Zdenek Halata

Zdenek Halata
Charles University in Prague | CUNI · Department of Anatomy (1.LF)

Prof., Dr.med.

About

134
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3,725
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Additional affiliations
January 1981 - September 2004
University of Hamburg
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (134)
Chapter
Synopsis Merkel nerve endings are found in the skin of all vertebrates, functioning as mechanoreceptors. They consist of large cells (Merkel cells) with lobulated nuclei and dense-core granules in the cytoplasm facing the associated afferent nerve terminal. In mammals, Merkel cell nerve endings are located in the basal layer of the epidermis both i...
Article
Full-text available
Merkel nerve endings are found in human skin, as well as the skin of all vertebrates functioning as mechanoreceptors. Merkel cells are located in the basal layer of the epidermis both in hairy and in glabrous skin, and are often arranged in clusters. In hairy skin, Merkel cells are typically associated with large guard hairs and specialized sensory...
Article
Merkel nerve endings are found in the skin of all vertebrates, functioning as mechanoreceptors. They consist of large cells (Merkel cells) with lobulated nuclei and dense-core granules in the cytoplasm facing the associated afferent nerve terminal. In mammals, Merkel cell nerve endings are located in the basal layer of the epidermis both in hairy a...
Article
The esophagus is a part of the alimentary tract. It is a muscular tube approximately 25 cm long extending from the pharynx to the stomach. The esophagus begins at the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage opposite the sixth cervical vertebra and enters the gastric orifice at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra.
Article
The three-dimensional morphology of the innervation of touch domes in the hairy skin folds of cat forepaws was investigated by the confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses of sections stained immunocytochemically with primary antibodies for protein gene product 9.5, neurofilament 200 and cytokeratin 20 in combination with transmission electron...
Chapter
Full-text available
The human hand is a complex organ serving the functions of grip and touch. The mechanoreceptors of the hand can be categorised into those located within skin and subcutaneous tissues and those associated with joints and muscles providing the central nervous system with information about position of movement of hand and fingers. In addition to mecha...
Article
Stability of the shoulder joint emanates from numerous mechanisms including articular geometry, static restraints (capsuloligamentous tissue), dynamic (muscular) stabilizers, and intra-articular forces. Capsuloligamentous structures not only provide mechanical restraint to joint subluxation, but also provide vital sensory feedback information that...
Article
Computer-assisted procedures have recently been introduced for navigated iliosacral screw placement. Currently there are only few data available reflecting results and outcome of the different navigated procedures which may be used for this indication. We therefore evaluated the features of a new 3D image intensifier used for navigated iliosacral s...
Article
Objective Computer-assisted procedures have recently been introduced for navigated iliosacral screw placement. Currently there are only few data available reflecting results and outcome of the different navigated procedures which may be used for this indication. We therefore evaluated the features of a new 3D image intensifier used for navigated il...
Article
Postnatal mice lacking neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are deficient in Merkel cells of touch domes and whisker follicles. We examined the mechanism of Merkel cell loss by immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy. Merkel cell of whisker follicles of NT3 null newborns exhibited decreased immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 8 and contained apoptotic bodies that...
Article
Nude mice have a mutation in the transcription factor Foxn1(nu), resulting in downregulation of hair keratins. Although hair follicles develop normally, the hair fibers become structurally weak, curl, and break off at the surface. Nails in nude mice are deformed, based on alterations of the onychocyte differentiation process. Elemental microanalysi...
Article
OSAS-patients complain about nasal disorders. Irritation of the nasal mucosa often leads to termination of nCPAP treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether symptoms are related to histologic changes of the nasal mucosa of the head of the middle turbinate in OSAS-patients. Semi-thin sections of epon-embedded middle turbinate biopsy samp...
Article
Full-text available
Though the lining of the healthy human nose is subject of numerous investigations, age-related changes have attracted little attention. Furthermore, varying sampling sites complicate the evaluation of the available information. Reference is needed for evaluation of abnormal conditions, e.g. in persons with sleep apnea. Biopsy samples from the middl...
Chapter
Chick/quail chimeras and double transgenic Wntl -cre/R26R mice, in which neural crest cells are permanently marked by expression of ß-galactosidase, are evidence that Merkel cells in Merkel nerve endings of birds and mammals are neural crest derivatives. Like melanoblasts their precursors colonise the skin. Cytokeratin 8- and 18-positive Merkel cel...
Article
Full-text available
Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors in the mammalian skin. They consist of large, pale cells with lobulated nuclei forming synapse-like contacts with enlarged terminal endings of myelinated nerve fibers. They were first described by F.S. Merkel in 1875. They are found in the skin and in those parts of the mucosa derived from the ectoderm. In...
Article
Full-text available
Merkel nerve endings are mechanoreceptors in the vertebrate skin. They were named after the person who first described them--F.S. Merkel (1875). They consist of large, pale cells with lobulated nuclei forming synapse-like contacts with enlarged terminal endings of myelinated nerve fibres. Inside the cell are intermediate filaments formed of simple...
Article
Full-text available
Here, we provide evidence for the neural crest origin of mammalian Merkel cells. Together with nerve terminals, Merkel cells form slowly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors that transduce steady indentation in hairy and glabrous skin. We have determined the ontogenetic origin of Merkel cells in Wnt1-cre/R26R compound transgenic mice, in which neura...
Chapter
We provide evidence for the neural crest origin of mammalian Merkel cells. Neural crest cells originate in the neural folds during early development of the vertebrate embryo. They delaminate from the dorsal aspect of the forming neural tube and emigrate to different locations, giving rise to a diverse array of structures in the adult organism. The...
Chapter
This study focused on those types of mammalian nerve endings originally described by Merkel in 1875. In all mammals, Merkel cells are found in the basal layer of the epithelium usually in close contact with nerve terminals. The Merkel cell is always positioned between the direction of the mechanical stimulus and the nerve terminal. Any similar cell...
Chapter
Whiskers are highly sensitive touch organs in all mammals apart from man. A blood sinus encloses the hair follicles completely or almost completely. One sinus hair has several thousand sensory nerve endings. Most of them are located in the epithelial thickening below the sebaceous gland. A large number of Merkel cells with associated nerve endings...
Chapter
Glycoproteins and proteoglycans are involved in tumor genesis, progression, and metastatic activity. Hence, glycoprotein and proteoglycan immunohistochemistry was applied to material of nine cases of Merkel cell carcinomas preserved in paraffin. Merkel cell tumors were identified by cytokeratin and neurofilament immunohistochemistry. Antibodies aga...
Chapter
Die Speiseröhre gehört zum Transportabschnitt des Verdauungstraktes. Sie ist ein etwa 25 cm langes muskulöses Rohr, das eine Verbindung von Schlund und Magen darstellt. Sie beginnt an der Unterkante des Ringknorpels (Cartilago cricoidea) in Höhe des 6. Halswirbelkörpers und mündet in den Magen in Höhe des 12. Brustwirbels.
Book
Since their first description in 1875, Merkel cells have remained an elusive cell type. Their origin as well as their classification as mechanoreceptors have been a matter of controversy and intense discussion. The peptidergic granules in these cells are suggestive of neuroendocrine functions, but their discovery has raised additional questions reg...
Article
Full-text available
The lectin binding pattern of muscular microvessels in chick, quail and chick/quail chimeras was analysed. Paraffin wax sections of muscles from embryonic and adult animals were used. The biotin-labelled lectins were detected by avidin-alkaline phosphatase complex. The following lectins bound to muscular microvessels including arterioles, capillari...
Article
The topography of muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs in the rotator cuff and surrounding shoulder muscles of a small laboratory marsupial (monodelphis domestica) were studied using light microscopy of serial sections. The shoulder joint of monodelphis has a large degree of freedom of movement allowing this animal to use the upper extremities f...
Article
Changes in carbohydrate residue expression and in proteoglycan distribution occur during different stages of tumor development and progression. However, few data concerning carbohydrate residue analysis as performed by lectin histochemistry and proteoglycan distribution of Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare malignant tumor of the skin, have been reporte...
Article
Full-text available
The topography and structure of corpuscular mechanoreceptors in the shoulder joint capsule and periarticular connective tissue of a small laboratory marsupial (monodelphis domestica) were studied using light and electron microscopy. This animal is known to use its upper extremities for a wide range of activities like climbing and manipulating food....
Article
Full-text available
We studied carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins and proteoglycans (PGs) in peritoneal Pacinian corpuscles of five adult cats. Terminal monosaccharides of glycoproteins and related polysaccharides were identified by lectin histochemistry and the PGs and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by specific antibodies. The most intensive lectin staining reactions...
Article
Zusammenfassung Minimalinvasive Zugänge verringern das Operationstrauma beim Einbringen von metallischen Implantaten zur Stabilisierung und Fixierung von Knochen. Die klinischen und anatomischen Aspekte der Zugänge des Ober- und Unterarms werden aufgeführt, und es wird auf die möglichen Gefahren der Schädigung hingewiesen. Die Schonung nervaler und...
Article
The shoulder joint is the ball-and-socket joint that has the greatest degree of freedom along all three axes. It is secured by muscles. The glenoid cavity is flat and is extended by the glenoid lip. The surface area of the hemispheric head of the humerus is about three times that of the articular socket, even including the glenoid labrum. The joint...
Article
We have investigated the developmental origin and ultrastructure of avian Merkel cells by electron microscopy and chick/quail transplantation experiments. On embryonic day 3, chick leg primordia were homotopically grafted onto Japanese quail host embryo. Fourteen days later, quail cells that had migrated into grafted chick legs were identified acco...
Article
Full-text available
The sensory innervation of the papilla incisiva in the hard palate of the domestic goat was studied with light and electron microscopy, supplemented by electrophysiological studies of free nerve endings. The goat lacks incisor teeth. Grass and leaves are not bitten, but pulled off by pressing them between the tongue and papilla incisiva. Thus, the...
Article
Full-text available
The sensory innervation of the hard palate of the rhesus monkey was studied by light and electron microscopy. The mucosa of the hard palate is subject to a particularly heavy mechanical load requiring functional specialisation of the horny epithelium in the form of thickenings - the papilla incisiva and eight pairs of rugae palatinae. A thin layer...
Article
Our experiments addressed the problem of the regulation of the number of mechanoreceptors by sensory axons and/or their peripheral target tissues. According to a previous study (Zelená et al. 1997) white leghorn chickens have more muscle spindles in the plantaris muscle (45.4+/-7.8; mean+/-SD) than the Japanese quail (35.3+/-4.8) and significantly...
Article
In order to investigate the sensory innervation, the upper cervical spine of a small laboratory marsupial (monodelphis domestica) was examined with serial section light microscopy and re-embedding of selected sections for electron microscopy. Large numbers of free nerve endings supplied by A delta- and C-fibres were found in the longitudinal ligame...
Article
This study examines the structure of sensory nerve endings in the sheep anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Three types of nerve endings are found: free nerve endings (FNE), Ruffini corpuscles, and lamellated corpuscles.The FNE (more than 100) are found subsynovially. The afferent nerve fibres are either thin myelinated axons (Aδ) or C fibres with di...
Article
In mammals, Merkel cells and their nerve endings have structurally very little species differences. They are located in the stratum basale of the epidermis and the external root sheats of hair follicles. In glabrous skin, the Merkel nerve endings are concentrated in the basal layer of the primary ridges in fingers, palms, toes and foot-soles around...
Article
Herbst corpuscles were studied in the crural region of perinatal and adult chicken and quail in order to find out their number and dimensions and to learn more about their structure, especially in relation to size. Crural corpuscles are arrayed in an encapsulated string between tibia and fibula. They are closely packed together; a small number of c...
Article
We investigated the pattern of distribution of corpuscular sensory nerve endings in the shoulder region of the laboratory mouse in relation to their functional properties. Twelve adult female white NMRI-F2-mice were used. The topography of sensory nerve endings in the shoulder joint region was reconstructed by three-dimensional image processing by...
Article
Male reproductive behavior has a complex neural organisation. The penile erection and ejaculation require the integration and proper sequencing of somatic, sympathetic, and parasympathetic innervation (Johnson and Halata, 1991). In the present poster we try to answer two questions: 1. which type of sensory nerve endings occur and 2. how they are di...
Article
The ultrastructure and distribution patterns of sensory nerve endings in the dorsal knee joint capsules of the beagle dog (Canis familiaris) have been investigated using light and electron microscopy. Each dorsal knee joint capsule was divided into four quadrants, cut into small pieces and then processed for electron microscopy. Free nerve endings...
Article
The function of Merkel cells in mechanotransduction has remained controversial Single unit recordings were made from Merkel cell receptors (sinus hair type I, St I) and another slowly adapting mechanoreceptor (sinus hair type II, St II) in isolated rat sinus hairs by applying controlled mechanical displacements to the hair shaft. Chloroquine (50-30...
Article
Experiments were performed on slowly adapting type I mechanoreceptors in an isolated rat skin-nerve preparation (SA I receptors) and in an isolated rat sinus hair preparation (St I receptors). Merkel cells were stained in vitro with the fluorescent dye quinacrine and irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) light (2 mW for up to 1 h) while recording recept...
Article
Sinus hairs were isolated from rats and examined in an isolated organ bath while superfused with oxygenated synthetic interstitial fluid. The distal end of the deep vibrissal nerve was teased for single unit recordings of responses from slowly adapting mechanoreceptors to standard bending of the hair. Sinus hair type I and type II receptors could b...
Article
The ultrastructure and location of sensory nerve endings in the shoulder-joint capsule, its tendinous reinforcements and in the periarticular connective and muscle tissue have been studied by means of light and electron microscopy in adult female white NMRI-F2 laboratory mice, aged 2.5-13 months. Most of the sensory nerve endings were detected in t...
Article
Merkel cells (MC) and their nerve terminals are associated with slowlyadapting mcchanoreceptors in skin (SAI) and sinus hairs (St I). A mechanotransducer role for MCs in these mechanoreceptive units is not yet conclusively established. UV-irradiation of quinacrine loaded MCs in touch domes has been used to destroy the MCs while checking the respons...
Article
During the course of a study on the morphology of periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors it was observed that a direct relation, without intervening bone, existed between the mandibular canine and first premolar tooth roots in the cat. An area, representing a window in the alveolar septal bone, extended 2-3 mm from the apex towards the tooth crown....
Article
A correlative morphological study was carried out on two electrophysiologically identified and located periodontal ligament mechanoreceptors in anaesthetised cats. One mechanoreceptor had its cell body in the mesencephalic nucleus and the other had its cell body in the trigeminal ganglion. Physiological recordings were made from each of their cell...
Article
The sense of touch develops early in phylogeny and is one of the most important senses for the survival of the animal. Touch organs of hairy skin in mammals include the so-called "Haarscheiben" (also Pinkus corpuscles) and all types of hair follicles with their nerve endings. The touch organs of the skin consist of a mechanical transducing componen...
Article
This study is concerned with the distribution and ultrastructure of sensory nerve endings in the beak skin of adult Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The following nerve endings were found: free nerve endings, clusters of dermal Merkel nerve endings, Herbst corpuscles and Ruffini corpuscles. The latter were found only in the dermis of th...
Article
Full-text available
Homozygosity for the Splotch mutation causes neural tube and neural crest defects in mice. It has been demonstrated that Splotch mutant mice carry mutations in the homeodomain of the Pax-3 gene. Pax-3 is expressed in the neural tube, some neural crest derivatives, the mesenchyme of the limb bud and the somites. We have examined the development of t...
Article
The location and structure of sensory nerve endings was examined in the mucosa and in the gingiva propria adjacent to the third premolar of Monodelphis domestica by light and electron microscopy. The mucous membrane of the gingiva propria is covered with a stratified keratinized squamous epithelium. The mucous membrane of the adjacent inner aspect...
Article
Location and structure of sensory nerve endings in the periodontium of the third premolar in Monodelphis domestica have been investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. The periodontal cleft of the tooth is apically enlarged. The number of nerve endings increases towards apex. Three types of sensory nerve endings have been observed: fre...
Article
The topogenesis of the hindlimb nerves of Splotch homozygous mutant mouse embryos was studied using light and electron microscopy. Homozygous mutants show multiple defects of neural crest-derived tissues. The defects increase along a rostro-caudal gradient. The cervical and upper thoracic segments have small spinal ganglia, and Schwann cells are as...
Article
In 21 human anterior cruciate ligaments removed with their synovial sheaths during autopsy and operation, nerves and nerve endings were demonstrated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultrastructural examination allowed a classification of nerve endings into three types: Ruffinian corpuscles, Pac...
Article
In 18 autoptisch und 3 intraoperativ mit ihrem Synovialüberzug entnommenen vorderen Kreuzbändern menschlicher Kniegelenke konnten licht- und elektronenmikroskopisch Nerven, licht- und transmissionselektronenmikroskopisch Nervenendigungen dargestellt werden. Die ultrastrukturelle Untersuchung gestattete die Klassifizierung der Nervenendigungen in 3...
Article
The aim of the present study was to describe the types and location of sensory nerve endings in the glans penis of the rat on the basis of light and electron microscopy. Free nerve endings are abundant throughout the glans and are derived from either thinly myelinated Aδ or unmyelinated C fibers. The free nerve endings derived from Aδ fibers often...
Article
The antetorsion angle (beta) of the femoral neck and the "retrotorsion" angle (alpha) of the lesser trochanter were measured in 52 female and 34 male femora taken from 46 human cadavers (age at death 80.3 +/- 8.67 years). In addition, the diameter of the femoral head (d) and the length of the femur (l) were measured. As expected, the antetorsion an...
Article
The innervation of pelage, guard hairs and vibrissae hairs was studied in five species of marsupial mammals by means of electron microscopy for the first time. This study showed that members of different superfamilies in marsupial mammals displayed the same pattern of hair innervation. This also resembled the pattern seen in the placental mammals....
Article
In order to combine the dynamic hip screw with a plate that anchors the greater trochanter, detailed measurements of the greater trochanter are necessary and its relation to the femoral head and neck must be studied. The hips in 200 X-ray films in the AP view were measured. The radiographs were obtained from 46 males and 87 females (69.2 +/- 16.9 y...
Article
The distribution and ultrastructure of sensory nerve endings were investigated in the deep lateral elbow region of the rat. Three zones of distribution of mechanoreceptors were distinguished, each in relation to the functional architecture of the connective and muscular tissue in that area: (1) a zone with muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, free...
Article
The sensory innervation of the anal canal of the pig was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The distribution of the different types of sensory nerve endings correlates with the histology of different zones: (1) After the rectal mucosa there was a zone lined with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. (2) A middle zone was lined...
Article
Using light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry, it was shown that primary sensory nerve endings in Golgi tendon organs of the grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) contain immunoreactivities to a polyclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Myelinated afferent axons (6-9 microns in diameter) o...
Article
The light-microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of female STR/IN mice, aged from 3 to 12 months, were studied. Every TMJ of an adult mouse starts to degenerate in early adulthood and subsequently suffers from osteo-arthrosis. Ageing of the TMJ is characterized by thinning out of its cartilaginous com...
Article
The sensory innervation of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 8 STR/IN mice was investigated by means of light and electron microscopy. Through the cutting of complete semithin sections in series it was possible to investigate the joints thoroughly. Additionally, one joint with its nerve supply was reconstructed three-dimensionally with a compu...
Article
The innervation of 21 human anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) obtained at autopsy or during operation was studied by light microscopy. Nerves and nerve endings were found in the synovium and interfascicular connective tissue. The nerves were myelinated and/or unmyelinated and had terminal nerve structures with free nerve endings which provide nocic...
Article
The facial skin of two adult and one 50-day-old pouch animal of the marsupial mammal Trichosurus vulpecula was removed after the animals has been suitably anesthetized and perfused for electron microscopy. Small blocks of tissue (1 x 0.5 mm) were cut and incubated in acetylthiocholine iodide substrate for cholinesterase studies. The blocks were the...
Article
The origin of cells covering the nervous system and the cutaneous receptors was studied using the quail-chick marking technique and light and electron microscopy. In the first experimental series the brachial neural tube of the quail was grafted in place of a corresponding neural tube segment of the chick embryo at HH-stages 10 to 14. In the second...
Article
A correlative morphological study was carried out on physiologically located periodontal mechanoreceptors in anaesthetised cats. Three periodontal mechanoreceptors were electrophysiologically identified from functionally single fibres teased from the inferior alveolar nerve. One receptor was studied by recording in the mesencephalic nucleus. The fo...
Article
Using light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry, it was shown that primary sensory nerve endings in Golgi tendon organs of the grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) contain immunoreactivities to a polyclonal antibody directed against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Myelinated afferent axons (6–9 μm in diameter) of the...
Article
The sensory innervation of the anal canal of the pig was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The distribution of the different types of sensory nerve endings correlates with the histology of different zones: (1) After the rectal mucosa there was a zone lined with nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. (2) A middle zone was lined...
Chapter
Vellus hairs in mammals including man are innervated by perifollicular nerve endings (see Chap. 6), while larger hairs such as guard hairs and sinus hairs, which are specialized for touch, have additional innervation to serve their special function. Guard hairs have a connective tissue sheath which extends from the level of the attachment of the se...
Chapter
The sense of touch developed early in phylogeny. One of the reasons might be that this sense is highly essential for survival: using this sense, the newborn animal explores its new surroundings, and by doing this, it might come across sources of food and support. For this purpose the skin contains complex nervous structures, named “touch organs” or...
Chapter
At the insertion zone of muscles, free nerve endings together with small lamellated corpuscles, large Pacini corpuscles, Golgi-tendon organs and muscle spindles form mechanoreceptive complexes which register the sensation of tension of muscle fasciae, aponeuroses and muscle fibers themselves (Barker, 1974). Tendons and fasciae originate in joint ca...
Chapter
Mechanoreceptors of the locomotive system are to be found in joint capsules and ligaments, in the connective tissue sheaths of muscles, as well as in aponeuroses, tendons and muscles (see chapter 5, this volume). For kinesthesia, which is the “sense of position as well as movements of body parts” (Proske et al., 1988), all these receptors even incl...
Article
The sensory innervation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ligamentum cruciatum anterius) of the human knee joint was studied by light-and electron microscopy. The connective tissue between the synovial membrane and the cruciate ligament contains small Ruffini corpuscles and lamellar corpuscles with several inner cores. The connective tissue septa...
Article
Touch organs of the skin in mammals consist of a mechanical transducting component and a sensory component. In the hairy skin, examples of these mechanical transducting components can be seen in the epithelium of hair follicles, and in the hairless skin in the epidermal papillae of the cone skin or the epidermal ridges of the ridges skin. In hairy...
Article
This chapter deals with light and electron microscopical findings of Ruffini corpuscles in hairy and glabrous skin of various mammals and marsupials as well as Ruffini corpuscles in joint capsules of various birds, mammals and marsupials. In glabrous skin (nasal skin, glans penis, prepuce) Ruffini corpuscles are located in the reticular layer of th...
Chapter
The penis of the male goat belongs to the fibro-elastic type. Its main components are the corpus cavernosum surrounded by a thick tunica albuginea. At the basal aspect of the corpus cavernosum lies the urethra. The urethra leaves the penis with its connective tissue sheath at the border between corpus and glans penis to form the processus urethrae...