Zhan-Guo Gao

Zhan-Guo Gao
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

About

231
Publications
19,059
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9,401
Citations
Citations since 2016
68 Research Items
4196 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600

Publications

Publications (231)
Article
COVID-19 disease is associated with progressive accumulation of SARS-CoV-2-specific mRNA, which is recognized by innate immune receptors, such as TLR3. This in turn leads to dysregulated production of multiple cytokines, including IL-6, IFN-γ, CXCL1, and TNF-α. Excessive production of these cytokines leads to acute lung injury (ALI), which conseque...
Article
Full-text available
Modulators of the G protein-coupled A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) have been considered promising agents to treat Parkinson's disease, inflammation, cancer, and central nervous system disorders. Herein, we demonstrate that a thiophene modification at the C8 position in the common adenine scaffold converted an A2AAR agonist into an antagonist. We sy...
Article
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is a promising therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases, cancer, and chronic neuropathic pain, with agonists already in advanced clinical trials. Here we report an in-depth comparison of the pharmacological properties and structure-activity relationships of existing and expanded compound libraries of 2-substitut...
Article
Full-text available
Adenosine receptor (AR) ligands are being developed for metabolic, cardiovascular, neurological, and inflammatory diseases and cancer. The ease of drug discovery is contingent on the availability of pharmacological tools. Fluorescent antagonist ligands for the human A2A and A3ARs were synthesized using two validated pharmacophores, 1,3-dipropyl-8-p...
Article
Full-text available
Adenosine (ADO) is an extracellular signaling molecule generated locally under conditions that produce ischemia, hypoxia, or inflammation. It is involved in modulating a range of physiological functions throughout the brain and periphery through the membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptors, called adenosine receptors (ARs) A1AR, A2AAR, A2BAR, and...
Article
Introduction: A3 adenosine receptor (A3 AR) agonists are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for treatment of inflammation, cancer, and neuropathic pain. To circumvent complications associated with the use of direct agonists of GPCRs (selectivity, dose-limiting side-effects), we have pursued development of A3 adenosine receptor positive a...
Article
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is a target for pain, ischemia, and inflammatory disease therapy. Among the ligand tools available are selective agonists and antagonists, including radioligands, but most high-affinity non-nucleoside antagonists are limited in selectivity to primate species. We have explored the structure-activity relationship of a...
Article
Various adenosine receptor nucleoside-like ligands were found to modulate ATP hydrolysis by the multidrug transporter ABCG2. Both ribose-containing and rigidified (N)-methanocarba nucleosides (C2-, N⁶- and 5′-modified), as well as adenines (C2-, N⁶-, and deaza modified), were included. 57 compounds out of 63 tested either stimulated (50) or inhibit...
Article
Following our study of 4′-truncated (N)-methanocarba-adenosine derivatives that displayed unusually high mouse (m) A3AR affinity, we incorporated dopamine-related N⁶ substituents in the full agonist 5′-methylamide series. N⁶-(2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)ethyl) derivative MRS7618 11 displayed Ki (nM) 0.563 at hA3AR (∼20,000-fold selective) and 1.5...
Article
Fragment-based drug discovery relies on successful optimization of weakly binding ligands for affinity and selectivity. Herein, we explored strategies for structure-based evolution of fragments binding to a G protein-coupled receptor. Molecular dynamics simulations combined with rigorous free energy calculations guided synthesis of nanomolar ligand...
Article
Adenosine receptor (AR) radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) have provided knowledge on the in vivo biodistribution of ARs in the central nervous system (CNS), which is of therapeutic interest for various neuropsychiatric disorders. Additionally, radioligands that can image changes in endogenous adenosine levels in different physiolo...
Article
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Distinguishing compounds' agonistic or antagonistic behavior would be of great utility for the rational discovery of selective modulators. We synthesized truncated nucleoside derivatives and discovered 6c (Ki = 2.40 nM) as a potent human A3 adenosine receptor (hA3AR) agonist, and subtle chemical modification induced a shift from antagonist to agoni...
Article
Full-text available
A linear route has been used to prepare (N)-methanocarba-nucleoside derivatives, which serve as purine receptor ligands having a pre-established, receptor-preferred conformation. To introduce this rigid ribose substitute, a Mitsunobu reaction of a [3.1.0]bicyclohexane 5'-trityl intermediate 3 with a nucleobase is typically followed by functional gr...
Article
Various 6-alkynyl analogues of a known 3-nitro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromene antagonist 3 of the Gq-coupled P2Y6 receptor (P2Y6R) were synthesized using a Sonogashira reaction to replace a 6-iodo group. The analogues were tested in a functional assay consisting of inhibition of calcium mobilization in P2Y6R-expressing astrocytoma cells elicited b...
Article
The heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) family of chaperones is highly sought-after for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Glucose regulated protein 94 (Grp94) is the endoplasmic reticulum localized isoform that is responsible for the maturation of proteins involved in cell adhesion and the immune response, including Toll-like re...
Article
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Rapid phosphoester hydrolysis of endogenous purine and pyrimidine nucleotides has challenged the characterization of the role of P2 receptors in physiology and pathology. Nucleotide phosphoester stabilization has been pursued on a number of medicinal chemistry fronts. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo stability and pharmacokinetics of protot...
Article
Thiouracil and thiocytosine are important heterocyclic pharmacophores having pharmacological diversity. Antitumor and antiviral activity is commonly associated with thiouracil and thiocytosine derivatives, which are well known fragments for adenosine receptor affinity with many associated pharmacological properties. In this respect, 33 novel compou...
Article
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Solvent reorganization is a major driving force of protein–ligand association, but the contribution of binding site waters to ligand affinity is poorly understood. We investigated how altered interactions with a water network can influence ligand binding to a receptor. A series of ligands of the A2A adenosine receptor, which either interacted with...
Article
Various heteroaryl and bicyclo-aliphatic analogues of zwitterionic biaryl P2Y14 receptor (P2Y14R) antagonists were synthesized, and affinity was measured in P2Y14R-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells by flow cytometry. Given this series' low water solubility, various polyethylene glycol derivatives of the distally binding piperidin-4-yl moiety o...
Article
Full-text available
A long evolution of knowledge of the psychostimulant caffeine, led in the 1960s to another purine natural product, adenosine and its A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR). Adenosine is a short‐lived autocrine/paracrine mediator that acts pharmacologically at four ARs in a manner opposite to pan‐antagonist caffeine and serves as an endogenous allostatic re...
Article
Full-text available
Allosteric antagonism by bitopic ligands, as reported for many receptors, is a distinct modulatory mechanism. Although several bitopic A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) ligand classes were reported as pharmacological tools, their receptor binding and functional antagonism patterns, i.e., allosteric or competitive, were not well characterized. Therefor...
Article
Dopamine-derived N6-substituents, compared to N6-(2-phenylethyl), in truncated (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexyl) adenosines favored high A3 adenosine receptor (AR) affinity/selectivity, e.g., C2-phenylethynyl analogue 15 (MRS7591, Ki = 10.9/17.8 nM, at human/mouse A3AR). 15 was a partial agonist in vitro (hA3AR, cAMP inhibition, 31% Emax; mA3A...
Article
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as cancer. However, the use of compounds pharmacologically targeting this receptor remains limited in clinical practice, despite extensive efforts for compound synthesis. Moreover, the possible occurr...
Article
A side-by-side pharmacological comparison of ribose and (N)-methanocarba (bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane) nucleosides as A3AR agonists indicated that the bicyclic pseudoribose ring constraint provided higher affinity/selectivity at human and mouse A3AR. The mean affinity enhancement for 5 pairs of 5-methylamides was 11-fold at hA3AR and 42-fold at mA3AR. No...
Article
Compounds able to simultaneously bind a biological target and be conjugated to a second specific moiety are attractive tools for the development of multi-purpose ligands useful as multi-target ligands, receptor probes or drug delivery systems, with both therapeutic and diagnostic applications. The human A3 adenosine receptor is a G protein-coupled...
Article
Full-text available
There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Locally produced adenosine is a suppressant in anti-tumor immune surveillance. The A2BAR, coupled to both Gαs and Gαi G proteins, is one of the several GPCRs that are expressed in a significantly higher level in cer...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are four subtypes of adenosine receptors (ARs), named A1, A2A, A2B and A3, all of which are G protein-coupled receptors. The A2BAR, coupled to both Gαi and Gαq G proteins, is one of the several G-protein-coupled receptors that are expressed in a significantly higher level in some cancer tissues in comparison to adjacent normal tissues. There...
Article
Affinity mass spectrometry (MS) enables rapid screening of compound mixtures for ligands bound to a specific protein target, yet its current throughput is limited to individually assay pools of 400-2000 compounds. Typical affinity MS screens implemented in pharmaceutical industry labs identify putative ligands based on qualitative analysis of compo...
Article
Full-text available
Adenosine receptors (ARs) function in the body’s response to conditions of pathology and stress associated with a functional imbalance, such as in the supply and demand of energy/oxygen/nutrients. Extracellular adenosine concentrations vary widely to raise or lower the basal activation of four subtypes of ARs. Endogenous adenosine can correct an en...
Article
(N)-Methanocarba ([3.1.0]bicyclohexyl) adenosines and corresponding ribosides were synthesized to identify novel A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) agonists for CNS or peripheral applications. Human and mouse AR binding was determined to assess the constrained ring system's A1AR compatibility. N⁶-Dicyclobutylmethyl ribose agonist (9, MRS7469, >2000-fold...
Article
Full-text available
While screening off-target effects of rigid (N)-methanocarba-adenosine 5′-methylamides as A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, we discovered μM binding hits at the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) and translocator protein (TSPO). In an effort to increase OR and decrease AR affinity by structure activity analysis of this series, antagonist activity at κ-(K)O...
Article
Central adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) is implicated in pain, sleep, substance use disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases, and is an important target for pharmaceutical development. Radiotracers for A1R positron emission tomography (PET) would enable measurement of dynamic interaction of endogenous adenosine and A1R during the sleep-awake cycle. Al...
Article
Recognition of nucleosides at adenosine receptors (ARs) is supported by multiple X-ray structures, but the structure of an adenine complex is unknown. We examined the selectivity of predicted A1AR and A3AR adenine antagonists that incorporated known agonist affinity-enhancing N⁶ and C2 substituents. Adenines with A1AR-favoring N⁶-alkyl, cycloalkyl...
Article
In the adenosine receptor (AR) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), biased agonism has been described for the human A1AR, A2BAR and A3AR. While diverse A3AR agonists have been evaluated for receptor binding and Gi-mediated cAMP signalling, the β-arrestin2 (βarr2) pathway has been left largely unexplored. We screened nineteen diverse ad...
Chapter
One of the four G protein-coupled receptors for adenosine, the A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR), is widely distributed in the body and modulates numerous normal and pathological processes, through signaling pathways including those downstream from its coupled Gi protein. It is an attractive drug target for heart failure, arrhythmias, angina, asthma, s...
Chapter
Numerous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of ligands of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) have generated selective agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, and allosteric modulators. The efficacy of nucleoside agonists may be reduced, while retaining affinity, by successive structural changes. Subnanomolar affinity and selectivity of >10,...
Article
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
Article
On the cover: The cover image, by Kenneth A. Jacobson et al., is based on the Review Article A3 Adenosine Receptors as Modulators of Inflammation: From Medicinal Chemistry to Therapy, https://doi.org/10.1002/med.21456.
Article
Full-text available
Tryptophan indole 15N-1H signals are well separated in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins. Assignment of the indole 15N-1H signals therefore enables one to obtain site-specific information on complex proteins in supramacromolecular systems, even when extensive assignment of backbone 15N-1H resonances is challenging. Here we exploi...
Article
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Many hemorheologic Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) that are widely-used clinically lack molecular mechanisms of action. We hypothesized that some of the active components of hemorheologic TCMs may function through targeting prothrombotic P2Y1 and/or P2Y12 receptors. The interactions between 253 antithrombotic compounds from TCM and these two G...
Article
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Activity of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) allosteric modulators LUF6000 (2-cyclohexyl-N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazo [4,5-c]quinolin-4-amine) and LUF6096 (N-{2-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)amino]quinolin-4-yl}cyclohexanecarbox-amide) was compared at four A3AR species homologs used in preclinical drug development. In guanosine 5′-[γ-[³⁵S]thio]triphospha...
Article
Sodium ions are endogenous allosteric modulators of many G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Mutation of key residues in the sodium binding motif causes a striking effect on G-protein signaling. We report the crystal structures of agonist complexes for two variants in the first sodium coordination shell of the human A2A adenosine receptor, D522.50...
Article
Signaling across cellular membranes, the 826 human G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) govern a wide range of vital physiological processes, making GPCRs prominent drug targets. X-ray crystallography provided GPCR molecular architectures, which also revealed the need for additional structural dynamics data to support drug development. Here, nuclear...
Article
Full-text available
Fragment-based lead discovery is becoming an increasingly popular strategy for drug discovery. Fragment screening identifies weakly binding compounds that require optimization to become high-affinity leads. As design of leads from fragments is challenging, reliable computational methods to guide optimization would be invaluable. We evaluated using...
Article
The A3 adenosine receptor (A3 AR) subtype is a novel, promising therapeutic target for inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriasis, as well as liver cancer. A3 AR is coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, leading to modulation of transcription. Further...
Article
A pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine antagonist of the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) was functionalized as amine congeners, fluorescent conjugates and a sulfonate, and A2AAR binding modes were predicted computationally. The optimal n-butyl spacer was incorporated into the following A2AAR-selective (Ki, nM) conjugates: BODIPY630/65...
Article
Potent and selective A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists were identified by replacement of 4'-oxo- or 4'-thionucleosides with bioisosteric selenium. Unlike previous agonists, 4'-seleno analogues preferred a glycosidic syn conformation and a South sugar puckering, as shown in the X-ray crystal structure of 5'-N-methylcarbamoyl derivative 3p. Among c...
Article
We have repurposed (N)-methanocarba adenosine derivatives (A3 adenosine receptor (AR) agonists) to enhance radioligand binding allosterically at the human dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) and inhibit DA uptake. We extended the structure–activity relationship of this series with small N⁶-alkyl substitution, 5′-esters, deaza modifications of adenine,...
Article
Adenosine derivatives developed to activate adenosine receptors (ARs) revealed micromolar activity at serotonin 5HT2B and 5HT2C receptors (5HTRs). We explored the structure-activity relationship at 5HT2Rs and modeled receptor interactions in order to optimize affinity and simultaneously reduce AR affinity. Depending on N(6) substitution, small 5'-a...
Article
Purine (N)-methanocarba-5'-N-alkyluronamidoriboside A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists lacking an exocyclic amine resulted from an unexpected reaction during a Sonogashira coupling and subsequent aminolysis. Because the initial C6-Me and C6-styryl derivatives had unexpectedly high A3AR affinity, other rigid nucleoside analogues lacking an exocyc...