Zhaohai Bai

Zhaohai Bai
Chinese Academy of Sciences | CAS · Center for Agro-Resources Research

PhD

About

99
Publications
45,622
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,522
Citations

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Balancing water quality and food production is a global challenge due to complex nutrient cycle and previous soil accumulation. This study investigated crop-livestock integration from watershed perspective, while agricultural and environmental benefits of fertilizer and manure application were quantified through numerical experiments at two spatial...
Article
Full-text available
Lake Baiyangdian provides water in northern China. Agriculture contributes to nutrient pollution in this lake. This especially holds for livestock production with poor nutrient and manure management. Furthermore, a new urban area is currently developing in the basin. This increases demand for food in cities and feed for animals. This study aims to...
Article
Full-text available
Reactive nitrogen (N) is a requisite nutrient for agricultural production, but results in greenhouse gas and air and water pollution. The environmental and economic impacts of N fertilizer use in China are particularly relevant, as China consumes the largest amount of N fertilizer in the world to meet its soaring food demand. Here, we use an agro-e...
Article
Full-text available
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) production experienced a considerable increase during the past decades, and there is growing concern about how to realize the dual objectives of meeting the increasing demand for rapeseed and reducing the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most reported studies on crop‐sourced GHG emissions to date were aimed at...
Article
Full-text available
International trade of agricultural products has greatly increased over time, but its impacts on sustainable development are debated. It may contribute to food security in importing countries, increases the dependency between countries, and has been implicated in displacement of environmental pollution and resource depletion. There is also discussi...
Preprint
Balancing water quality and food production is a global challenge due to complex nutrient cycle and previous soil accumulation. This study investigated crop-livestock integration from watershed perspective, while agricultural and environmental benefits of fertilizer and manure management were quantified through two numerical experiments. The optima...
Preprint
There are large regional differences in the use of phosphorus (P) in global food production. Likewise, the access of people to food calories and exposure to water pollution differ largely among world regions. Redistribution of P use is needed to meet the planetary boundary (PB) and to improve P-related inequalities. We present a global redistributi...
Article
Full-text available
Livestock production in China is increasingly located near urban areas, exposing human populations to nitrogen pollution via air and water. Here we analyse livestock and human population data across 2,300 Chinese counties to project the impact of alternative livestock distributions on nitrogen emissions. In 2012 almost half of China’s livestock pro...
Article
Full-text available
Animal-derived food production accounts for one-third of the global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Diet followed in China is ranked as low-carbon emitting (i.e. 0.21 t CO2-eq per capita in 2018, ranking at 145th out of 168 countries) due to the low average animal-derived food consumption rate, and preferential consumption of animal-d...
Article
Full-text available
Satisfying China’s food demand without harming the environment is one of the greatest sustainability challenges for the coming decades. Here we provide a comprehensive forward-looking assessment of the environmental impacts of China’s growing demand on the country itself and on its trading partners. We find that the increasing food demand, especial...
Article
Growing demand for intensive animal farms and increased public awareness of environmental friendliness, have led to continuous iteration and refinement of the initially crude composting technology. However, the impact of the composting facility and energy input on eco-efficiency is limited. In this study, a LCA approach was conducted to investigate...
Article
Ammonia (NH3) emissions mostly from agriculture result in air pollution and degrade human health. However, a full picture of soil NH3 emissions and associated abatement in cropping systems are not well understood. Here we present a thorough analysis of cropland NH3 emissions, discuss mitigation potential and assess associated abatement costs. Globa...
Article
Full-text available
Global development has been heavily reliant on the overexploitation of natural resources since the Industrial Revolution. With the extensive use of fossil fuels, deforestation, and other forms of land-use change, anthropogenic activities have contributed to the ever-increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere, causing glo...
Article
Full-text available
p>Eutrophication refers to the nutrient enrichment, leading to blooms of algae. Such blooms in lakes can happen throughout the year because of the changes in nutrient and hydrological cycles. Nutrient export to lakes from rivers is the main cause of eutrophication problems. Seasonal trends in nitrogen (N) export by rivers to lakes are still not wel...
Article
Ecological thresholds are useful indicators for water quality managers to define limits to nutrient pollution. A common approach to estimating ecological thresholds is using critical nutrient loads. Critical nutrient loads are typically defined as the loads at whichthe phytoplankton chlorophyll-a exceeds a certain concentration. However, national p...
Article
Full-text available
International trade of agricultural products has complicated and far-reaching impacts on land and nitrogen use efficiencies. We analysed the productivity of cropland and livestock and associated use of feed and fertilizer efficiency for over 240 countries, and estimated these countries’ cumulative contributions to imports and exports of 190 agricul...
Article
Enhancing electron transfer through directly elevating electric potential has been verified to reduce gaseous emissions from composting. Reducing electric resistance of composting biomass might be a choice to further strengthening electron transfer. Here, the effects of chemical electrolytes addition on gaseous Nitrogen emission in electric field a...
Article
Phosphorus (P) from detergents contributes to water pollution and eutrophication. Understanding the impacts of detergent use on P inputs to surface waters and their main drivers is vital for supporting Sustainable Development Goals on clean water. This study aims to quantify past and future trends in P inputs to surface waters from detergent use in...
Article
Ammonia (NH3) emissions, the majority of which arise from livestock production, are linked to high concentration of PM2.5 and lower air quality in China. NH3 mitigation options were well studied at the small-scale (laboratory or pilot), however, they lack of a large-scale test in China. This study fills this crucial gap by evaluating the cost-benef...
Article
Targeted options to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from composting is scarce due to challenges in disentangling the complex N2O production pathways. Here, combined approaches of nitrogen form analysis, isotopocule mapping, quantitative PCR, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing were used to differentiate N2O production pathways and decipher the underl...
Article
Full-text available
China purchases around 66% of the soy that is traded internationally. This strains the global food supply and contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Here we show that optimizing the maize and soy production of China can improve its self-sufficiency and also alleviate adverse environmental effects. Using data from more than 1,800 counties in China...
Article
The crop-livestock system is responsible for a large proportion of global reactive nitrogen (Nr) losses, especially from China. There are diverse livestock systems with contrasting differences in feed, livestock and manure management. However, it is not yet well understood which factors greatly impact on the nitrogen (N) budgets and losses of each...
Article
Full-text available
p>The outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) in China has significantly reduced the country's pig production capability, whilst also having far-reaching impacts on livestock products supply in the wider food system. Previous studies have quantified the potential long-terms impacts on food prices, however, little information is available regarding th...
Article
Full-text available
Most of the global population will live in urban areas in the 21st century. We study impacts of urbanization on future river pollution taking a multi-pollutant approach. We quantify combined point-source inputs of nutrients, microplastics, a chemical (triclosan) and a pathogen (Cryptosporidium) to 10,226 rivers in 2010, 2050 and 2100, and show how...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore a novel method to immobilize heavy metals (HM) in composting through increasing the combination of these with humic substances. An electric-field assistant technique was applied to strengthen biomass biodegradation and assess the impact on the humification process and HM immobilization in composting. Results dem...
Article
Full-text available
The Yangtze River Basin (YRB) has been recognized as one of the key strategic development regions in China. Agriculture p52 roduction systems in the YRB have contributed considerably to China’s goal of food security. Realizing Agriculture Green Development (AGD) means agriculture production systems with high productivity, high resource use efficien...
Article
Atmospheric ammonia is an important air pollutant, while dairy production is a significant source of ammonia emissions. The aim of the present dairy manure management study was to analyze: 1) the impacts of acidification of the manure surface and/or a vermiculite cover on ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane emissions from animal housing and manure s...
Article
Reducing ammonia (NH3) volatilization from croplands while satisfying the food demand is strategically required to mitigate haze pollution. However, the global pattern of NH3 volatilization remains uncertain, primarily because of the episodic nature of NH3 volatilization rates and the high variation of fertilization practices. Here, we improve a gl...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic is worsening food shortages in food deficit countries, such as China, which rely on import for domestic food consumption. We argue that fundamental revolution in China’s livestock system can meet about 50% of its consumption of livestock products and thereby reduce the country’s reliance on imports. Three food system revolutio...
Article
Full-text available
Pig production systems in China are shifting from small to industrial scale. Significant variation in housing ammonia (NH3) emissions can exist due to differences in diet, housing design, and management practices. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding the impacts of farm-scale in China, which may be critical in identifying hotspots and mitiga...
Article
China’s fertilization practices contribute greatly to the global biogeochemical nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows, which have exceeded the safe-operating space. Here, we quantified the potentials of improved nutrient management in the food chain and spatial planning of livestock farms on nutrient use efficiency and losses in China, using a nutr...
Chapter
Nutrient inputs to agricultural production systems have strongly increased to fulfill the food demand. Nutrient management has also changed, and nutrient cycling between crop and animal production has been broken. This has resulted in severe environmental issues at the national and regional scales, including airborne pollution, eutrophication of wa...
Article
Low phosphorus use efficiency in livestock production has contributed greatly to the unsustainable depletion of phosphorus rock reserves, and to subsequent impacts on the environment. In this study, we compared the effects of two contrasting water-soluble phosphorus supplements on phosphorus use efficiencies through the ‘rock mining – feed – pig –...
Article
Manure acidification is recommended to minimize ammonia (NH3) emission at storage. However, the potential for acidification to mitigate NH3 emission from storage and the impact of manure acidification (pH range 5–8) on composting have been poorly studied. The effects of manure acidification at storage on the subsequent composting process, nutrient...
Article
Composting technology is widely used and different technologies have been applied from static heap to windrow composting, and to intelligent reactor composting since the rapid development of landless intensive livestock farms and improved awareness to environmental impacts. However, the lack of a systematic analysis has limited the objective evalua...
Article
Full-text available
As the demand for livestock products continues to increase in China, so too does the challenge of managing increasing quantities of manure. Urgent action is needed to control point source (housing, storage and processing) and diffuse (field application) pollution and improve the utilization of manure nutrients and organic matter. Here, we review st...
Article
Full-text available
Concepts of material flow and mass consistency of nitrogen compounds have been used to elucidate nitrogen’s fate in an urban environment. While reactive nitrogen commonly is associated to agriculture and hence to large areas, here we have compiled scientific literature on nitrogen budget approaches in cities, following the central role cities have...
Article
Many water resources are threatened with nutrient pollution worldwide. This holds for rivers exporting increasing amounts of nutrients from the intensification of food production systems and further urbanization. This riverine nutrient transport causes coastal eutrophication. This study aims to identify cost-effective management options to simultan...
Article
Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture threatens water quality and affects human health, especially the nitrate leaching. In China, nitrate concentrations in ground-water frequently exceed the World Health Organization (WHO) quality standard for drinking water of 50 mg L⁻¹. In this paper we explore mitigation measures for reducing N loss to water from...
Article
This study analyzed ammonia reduction potential and related costs and benefits of several ammonia emission reduction technologies applicable for dairy production from cattle in China. Specifically, these included diet manipulation, manure acidification, manure/slurry covers and solid manure compaction. Ammonia emissions for China were estimated usi...
Article
Full-text available
Chinese surface waters are severely polluted by nutrients. This study addresses three challenges in nutrient modelling for rivers in China: (1) difficulties in transferring modelling results across biophysical and administrative scales, (2) poor representation of locations of point sources and (3) limited incorporation of direct discharge of manure...
Article
Animal diets are often over-supplemented with low bioavailability phosphorus (P) sources in China, resulting in unnecessary excretion and loss of P to the environment. The effect of reducing dietary P supplementation and using a highly available P supplement for swine and poultry was determined. Manure collected in feeding trials involving the use...
Article
Full-text available
p>Eutrophication is a serious problem in Chinese seas. We explore possibilities to avoid coastal eutrophication without compromising food production in the North China Plain. We used the Model to Assess River Inputs of Nutrient to seAs (MARINA 1.0) for back-casting and scenario analysis. Avoiding coastal eutrophication by 2050 implies required redu...
Article
Composting of solid waste can be associated with a loss of the agronomic value (nutrient loss), as well as a source of environmental impact through the emission of the greenhouse gases (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). Additives have been considered as a useful option to mitigate these environmental em...
Article
Agricultural nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to water bodies remain largely unknown in China, mainly due to the lack of reliable data sources and quantification tools. In this study, we constructed a grid-based NUFER (NUtrient Flow in food chains, Environment and Resources use) model in order to quantify a high-res- olution agricultural N...
Article
Application rates of fertilizers in China often exceed crop requirements, resulting in high accumulation of nitrate (NO3) in the soil. Nitrate that has accumulated in soils is highly prone to leaching, directly threatening the quality of groundwater. A study was conducted to assess the magnitude of NO3 accumulation and leaching in China, to identif...
Article
Full-text available
Developing sustainable food systems is essential, especially for emerging economies, where food systems are rapidly changing and afflict environment and natural resources. We explored possible future pathways for sustainable food system in China, using multiple environmental indicators linked to 8 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Forecasts...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding changes in livestock production and their relationship with socio-economic and environmental impacts is important for exploring the pathways towards sustainable development goals (SDGs) of food systems. We used pig production in China as a case study to evaluate how socio-economic indicators influence pig production and nutrient losse...
Article
Hai He basin is located in the densely populated North China Plain that is providing food to more than 100 million people. The fast developing agriculture and urbanization in Hai He basin have resulted in discharging nutrient-rich wastewater into lakes and reservoirs, leading to eutrophication and water scarcity such as in Guanting reservoir and Ba...
Article
In order to explore food security, high resources use efficiency and environmental friendly pathway for the coordinated and green developed agriculture in the food production and food consumption system, we constructed the "soil-crop-livestock-family-environment" ("food chain system" in short) research system. Using the material flow and metabolism...
Article
Manure management is an important aspect of urban livestock production that has a profound impact on metropolitan living. Data were collected from 28 dairy farms in peri-urban Beijing and analysed to determine farm nitrogen and phosphorus flows and costs associated with various manure management options to reduce nutrient losses. Dairy production i...
Article
Full-text available
China’s livestock industry has experienced a vast transition during the last three decades, with profound effects on domestic and global food provision, resource use, nitrogen and phosphorus losses, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the driving forces around this transition and its national and global conseq...
Article
Positive forced aeration is widely used in industrial composting plants to supply sufficient oxygen, accelerating compost maturity. However, this technology results in significant gaseous emission, especially NH3 and GHGs emissions. To reduce gaseous emissions and investigate aeration efficiency, negative pressure aeration was used during cattle ma...
Article
China has an ever-increasing thirst for milk, with a predicted 3.2-fold increase in demand by 2050 compared to the production level in 2010. What are the environmental implications of meeting this demand, and what is the preferred pathway? We addressed these questions by using a nexus approach, to examine the interdependencies of increasing milk co...
Article
Crop-livestock system includes two sub-systems of animal production and soil-crop production. Manure management is the most important part to connect animal production and soil-crop production. Ammonia emission occurred in the chain of livestock housing, manure storage, manure processing and application. Crop-livestock system was the great contribu...
Article
[Objective]With the rapid development of animal husbandry in China and the increasing demand for forage, the adjustment of planting structure has become an inevitable trend. The objective of this study is to quantify the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) spatial flow of cultivated forage, and to provide a scientific basis for increasing grassland pro...
Article
[Objective] Under the background of turning crop to forage and adjustment of plantation structure, the study on yield gap of alfalfa, ryegrass and oat grass is crucial for revealing yield potential. It can also provide a scientific basis for making high yield and high efficiency forage management strategies. [Method] The publications were collected...