Zarook Shareefdeen

Zarook Shareefdeen
American University of Sharjah | AUS · Department of Chemical Engineering

PhD, P.Eng.

About

93
Publications
102,431
Reads
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1,995
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
508 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
Introduction
Registered professional engineer (P.Eng.) in Ontario, Canada. Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from NJIT (New Jersey Institute of Technology, USA). Research areas include biofiltration, bioreactor modeling, waste management and pollution control.
Additional affiliations
January 2014 - August 2014
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Visiting Researcher
Description
  • Research in the area of carbon management, waste-to-energy technology, air dispersion modeling, biofiltration and air stripping.
August 2006 - present
American University of Sharjah
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
January 2000 - December 2005
BIOREM Inc
Position
  • Director of Research & Applied Technology

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
The increasing amounts of municipal solid waste produced accompanied with the rising need for energy has caused a growth in the popularity of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities as waste and energy solutions for many regions in Canada. The recent commercially viable WTE facilities across Canada show that the main technologies used in Canada are incine...
Book
Many industrial processes cause volatile organic and inorganic odorous compounds to be emitted in large quantities. These compounds create hazards to the ecosystem and to humans. The demand for odor and air pollution control systems that provide breathable air is therefore growing. Biotechnology offers one of the most economical and environmentally...
Article
Removal of toluene vapor from airstreams was studied in a vapor phase biological reactor known as a biofilter. The reactor was packed with a mixture of peal and perlite particles on which a mixed microbial population (consortium) was immobilized and formed a biolayer. The reactor was operated over a period of 11 months under various inlet-airstream...
Article
Biofiltration of solvent and fuel vapors may offer a cost-effective way to comply with increasingly strict air emission standards. An important step in the development of this technology is to derive and validate mathematical models of the biofiltration process for predictive and scaleup calculations. For the study of methanol vapor biofiltration,...
Article
A microbial consortium and Pseudomonas strain (PPO1) were used in studying biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and p-xylene under aeorbic conditions. Studies involved removal of each compound individually as well as in mixture with the others. Both cultures exhibited a qualitatively similar behavior toward each compound. Both the pure culture and t...
Article
Full-text available
This work presents recent developments of algal bioreactors used for CO2 removal and the factors affecting the reactor performance. The main focus of the study is on light intensity and photoperiods. The role of algae in CO2 removal, types of algal species used in bioreactors and conventional types of bioreactors including tubular bioreactor, verti...
Chapter
Sustainability Studies: Environmental and Energy Management is a collection of reviews on topics on sustainability with the objective of informing the reader about the environmental impact of industrialization and the ways technology can be implemented to sustain it. The book presents 11 chapters that focus on the environmental issues, waste manage...
Article
Full-text available
The principles of gas-phase biofilter systems, modeling, and operations are quite different from liquid-phase biofilter systems. Because of “biofilter” terminology used in both gas and liquid-phase systems, researchers often mistakenly use gas-phase models in liquid-phase applications for the analysis of data and determining kinetic parameters. For...
Article
Full-text available
Biofilters are biological air-phase packed-bed reactors used for the removal of industrial air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors. Because of the economic and environmental benefits, biofilter technology is preferred in applications such as wastewater treatment plants, waste recycling facilities, and several chemical ind...
Chapter
Disposal of hazardous waste is considered to be at the bottom of the waste hierarchy and the final option in the hazardous waste management system. Hazardous waste disposal is technically challenging and selection of the most suitable disposal method is of critical importance to ensure safe disposal and effective isolation of hazardous waste from t...
Book
The rapid advances in the discovery of new chemicals, modernization of treatment and disposal technologies, and stringent environmental regulations demand continuous updating of knowledge related to hazardous wastes. This book contributes toward covering recent advances in hazardous waste management methods and innovative treatment and disposal tec...
Chapter
This chapter examines waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies as a solution, not only to dispose of the wastes but also to generate energy as well as other useful products from the wastes. The three main WtE processes (incineration, gasification, and pyrolysis) are reviewed in this chapter along with design conditions, different reactor configurations u...
Chapter
This chapter provides a detailed analysis of 15 hazardous waste mismanagement incidents and accidents that have taken place worldwide over the last six decades. The case studies are presented in a chronological order. The companies involved, contaminant properties, geographical significance of the affected areas, causes of contamination and afterma...
Chapter
Medical wastes are generated in healthcare facilities and hospitals, and they include discarded materials that are contaminated with blood or infectious materials, used syringes, gloves, etc. Medical wastes are hazardous; hence, they require a special attention. The objective of this chapter is to introduce medical waste constituents, medical waste...
Chapter
Hazardous wastes which come from a variety of sources and processes are produced continuously by industrial and commercial operations. These pollutants can be transported through three main mediums: air, subsurface, and water. Different transport mechanisms such as diffusion, convection, dispersion, dissolution, adsorption, etc. play important role...
Chapter
This chapter provides detailed information on the different methods available for the disposal of hazardous waste. Emphasis has been made on landfilling, deep well injection, and disposal in underground geologic repositories and oceans. The site selection and design of landfills, deep well injection systems, and underground geologic repositories ar...
Chapter
This chapter presents the importance of pollution prevention, waste management hierarchy, and different pollution prevention methods including source reduction, reuse, recycling, and process and equipment modification. In many cases, the pollution prevention is achieved through simple and low-cost methods that are more effective than using costly e...
Chapter
With the ever-increasing effect that hazardous waste has on the environment, the need for effective treatment methods is evident. In this chapter, selected emergent technologies for treatment of different types of hazardous waste are investigated. The technologies were categorized based on the treatment of liquid, gaseous, and solid hazardous waste...
Chapter
The main waste-to-energy (WtE) processes, namely, incineration, gasification, and pyrolysis, have proven to result in several negative effects on the human health and the environment despite their importance of generating electricity and getting rid of huge volumes of wastes. WtE processes generate unwanted by-products including dioxins, furans, pl...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of hazardous waste management and control. Hazardous waste is any solid, liquid, or gaseous waste that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: flammable, reactive, explosive, corrosive, radioactive, infectious, irritating, or bioaccumulative. For practical purposes in management and control of hazard...
Chapter
There is growing concern regarding waste management in recent years, especially as urbanization trends continue to climb, which proves to further exacerbate already challenged systems. Poor waste management poses a great threat to human health and the environment and is economically disadvantageous for municipalities worldwide. This chapter investi...
Article
Full-text available
Along with waste minimization techniques and recycling measures, waste to energy (W2E) plants play a considerable role in reaching the goals of waste management. Recovery of energy and valuable products from wastes through W2E process essentially depends on efficient management and control of air pollutants emitted in various steps of the W2E proce...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Management of healthcare waste has gained wide attention in the recent years. This work reviews recent sustainable management of healthcare waste practices, the importance of legalizations, role of clinical waste producing bodies, emerging management trends, and treatment technologies. Furthermore, waste generated in the treatment process...
Article
Full-text available
Designing of air pollution control equipment such as biofilters, also known as gas phase biological reactors, for elimination of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air streams require accurate modeling and model solutions. In this work, a novel approach is employed to solve a biofilter model and for performance predictions. The approach i...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been constructed to study the degradation characters of 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2C4NP) in waste water. The effects of applied voltage, initial concentration of substrate and co-matrix species on the reduction and degradation of 2C4NP were studied. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of 2C4NP residues and degr...
Article
Full-text available
Selection of sustainable and environmental friendly technologies is very important in meeting strict environmental regulations on industrial emissions of volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gases. Many of the industrial volatile organic compounds are toxic and carcinogenic, and they are regulated under Clean Air Act for hazardous air pollutan...
Article
Full-text available
Meat rendering plants convert waste animal materials into value added products. During the conversion process, several highly odorous compounds such as ammonia, ethylamines, hydrogen sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and methyl mercaptan are released into the atmosphere. Due to odorous nature, these compounds cause nuisance to the community who live in th...
Article
Full-text available
The optimization of sulfur removal percentages and calculated diesel indices for diesel oil using two types of activated charcoal (PAC1, and PAC2) was achieved using factorial design. The aim of this study involves analyzing the effects of the amount of adsorbent (A), temperature (B), and contact time (C) on sulfur removal percentage and diesel ind...
Article
The optimisation of sulphur removal percentages and diesel indices for a real diesel oil using two types of activated charcoal was achieved using factorial design. The effects of the amount of adsorbents, temperature, and contact time on sulphur removal and diesel index are studied. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was used to analyse the sulphur co...
Article
Printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing industries, known as PCB facilities, emit odorous and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Such compounds not only harm the health but also create a nuisance environment for people who live in the neighborhood of PCB facilities. Biofilter technology which is based on the bio-oxidation of pollutants has...
Article
Wastewater produced from petroleum and coal processing industries can be contaminated with m-cresol and pyridine, which are two hazardous compounds with significant environmental and health effects. A bacterium known as Lysinibacillus cresolivorans has been demonstrated to effectively biodegrade m-cresol and this bacterium has been utilised by rese...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on air emission from electronic industries. The chapter starts with an overview of electronic industries, reviews processes that contribute to air emissions and discusses the type-chemical compounds emitted. Health effects resulting from exposure to the chemicals, analytical techniques for measurements of pollutants and environ...
Article
Expanded schist can be a promising biofilter media for Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) removal in industrial applications. In this work, H2S removal performance of a biofilter packed with expanded schist is compared with a patented (EU Patent No. 0 497 214 B1) media which has been commercialized and used in many industrial applications for odor and VOC cont...
Article
In this work, a novel concept of combining air stripping followed by biofilter technology (ASBF) is introduced and through a mathematical model, the performance of the system for the removal of benzene as a representative pollutant is evaluated. The system performance is investigated for a flow rate range of 8.5 × 10−3–17 × 10−3 m3/s and benzene co...
Article
Full-text available
The adsorption of sulfur compounds form commercial diesel oil on a granular activated charcoal (GAC) was investigated. The equilibrium of sulfur adsorption on GAC was examined. The adsorption isotherms were determined and correlated with two well-known isotherm equations: Langmuir and Freundlich. The surface chemistry and structure of the sorbent m...
Conference Paper
Batch adsorption equilibrium of the sulfur compounds from diesel oil using two types of commercial activated carbon was studied in a two-level factorial experimental design method. This technique has been used to investigate the impacts of several factors controlling the adsorption process, such as source of sorbent material, amount of sorbent mate...
Article
The demand for cleaner and alternative energy is growing rapidly leading to interest in methanol production. Methanol is a high value chemical that serves as an intermediate for producing common chemicals, use as a fuel additive, and as a method of energy storage. This work is about a design of a methanol plant with a production capacity of 5000 me...
Article
This paper studies empirical modeling and control of a biotrickling filter (BTF) used for air pollution control. Step response transfer function (TF) with first-order-plus-time-delay model and steady-state artificial neural network (NN) model were developed for BTF based on input–output (I/O) data obtained from simulation of a rigorous model. These...
Conference Paper
This research involves the technical design, economic, and environmental analysis of using anaerobic digestion to supply the heating fuel needs of a 2000 home community. To understand the technical challenges involved in biogas production for a community, a technical model (AMD1) was utilized as the basis of modeling development centered on methane...
Article
A number of important biotrickling filter (BTF) models are reviewed. For our study, a theoretical model, based on H2S removal in a differential BTF under batch mode, was selected among the models reviewed. Using a cascade of BTF units in series, in this work, we have extended the model for continuous operation under dynamic conditions and the model...
Article
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, ethylene glycol, iso-propyl alcohol, and several other aromatic compounds are emitted during the manufacturing processes in electronic industries. These VOCs pose problems to human health and the environment. Stringent environmental legislations imposed by government age...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates and provides a critical analysis of the toluene biofilter model developed by Li and De Visscher. The model simulation results have been reproduced and compared with several sets of experimental data from literature. Three different model variations are considered: model with no substrate inhibition, with substrate inhibition...
Article
In this work, a patented biofilter media is used in treating air contaminated with ammonia (NH<sub align="right"> 3 </sub>). The data shows up to 200 ppm of NH<sub align="right"> 3 </sub> can be removed with over 93% removal efficiency at 30 s Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT). At the start-up conditions, the results also indicated that the humidifie...
Article
Full-text available
Medical centers including hospitals, clinics and places where diagnosis and treatment are conducted generate wastes that are highly hazardous and put people under risk of fatal diseases. Although the understanding of medical waste management and control techniques is important, technical elective courses that are offered in undergraduate chemical,...
Article
Biofilters have been used for decades in the management of nuisance odors that are emitted from the collection and treatment systems of municipal sewage works. Typically hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been identified as the major odor contributor associated with waste water treatment applications. H2S can be recognized at concentrations of even less th...
Article
Full-text available
Biofiltration has become a widely accepted technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) which is one of the major odor causing gases present in the air streams of municipal wastewater treatment facilities. In addition to odorous nature, H 2 S is toxic and corrosive. In this study, a biofilter which uses a novel media was employed in a pum...
Article
Full-text available
Biofiltration has become a widely accepted technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which is one of the major odor causing gases present in the air streams of municipal wastewater treatment facilities. In addition to odorous nature, H2S is toxic and corrosive. In this study, a biofilter which uses a novel media was employed in a pumping...
Article
In this work, the effect of water content on biofilter performance is discussed. The inlet air humidity and media water content are two important parameters that affect biofilter performance. Using a laboratory scale biofilter unit, the effect of water content on toluene removal is studied. Water content of the packing media (peat) is varied and it...
Article
Air emissions from waste treatment plants often consist of a combination of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and odors. Hydrogen sulfide is one of the major odorous gases present in the waste emissions coming from municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) is odorous, highly toxic and flammable. Exposure to lower concentrat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Aerated Autoclaved Concrete (AAC) is a high-quality lightweight, load bearing and extremely well insulating building material produced as standard blocks, mega-blocks or reinforced panels. AAC is a steam-cured mix of cement, finely ground silica sand or pulverized fuel ash, quicklime, water and an aeration agent mostly aluminum powder...
Article
Industrial facilities emit pollutant air that contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reduced sulphur compounds (RSCs) which are nuisance, corrosive to materials and dangerous to health. In recent years, biofiltration has replaced numerous conventional processes (i.e. adsorption) due to its more effective, economical and environmental benefi...
Article
In recent years, due to the economical and environmental benefits, biofiltration has been chosen by industries as the preferred technology for volatile organic compound (VOC) removal even in regions such as the Middle East where a warmer climate prevails throughout the year. In this work, a theoretical non-isothermal steady-state model is developed...
Article
Hydrogen sulphide (H 2S) is one of the main odor causing, toxic, and corrosive chemicals found in wastewater treatment, pulp and paper and several other industries. One of the main challenges of winter operation of biofilters for H 2S removal is to deal with the heat effects of biofiltration process. During winter lower air temperature, snow fall o...
Article
Full scale biofilter systems are often subjected to variations in operational and environmental conditions. Occasional fluctuations in the flow rate, temperature, concentrations of process emissions, and pH drops are commonly encountered. In this work, a general transient biofilter model which incorporates axial dispersion effects, interactive kine...
Article
The rendering process consists of crushing and heating animal remains to produce by-products. The U.S. produces approximately 30 billion pounds of inedible animal by-products annually, exporting a market value of US$ 1.5 billion. Benefits of the rendering process include reducing total waste material, and helping the livestock industry stay competi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Biotechnologyoffers themosteconomicalandenvironmentallybenignmethod for air pollution control when dealing with the removal of odorous and toxic contaminants from industrial and municipal airstreams. When emitted in large amounts, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inorganic odorous compounds create hazards to the ecosystem and health effects to...
Article
To Modeling Biological treatment of contaminated air in bio filters and bio trickling filters involves a complex combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes. This makes it very difficult to mentally understand and integrate the subtle details of the phenomena occurring during treatment. Even simple exercises, such as to predict the...
Article
In order to remove xylene vapors from an air stream, an upflow laboratory scale biofilter was operated for a period of 2 months. The experimental study consisted of two different phases: in the first phase, the biofilter was operated at various gas flow rates and the xylene inlet concentration was maintained at 1.39 g m−3. In the second phase, vari...
Chapter
The cleanup of the contaminated soils is a priority environmental task due to the risks contaminants pose to the groundwater, drinking water and soil fertility. A wide variety of biological, physical and chemical methods have been developed to decontaminate polluted sites. Any successful remediation technology should not simply transfer the contami...
Article
Odor components are simply small volatile and non-volatile molecules emitted from municipal wastewater treatment and industrial facilities, such as composting, bio-solids management and rendering operations. Chemicals, prevalent in airstreams, such as sulphur compounds, ammonia, amines, and aldehydes are well known to cause nuisance odors. Due to l...
Article
This paper reviews recent developments in biofiltration as a process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from contaminated air using synthetic media. The paper includes results of extensive research, as well as data collected from a commercial biofilter installation at a municipal wastewater pumping station in Ontario, Canada. The results ind...
Article
This paper focuses on recent developments of biofiltration technology used in treating nuisance chemical odors from industrial and municipal air streams. In the biofiltration process, odorous chemical constituents in the air are first transported to biofilms by diffusion, solubilization and adsorption processes. Bacteria within the biofilms oxidize...
Chapter
Biofiltration is an effective, economical and environmentally benign technology for treating contaminants from industrial airstreams. It is based on the ability of microorganisms to oxidize (degrade) toxic and odorous air contaminants. The contaminants treated in a biofilter are biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or inorganic odifer-ou...
Article
Innovative synthetic biofilter media has revolutionized biofilter technology for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) odors from several wastewater treatment facilities across North America. The major drawback of biofilter technology in the past was use of organic wood-based media, which had several problems including high-pressure drop, frequent medi...
Article
This paper presents a case study of a commercial biofilter, treating air streams contaminated with several odorous compounds including dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide and ethylamine. The biofilter is packed with a proprietary wood-based (BIOMIX™) medium which is designed to provide a good biological environment, pH buffer...
Article
This paper describes a new application of biofiltration technology to treat emissions from a printed circuit board manufacturing facility. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA), di- Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (di-PGME), and 1-3-5 triazine-2-4-6 triamine, are emitted during solder maski...
Article
The treatment of ethanol vapors in biotrickling filters for air pollution control was investigated. Two reactors were operated in parallel, one at ambient temperature (22 degrees C) and one at high temperature (53 degrees C). After a short adaptation phase, the removal of ethanol was similar in both reactors. At a bed contact time of 57 s, the elim...
Article
Just recently, biofiltration has attracted attention for the removal of organic contaminants from air emissions. A laboratory study carried out on the removal of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Acetate (PGMEA) odor from soldermask has demonstrated that a new novel biofiltration system can effectively remove 99 percent of the total volatile organi...
Article
Biological destruction of toluene vapor from air streams was studied in a laboratory scale biofilter. The packing material (peat) used in the reactor was immobilized with acclimatized bacterial suspension. The original microbial consortium was obtained as an activated sludge suspension from a local waste water treatment plant. The use of porous pac...
Article
In this study, a transient biofilter model for binary volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture is developed. In the model, general mixing, oxygen limitation aspects, multi-component adsorption phenomena, Monod- and Andrews-type kinetics with interference between the components are considered. Multicomponent adsorption isotherms are developed and use...
Article
Treatment of air streams contaminated with binary volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures in classical biofilters under steady-state conditions of operation was described with a general mathematical model. The model accounts for potential kinetic interactions among the pollutants, effects of oxygen availability on biodegradation, and biomass diver...
Article
In this study, a general transient biofiltration model, which incorporates general mixing phenomena, oxygen limitation effects, adsorption phenomena and general biodegradation reaction kinetics, is developed. Solutions are presented with and without the assumption of pseudo-steady state for the biofilm leading to approximate and general models, res...
Article
Realistic mathematical models are essential for the scaling-up or the design of biofilters. However, the mathematical models which describe the steady-state and the transient operation of biofilters are very limited. Although some of these models are based on restrictive assumptions, they have been widely used in industry for designing actual biofi...
Article
A generalized mathematical model has been developed to simulate the non-isothermal performance of bubble column reactors. Steady-state reactor behavior is rigorously described without limitations on the extent of macro-mixing, flow configuration, absorption-reaction regime, and nature of reactive species. A parametric sensitivity analysis shows tha...
Article
The importance of the reaction (or enhancement) factor in the interpretation of kinetic data, and in the modeling of gas-liquid reactors, has provided the authors with an incentive to look for a mathematically explicit representation for the common irreversible second-order reaction case. The authors have developed an explicit empirical relationshi...
Article
Presented here are generalized mathematical formulations and closed-form approximate solutions for two non-linear boundary-value problems in reactive gas absorption. In the first part, we analyze by means of numerical and approximate solutions the problem of gas absorption, through a spherical gas-liquid interface, accompanied by second-order chemi...
Chapter
Abstract Removal of benzene and toluene vapors from airstreams was studied in packed-bed biological reactors known as biofilters. The reactors, plexiglass columns 10 cm in diameter and 75 cm in height, were packed with a mixture of peat and perlite particles (volume ratio 2:3). A microbial consortium capable of completely mineralizing benzene and t...

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