Zenghai Lu

Zenghai Lu
Birmingham City University | BCU · Department of Health Sciences

PhD in Engineering Photonics

About

42
Publications
4,239
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438
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (42)
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The radiographic process of projection of a complex human form onto a two-dimensional image plane gives rise to distortions and magnifications. It is important that any simulation used for educational purposes should correctly reproduce these. Images generated using a commercially available computer simulation widely used in radiography...
Article
Full-text available
Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is widely used to image fibrous biological tissues providing additional image contrast compared to intensity-based OCT including birefringence and optic axis orientation information. Here a theoretical and experimental analysis of the effect of the system fiber on determination of optic a...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the variation of skin properties with gender, age and anatomical region, with regards to interaction with different materials have resulted in significant research output. Investigations on skin surface strain and sub-surface layer deformation during sliding, however, have not received as much attention. This novel study uses two non-inv...
Article
Background/purpose: The work outlined in this paper was aimed at achieving further understanding of skin frictional behaviour by investigating the contact area between human finger-pads and flat surfaces. Methods: Both the static and the dynamic contact areas (in macro- and micro-scales) were measured using various techniques, including ink prin...
Conference Paper
OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820...
Conference Paper
Selective laser sintering (SLS) enables fast, flexible and cost-efficient production of parts directly from 3D CAD data. However, compared with more established machine tools, there is a marked lack of process monitoring and feedback control of key process variables to optimize production parameters in-situ. We apply optical coherence tomography (O...
Conference Paper
We report the possibility of providing 3-D profilometry of the air-tissue interface with micron-scale precision by using a novel, low cost, akinetic swept source recently developed. Example OCT image taken from finger skin is presented by using a home-built OCT setup integrated with the swept source.
Article
Full-text available
Selective laser sintering (SLS) enables the fast, flexible and cost-efficient production of parts directly from 3D CAD data. Unlike more established machine tools, there is a marked lack of process monitoring and feedback control of key process variables. In-situ analysis techniques permit the emergence of repair techniques, in-process optimization...
Article
Full-text available
In many developing parts of the world, colposcopy supplemented by aceto-whitening remains the most widespread means of reliably diagnosing cervical dysplasia, potentially leading to cervical cancer. The use of aceto-whitening to enhance detection rates for Barrett’s esophagus is also emerging in recent years. Here we quantitatively study the aceto-...
Article
Full-text available
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) generates its primary form of contrast from elastic backscatter. It is now the gold standard technique for retinal screening and is emerging rapidly in cardiovascular research however it remains a research goal to establish it to the same degree in epithelial cancer detection and diagnosis. In this report we compa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes three series of tests that were designed to investigate how skin mechanical and structural properties, measured using a ‘Cutometer’ and optical coherence tomography, affect the frictional behaviour of human finger-pads. First, the skin mechanical properties across all fingers and the palm in participants’ dominant hands were as...
Article
Full-text available
We report on a new articular cartilage imaging technique with potential for clinical arthroscopic use, by supplementing the variable-incidence-angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography method previously developed by us with a conical beam scan protocol. The technique is validated on bovine tendon by comparing experimental data with...
Article
Full-text available
Cervical cancer is the eleventh most common cancer in the UK, especially for women under 35. In developed countries, cervical cancer is diagnosed by performing colposcopy. Contrast is enhanced by spraying dilute acetic acid onto the surface of the tissue. In the past decades, it has been shown that abnormal cervical epithelium turns opaque white up...
Article
A new imaging technique is presented by introducing the concept of conical scan to the variable-incidenc-angle polarimetry (VIA) previously developed by our group. The technique would facilitate the translating of the VIA technique to the clinic by simplifying the requirements of measurements in two orthogonal planes by using a conical scan protoco...
Article
This paper presents work using an in vivo technique, optical coherence tomography (OCT), to investigate the structure of human finger pad skin and the influences of some related parameters on skin friction, such as contact area, deformation and hydration. The experimental results show that there was no significant relationship between the thickness...
Article
We report on a new calibration technique that permits the accurate extraction of sample Jones matrix and hence fast-axis orientation by using fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) that is completely based on non polarization maintaining fiber such as SMF-28. In this technique, two quarter waveplates are used to co...
Article
This paper highlights the extended Jones matrix calculus based multi-angle study carried out to understand the depth dependent structural orientation of the collagen fibers in articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). A 3D lamellar model for the collagen fiber orientation, with a quadratic profile for t...
Conference Paper
The effects on skin of two commercially available topical creams for the treatment of eczema are quantitatively studied using optical coherence tomography. An archetypal corticosteroid (Betamethasone valerate) is compared with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Tacrolimus monohydrate) via left/right comparisons of the epidermal thickness of vol...
Article
We report on a photothermal modulation detection scheme developed using a swept source-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system centred at 1300nm. Photothermal detection is an improved technique for studying the contrast properties of exogenous contrast agents such as highly absorbing polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles used for OCT imaging. The...
Article
Full-text available
We report a comparison of different capping materials on the intermixing of modulation p-doped InAs/In(Ga)As quantum dots (QD). QD materials with different caps are shown to exhibit significant difference in their optical properties during the annealing process. The selective area intermixing technique is demonstrated to laterally integrate two and...
Article
We report on a new calibration technique that permits the accurate extraction of sample Jones matrix and hence fast-axis orientation by using fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) that is completely based on non-polarization-maintaining fiber such as SMF-28. In this technique, two quarter-wave plates (QWPs) are us...
Article
Full-text available
We report results to verify a theoretical framework to analyze the 3D depth-wise structural organization of collagen fibers in articular cartilage using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. Apparent birefringence data obtained from multi-angle measurements using a time domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography syste...
Article
We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation (CPM-PS-OCT). We...
Article
We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the phase retardance and relative optic-axis orientation of a sample can be calculated without prior knowledge of the actual value of the phase modulation amplitude when using a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system based on continuous polarization modulation (CPM-PS-OCT). We...
Article
In this work the use of two identical QD SOAs to enhance the performance of swept laser system for OCT applications is discussed, resulting in an increase in bandwidth up to 94nm. The combination of GaAs based QD SOAs and InP based QW SOAs for realizing broad bandwidth sources for OCT system is described. For the swept laser source a 154nm spectral...
Article
The difference in the genetic make up of the constituent molecules in collagen fibers in tendon and articular cartilage is what makes them mechanically and functionally different. A comparative study carried out on the differences in the angle-resolved back-scattering properties obtained from optical coherence tomography based studies on the two di...
Article
A near-infrared (NIR) absorbing contrast agent based on polypyrrole nanoparticles is described. Quantitative optical coherence tomography studies on tissue phantoms and Mie scattering calculations indicate their potential application for early-stage cancer diagnosis.
Article
Full-text available
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging methodology that is able to image tissue to depths of over 1 mm. Many epithelial conditions, such as melanoma and oral cancers, require an invasive biopsy for diagnosis. A noninvasive, real-time, point of care method of imaging depth-resolved epithelial structure could greatly improve earl...
Article
In a biological tissue, light scattering is based on the size and type of scatterers seen as refractive index variations that describe the optical properties shown. In this paper, we have implemented the variable incidence angle technique of multiple angle of illumination experiment on tendon and cartilage samples whose dominant constituents are ge...
Article
p>A phase fluctuation calibration method is presented for polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) using continuous polarization modulation. The method consists of the generation of a continuous triggered tone-burst waveform rather than an asynchronous waveform by use of a function generator and the removal of t...
Article
Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) has established itself as an important non-invasive optical imaging tool to study the birefringent biological tissues. The complex D structure architecture of the collagen fibers in articular cartilage is investigated using a time domain PSOCT (TD-PSOCT) system and the depth-wise cumulativ...
Article
Full-text available
Recently the effects of reduced bit-depth acquisition on swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) image quality have been evaluated by using simulations and empirical studies, showing that image acquisition at 8-bit depth allows high system sensitivity with only a minimal drop in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to higher bit-depth syst...
Article
We describe a fibre-based variable-incidence angle (VIA) polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography (PS-SS-OCT) system to determine the 3D optical axis of birefringent biological tissues. Single-plane VIA-PS-OCT is also explored which requires measurement of the absolute fast-axis orientation. A state-of-the-art PS-SS-OCT syst...
Conference Paper
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique based on the low coherence interferometry, in which signals are obtained based on the coherent addition of the back reflected light from the sample. Applying computational methods and automated algorithms towards the classification of OCT images allows a further step towards enhancing the c...
Conference Paper
There is an increasing need for a robust simple to use non-invasive imaging technology for monitoring tissue engineered constructs as they develop. We have applied optical coherence tomography (OCT), a relatively new optical technique, to image tissue engineered constructs. Our aim was to evaluate the use of swept-source optical coherence tomograph...
Article
Interferometric filter-based planar Doppler velocimetry is used in conjunction with imaging fibre bundles to make time-averaged three-component velocity measurements using a single imaging head. The Doppler frequency shifts of light scattered by particles entrained into the flow to be measured are transduced to intensity variations using a Mach–Zeh...
Article
Full-text available
Three component planar flow-field measurements are made using imaging fibre bundles to port different views of the measurement plane, defined by a laser light sheet, to a single imaging head. The Doppler frequency shifts of light scattered by particles entrained in the flow are transduced to intensity variations using a Mach-Zehnder interferometric...
Article
A planar Doppler velocimetry system to measure flow velocity fields is described. The technique uses a Mach-Zehnder interferometric filter to convert Doppler frequency shifts into intensity variations. The free spectral range of the filter can be selected by adjusting the optical path difference of the interferometer. This allows the velocity measu...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the development of a Mach-Zehnder interferometric filter based planar Doppler velocimetry (MZI-PDV) flow measurement technique. The technique uses an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to convert Doppler frequency shifts into intensity variations. The free spectral range of the interferometric filter can be selected b...

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