timber frames are widely used for residential houses in underdeveloped rural and mountainous areas in southwestern China. As suggested by the identified dynamic properties of three typical timber houses of this type, the structure can be taken as a dual system in which the masonry infills provide most lateral resistance while the t...
Article
Full-text available
The Ms7.0 Lushan earthquake resulted in many fatality and considerable economic loss in southern Sichuan, China, where traditional Chuandou-type timber houses are common residence for local people, especially in mountainous region. Following a brief summary of the seismic damages to Chuandou-type timber houses during the Lushan earthquake, the eart...
Article
Full-text available
Buckling restrained braces (BRBs) exhibit stable hysteretic behavior and provide superior energy dissipation capacity to RC building structures. A connection method is proposed for BRBs in RC frames, which takes advantage of pre-tensioned bolts and RC corbels to fasten the BRB gusset plate to the concrete beam-to-column joint. Cyclic loading test o...
Article
Steel space structures have sustained less seismic damages than other structural systems during past major earthquakes around the world. As unique cases of severe seismic damages on steel space structures so far, the findings of the inspections for the steel space structures of two gymnasiums in down town Lushan country after the 2013 M7.0 Lushan e...
Article
Full-text available
The pounding of retaining walls forms a potential risk of degrading the performance of seismically base-isolated buildings subjected to strong, especially near-fault, earthquake ground motions. Incremental dynamic analysis is employed to generate the so-called gap graph, in which two characteristic gap sizes of a base-isolated building are related...
Article
Full-text available
Severe damage to steel space structures is rarely reported when compared to other structural systems damaged during past major earthquakes around the world. Two gymnasiums of steel space structures in downtown Lushan County that were damaged during the 2013 M7.0 Lushan earthquake in China were investigated and the observations are summarized in thi...
Article
SUMMARY A new buckling restrained braced frame system is proposed for reinforced concrete building structures, which is featured by the zigzag configuration of the braces and the corresponding connection details. The connection details tend to separate the vertical and horizontal components of force imposed by the braces to be resisted by independe...
Article
Full-text available
Specifically detailed pin-supported walls with steel dampers have been used to seismically strengthen an eleven-story steel reinforced concrete building. By looking at the observed damages and monitored motions of the building during the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake in 2011, it is demonstrated that nonstructural reinforced concrete partition walls have h...
Article
Full-text available
Frame-rocking wall system is a novel seismic force resisting structural system, and the connections are critical to realize the system. To promote the engineering application of frame-rocking wall system, new connections were proposed, and a series of tests were conducted to investigate the performance of the connections. In the tests, a steel fram...
Article
Full-text available
An application of a pin‐supported wall‐frame system in retrofitting an eleven‐story steel reinforced concrete frame is introduced. The retrofit aims at enhancing integrity and avoiding weak story failure in an existing moment‐resisting frame. Seismic performance of the building before and after the retrofit is assessed through nonlinear dynamic ana...
Article
Full-text available
A simplified single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) hysteretic model for collapse analysis of building structures is proposed in this work. The simplified hysteretic model is capable of simulating strength deterioration under monotonic loading, pinching, strength and stiffness deterioration under cyclic loading as well as P-Δ effect, so that it can be app...
Article
Full-text available
抄録 The risk of pounding against the surrounding structures, usually against the retaining walls, has become a major concern about the seismic performance of base-isolated buildings subjected to unexpectedly large earthquakes. The required retaining wall clearance to ensure the superstructure of a base-isolated building not to yield is evaluated thr...
Article
Full-text available
It is effective to use buckling restrained braces (BRBs) to protect reinforced concrete (RC) frames against major earthquakes. It is necessary to minimize the deformation in the connections for BRBs in RC frames in order to make the BRBs more effective in dissipating earthquake energy. In this study, a detail of connecting BRBs to RC frames is sugg...
Article
Full-text available
By taking building structures as systems, the difference between the safety margins of a structure and that of its element is clarified and the robustness of the structure to resist unexpected disasters is discussed. The system concept is further used to introduce the concepts of importance levels and functionality levels in structural systems, the...
Article
Full-text available
The equivalent linear analysis of a multi-degree-of-freedom system is an effective method in predicting the maximum inelastic seismic responses of building structures, in which the equivalent linear models for single-degree-of-freedom systems are of essential importance. The influence of structure's period of vibration, ductility ratio and hysteret...
Article
Full-text available
A retrofit of an existing 11-story steel reinforced concrete frame that features the innovative use of post-tensioned rocking walls and shear steel dampers is presented. The main components of the retrofitting plan and important design considerations are described. The retrofitting system is expected to effectively control the deformation pattern o...
Article
An innovative seismic passive control system of rocking walls was introduced. Rocking walls are specially-detailed structural walls with finite rotating capacity at the base and large lateral stiffness. The rocking wall system is capable of controlling the lateral deformation pattern of the building structure and allows flexible arrangement of ener...
Article
Full-text available
Effective damage mechanism control is essential for enhancing the seismic performance of building structures Following a brief review of the damage medianism of current seismic structural systems mechanical principles and effectiveness of the dam age mechanism control of rockingwal- frame structural system are studied A practical method of estimati...
Article
Full-text available
Careful selection of earthquake ground motions forms the basis for performing nonlinear time history analyses of building structures. Different methods of selecting earthquake ground motions should be used in accordance with the purpose of the time history analyses. The applicability and applicable conditions of typical selection methods are discus...
Article
Full-text available
Seismic base isolation is effective to control the seismic responses of building structures. However, compared with conventional seismic systems, the robustness of the base-isolated buildings is generally considered lower and thus the selection of input ground motions becomes a more crucial issue in assessing the seismic safety of base-isolated bui...
Article
Full-text available
Equivalent linear analysis that takes advantages of response spectrum analysis is effective and practical in estimating the nonlinear seismic responses of structures suffering from moderate damage, in which prescribed locations and extents of structural damage can be readily employed. These features make it a promising method to assist the performa...
Article
Full-text available
The principal motivation of this study is to obtain a clear understanding of size effects for fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) shear-strengthened beams. The experimental program consists of seven beams of various sizes grouped in three test series. One beam of each series is used as a benchmark and its behavior is compared with a beam strengthened wi...
Article
Full-text available
In simulating the nonlinear seismic behavior of RC structures subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, it's necessary to take into account the effects of accumulative damage of structural members, of which the strength deterioration is one of the most important aspects. By examining the influence of loading histories on the strength deteriora...