Zaid Awad

Zaid Awad
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust · Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

PhD, FRCS (ORL-HNS), MFST, DOHNS, MBChB

About

81
Publications
4,615
Reads
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594
Citations
Citations since 2017
21 Research Items
400 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - October 2014
Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust
Position
  • Registrar
October 2011 - October 2014
Imperial College London
Position
  • Research Associate
October 2010 - October 2011
London North West University Healthcare NHS Trust
Position
  • Specialty Registrar
Education
January 2012 - April 2012
Royal College of Surgeons of England
Field of study
  • Otolaryngology
October 2011 - October 2014
Imperial College London
Field of study
  • Simulation and Assessment in ENT Training

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used to diagnose and stage malignancy. The aim of this article is to investigate the significance of incidental FDG uptake in the Waldeyer’s ring and to assess its value in predicting clinically occult oropharyngeal malignancy. Methods All FDG-PET/CT scans performe...
Article
Trauma to the cervical region may result in critical injury to the airway, the neck vasculature, and the pharynx or oesophagus. These three systems should be systematically assessed, alongside ATLS protocols, in all patients presenting with blunt or penetrating trauma to the head and neck region. The majority of trauma centres now have a policy of...
Article
Full-text available
• ● A functioning facial nerve is a critical structure that limits the margin of resection in parotid malignancies. There was no difference in disease-free survival with close or negative resection margins. • ● Microscopic positive (R1) resection margins were associated with poorer disease free survival, but this was not statistically significant,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives • To test a novel, low‐cost, home‐made model for needle aspiration of PTA. • To ascertain whether simulation‐based teaching using this model was superior to lecture‐based teaching in increasing confidence and reducing anxiety relating to PTA aspiration. • To assess whether there was an improvement in outcomes for PTA patients at one hos...
Article
A man in his mid 70s was referred to head and neck outpatients with bulky tissue in the left tonsillar fossa. He had previously been treated for oligometastatic renal clear cell carcinoma (diagnosed over 15 years prior to disease recurrence) by tonsillectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy (years from primary treatment), followed by trans-oral laser surg...
Article
Full-text available
Cricopharyngeal spasm and pharyngeal pouch can result in severe dysphagia symptoms that can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life. Several surgical interventions have been demonstrated including balloon dilatation, botox injection, and open and endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy. The aim of this case series is to describe our tec...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Human papilloma virus (HPV)–positive oropharyngeal cancer carries a good prognosis when managed with primary chemoradiotherapy. However, the dramatically increasing rate of this disease means more patients are now developing recurrence, with surgery remaining the mainstay of treatment. Despite this, there is no agreed technique for exc...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS) has facilitated removal of tumors previously deemed unresectable, by providing access to the deep structures of the head and neck. Despite this, the wider dissemination of TORS has been restricted due to issues with line of access, as the da Vinci robot was never designed with head and neck surgery in...
Article
Full-text available
Metastatic disease to the parotid lymph nodes typically occurs secondary to head and neck and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Nasal septal SCC is an exceedingly rare primary cancer that rarely spreads to regional lymph nodes. A 39-year-old man presented with left-sided cervical lymphadenopathy and nasal polyposis. Initial assessment sugge...
Article
The improved survival in patients with HPV-positive (human papilloma virus) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma as compared with HPV-negative disease calls for treatment that preserves quality of life, particularly a functional swallow. There are several trials currently assessing treatment de-escalation in terms of less invasive transoral roboti...
Article
Background: Management of metastatic N3 nodal disease from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is controversial. Recently, there has been a move to observation of the neck for those who achieve complete response (CR) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). We sought to determine survival outcomes for N3 nodal disease, particularly for pat...
Article
Aims: Management of the clinically node-negative (cN0) neck for parotid tumours remains controversial. Options include observation, elective neck dissection (END) or elective nodal irradiation (ENI). We reviewed the evidence for ENI on a background of current practice among UK clinical oncologists. Materials and methods: We carried out a systema...
Article
Trauma to the cervical region may result in critical injury to the airway, the neck vasculature, and the pharynx or oesophagus. These three systems should be systematically assessed, alongside ATLS protocols, in all patients presenting with blunt or penetrating trauma to the head and neck region. The majority of trauma centres now have a policy of...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess the feasibility of using cumulative sum analysis to show trainees’ performance curves and highlight concerns in tonsillectomy surgery. Methods In this prospective study, the performance of eight otolaryngology trainees (in their first 6–12 months in the specialty) was compared to that of experts (over 150 tonsillectomies perfor...
Article
Background This study is the first to evaluate scar satisfaction and body image in thyroidectomy patients using validated assessment tools. Methods A total of 123 thyroidectomy patients were recruited over 8 months. Both patients and clinicians completed assessment tools that included: the Manchester Scar Scale (to measure scar perception), Dysmor...
Article
Introduction: Early retirement of surgeons represents lost assets to a health service. The validated retirement decision inventory (RDI) ‘Push Pull Anti-Push Anti-Pull’ characterizes why and when individuals enter retirement, using four subscales to balance the perceived benefits and costs of continuing to work versus those of retirement. We used t...
Article
Objective To identify and investigate the face and content validity of Ventilation Tube Insertion (VTI) training models described in the literature.DesignA review of literature was carried out to identify articles describing VTI simulators. Feasible models were replicated and assessed by a group of experts.SettingPostgraduate simulation centre.Part...
Article
Full-text available
Papers presented at the Association of Otolaryngologists in Training Annual Meeting, 20 June 2014, Exeter, UK - Volume 129 Issue 12 - Zaid Awad, Richard Williams, Natalie Ronan, S A Hickey, H Khalil, A Evans, T Jones, D Skinner, B N Kumar, J Rainsbury, A Narula, J Powles
Article
Objective To determine the construct validity of cadaveric temporal bones in mastoidectomy training.Study DesignA prospective observational study.Methods Trainees from the North London otolaryngology training program performed step-wise modified radical mastoidectomy on cadaveric temporal bones under faculty supervision. Performance was assessed us...
Article
Objectives To investigate the utilisation, reliability and validity of Clinical Evaluation Exercise (CEX) in otolaryngology training.DesignRetrospective database analysis.SettingOnline assessment database.ParticipantsWe analysed all CEXs submitted by North London core (CT) and speciality trainees (ST) in otolaryngology from 2010-2013.Main Outcome M...
Article
As healthcare continues to evolve, incorporation of simulation into training curricula is increasingly important to enable trainees to safely develop microlaryngoscopic procedural skills.There are multiple examples of models for laryngology training in the literature.Few studies provide data on the validity of these models and integrating them into...
Article
Background The objective of this study was to assess the face and content validity of the sheep head model in endoscopic rhinology training.Methods This study was a prospective evaluation study. Experienced otolaryngologists and trainees were recruited to complete 7 endoscopic rhinology tasks on pre-prepared sheep heads. All participants completed...
Article
IntroductionCase-based discussion (CBD) is one of the assessments used in surgical training. The tool consists of 8 generic items and an overall performance (pS) rating. To date, the reliability, validity and outcomes of CBD in otolaryngology training have not been examined.Methods All CBDs submitted by otolaryngology trainees in North Thames were...
Article
Objectives/HypothesisTo investigate the reliability and construct validity of procedure-based assessment (PBA) in assessing performance and progress in otolaryngology training.Study DesignRetrospective database analysis using a national electronic database.Methods We analyzed PBAs of otolaryngology trainees in North London from core trainees (CTs)...
Article
Objectives Otolaryngology trainees undergo regular procedure-based assessments (PBAs) throughout training; however, these are rarely used to analyze performance and monitor progress. The aim of the study was to validate PBA in assessing otolaryngology trainees in head and neck surgery (HNS) and identify the pattern by which trainees progress in syl...
Article
Objectives (1) Examine the discriminant validity of 2 validated assessment tools in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) training. (2) Compare the binary versus the 5-point Likert-scale tools in ESS assessment. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February-August 2013. All otolaryngology trainees in the North-London training program were a...
Article
Objectives Otolaryngology trainees in the United King-dom undergo regular procedure-based assessments (PBAs) throughout training, however, these are rarely used to monitor progress or measure competence. The assessment tool is procedure specific and produced by the Joint Committee of Surgical Training. It consists of 6 domains: consent, planning, p...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives (1) Review current validated scar assessment tools and (2) describe the impact of scar cosmesis perception on body image and quality of life. Methods Three independent reviewers performed comprehensive searches and identified 680 English language studies published between 1950 and 2014 (data sources: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, a...
Article
Objectives/HypothesisTo demonstrate construct validity of the ovine model as a tool for training in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS).Study DesignProspective, cross-sectional evaluation study.Methods Over 18 consecutive months, trainees and experts were evaluated in their ability to perform a range of tasks (based on previous face validation and descr...
Article
The Thy3a cytological group carries a considerable malignancy potential. Our audit demonstrates 50% of resected Thy3a lesions were found to be malignant on histopathological examination. This reduces to 33.9% if we adopt "best case scenario" and assume all Thy3a left unresected are benign. We do not have sufficient evidence to safely justify watchf...
Article
Objective: To investigate the face, content, and concurrent validity of the synthetic Pettigrew temporal bone (PTB) for mastoidectomy training as compared with cadaveric temporal bone (CTB). Study Design: A prospective evaluation study. Methods: Participants were invited to perform a step-by-step modified radical mastoidectomy using both bones and...
Article
Patient satisfaction is a key aim and measure of healthcare systems, driving forward improvement in services and linking positively with patient compliance to treatment. Understanding patients’ expectations is integral in developing strategies that improve care and is an under-explored area in current literature. Most patients believe that seniorit...
Article
BackgroundUK surgical trainees are required to undertake work-based assessments each year in order to progress in their training. Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) is one of these assessments. We aim to investigate the validity of DOPS in assessing otolaryngology trainees at all levels.MethodsA retrospective search of the portfolios of...
Article
1. To investigate the feasibility of performing case-specific surgical rehearsal using a virtual reality temporal bone simulator. 2. To identify potential clinical applications in temporal bone surgery. Prospective assessment study. St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College NHS Trust, London UK. Sixteen participants consisting of a trainer and trainee g...
Article
Full-text available
To conduct a systematic review of the validity data for the virtual reality surgical simulator platforms available in Otolaryngology. Ovid and Embase databases searched July 13, 2013. Four hundred and nine abstracts were independently reviewed by 2 authors. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the search criteria and were retrieved and viewed in full text...
Article
Objectives Assess the applicability of cumulative summation (CUSUM) in 1) showing trainees progress, 2) achieving competency, and 3) highlighting concerns in tonsillectomy surgery. Methods We followed 9 otolaryngology junior trainees in their first 6-12 months in the specialty between 2011-2013. Tonsillectomy is the most common operation that intr...
Article
Background: Endoscopic sinus surgery is a common and generally safe ENT procedure. Orbital injury is a rare but devastating complication. The distance between the uncinate process and the lamina papyracea is the safety margin to avoid entering the orbital cavity and has not been measured previously. Methods: The authors reviewed 330 consecutive...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To review our initial experience of robotic thyroidectomy, describe modifications for a Western population, and establish a robust framework for implementation in the UK. Method: Prospective feasibility study (n = 15) performed in a tertiary referral center over 18 months. Procedure-related measures included conversions to open, operativ...
Article
Objective: 1) To assess the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the robotic approach compared with conventional targeted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. 2) To evaluate whether the absence of a neck scar associated with the robotic approach offers any advantage(s) over conventional targeted minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. 3) To c...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: 1) Compare the disease specific T14 outcome measure score to the generic quality of life CHQPF28 score in children with adenotonsillar pathology. 2) Investigate the relation of number of episodes of tonsillitis and presence of sleep apnea to both scores. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out in 2011. Parents of 146 children undergoin...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Investigate the best predictor of performance of otolaryngology trainees in a rhinology skills lab. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out in February 2012 where 15 trainees from the London otolaryngology training program (year 3-5) were asked to complete 9 operative tasks on a sheep head model and were assessed by 5 experts on task-s...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: 1) Investigate face and content validity of the sheep model in operative rhinology skills training. 2) Investigate the applicability and transferability of skills acquired in otolaryngology training curriculum. Method: An evaluation study conducted in February 2012. Fifteen otolaryngology trainees (level: 3-5) and 5 experts completed 9 o...
Article
Objective: 1) Assess the impact of using an electronic data collection form on medical documentation accuracy. 2) Test the model longitudinally for reliability and productivity. Method: A prospective longitudinal audit 2008-2012 before and after introducing a Microsoft Access database as the sole form of documenting all ENT emergency clinic ancount...
Article
Objectives Determine the effectiveness and side effect profile of antivirals in the treatment of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). Methods We systematically searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 5...
Article
Full-text available
Floseal(®) can be of value in reducing blood loss and haematoma rates. The manufacturer's warnings include allergic reaction, poor wound healing and intravascular thrombosis. We aimed to determine whether Floseal(®) is safe to use in various head and neck surgery procedures. A prospective trial was conducted using Floseal(®) in 42 various consecuti...
Article
To investigate the impact of mixing surgical subspecialty patients on post-operative wound infections. A retrospective analysis of post-operative wound infections in head and neck surgery patients before and after mixing them with urology patients. We selected two periods that are identical in duration and seasonal spread. The first was from March...
Article
The UK led other European countries in the number of otolaryngology publications between 1995 and 2000 and accounted for 19.6% of all papers in ten leading otolaryngology journals over the period of 1985 to 1994. Sandhu and Wright reviewed the trends in eight journals, between January 1997 and December 1999, and found no major change in the output...
Article
Objectives. To investigate the impact of mixing surgical subspecialty patients on postoperative wound infections. Method. A retrospective analysis of postoperative wound infections in head and neck surgery patients before and after mixing them with urology patients. We selected two periods that are identical in duration and seasonal spread. The fir...
Article
To report an unrecognised complication of fibre-optic nasendoscopy, and its management. A protective, transparent nasendoscopy sheath is often used to reduce nasendoscope 'downtime' and to prevent cross infection, with minimal effect on the obtained image quality. We report the case of a subcutaneous tracheostomy procedure during which, without und...
Article
• Retraction pockets of the pars tensa and flaccida are commonly drawn to monitor the condition. • The clinical value of such drawings has not been assessed. • This study shows that the ability to recognise an identical ear to a reference photograph from a drawing is poor. • Using a drawing to identify the relative stage of a retraction from a draw...
Article
• Testing for colour vision is important in assessing periorbital cellulitis and its complications. • Electronic Ishihara colour plates are used effectively for this purpose. • Portable LCD devices are widely available and most of us already have one. • We use hand-held computers to store and present the plates to the patient as a quick and readily...
Article
To determine levels of confidence in the management of surgical airway emergencies by junior ENT staff. Telephone survey. 100 Senior House Officers (SHOs) from 100 hospitals in the UK, providing 24 hour first on-call emergency ENT cover. A list of questions was put to participants. The effects of different variables on confidence with airway emerge...
Article
The introduction of Choose and Book may have a significant effect on the proportion of urgent referrals seen by ENT surgeons. Much of the responsibility for prioritisation will be transferred to the GP. Patients who are considered urgent by the ENT surgeon will be added to those considered urgent by the GP. Our results show that there was little ag...
Article
Objectives. Although widely used, drawings have never been assessed for their accuracy and reproducibility when used to record retraction pockets. We set out to determine the relative reliability of drawings and endoscopic photographs to record retractions of the tympanic membrane. Method. A series of 10 standardised ‘reference’ slides of retractio...
Article
Previous studies have shown that nasendoscopy is made easier with the use of lubrication at the expense of the quality of the view obtained, but had no effect on the discomfort or pain experienced by the patient. We set out to determine whether the advantages of lubrication with a standard lubricant (KY Jelly) could be achieved by using water, with...
Article
'Choose and Book' is a UK government initiative devised to allow a greater freedom of choice for National Health Service patients. The system is designed to give patients a choice of hospitals and appointment times, as well as giving their general practitioner (GP) more responsibility for appropriate prioritization. We set out to determine the atti...
Article
To determine how lubrication of the endoscope prior to flexible fibreoptic nasendoscopy affects levels of patient discomfort and pain during endoscopy. To assess the extent to which lubrication affects the ease of nasendoscopy and the quality of the image obtained. Single blind, randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic of the Department of Ot...

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