Zahra Goodarzi

Zahra Goodarzi
The University of Calgary | HBI · Department of Medicine

MD MSc FRCPC

About

51
Publications
3,624
Reads
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601
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
598 Citations
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Publications

Publications (51)
Article
Full-text available
Background Chemical and physical restraints are associated with harm in older adults, but our understanding of their use during acute care hospitalizations is limited.Objectives To (1) describe restraint use during acute care hospitalizations of older adults at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic levels and (2) describe betw...
Article
Background older adults living in long-term care (LTC) commonly suffer from anxiety symptoms and disorders. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify efficacious treatments for anxiety symptoms for older adults living in LTC. Methods we searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Database of Systema...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Polypharmacy is commonly associated with adverse health outcomes. There are currently no meta-analyses of the prevalence of polypharmacy or factors associated with polypharmacy. We aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of polypharmacy and factors associated with polypharmacy in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods MEDLINE,...
Preprint
Background The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated the rapid uptake of virtual care. However, little is known about how to measure older adults’ electronic health (eHealth) literacy.Methods We completed a systematic review examining the validity of eHealth literacy tools compared to a reference standard or another tool. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENT...
Article
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Background Older adults experience symptoms of depression, leading to suffering and increased morbidity and mortality. Although we have effective depression therapies, physical distancing and other public health measures have severely limited access to in-person interventions. Objective To describe the efficacy of virtual interventions for reducin...
Article
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Objective Depression is common in persons experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI), with 32% (95% Cl 27, 37) overall experiencing depression. Persons with MCI who have depression have more cognitive changes compared to those without depression. To understand how we can detect depressive symptoms in persons with MCI, we undertook a systematic re...
Article
Caregivers of persons with dementia and depression experience adverse effects associated with their role. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the challenges faced by caregivers of people with dementia and depression, along with interventions to support them. The MEDLINE®, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched using the Preferred Re...
Article
Objective Depressive disorders are common in long-term care (LTC), however, there is no one process used to detect depressive disorders in this setting. Our goal was to describe the diagnostic accuracy of depression detection tools used in LTC settings. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy measures. The...
Article
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Introduction: Cognitive enhancers (ie, cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine) can provide symptomatic benefit for some individuals with dementia; however, there are circumstances in which the risks of continuing treatment may potentially outweigh benefits. The decision to deprescribe cognitive enhancers must consider each patient's preferences,...
Article
Background and Objectives When staff experience responsive behaviors from residents, this can lead to decreased quality of work-life and lower quality of care in long-term care homes. We synthesised research on factors associated with resident responsive behaviours directed towards care staff and characteristics of interventions to reduce the behav...
Article
The Strategy for Patient Oriented Research (SPOR) Evidence Alliance is a research initiative in Canada whose mission is to promote the synthesis, dissemination, and integration of research results into health care and public health decision-making and clinical practice. The aim of this paper is to ( i) outline the governance and committee structure...
Preprint
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Polypharmacy is common associated with several adverse health outcomes. There are currently no systematic reviews or meta-analyses on the prevalence of polypharmacy and associated factors. We aimed to identify population-based observational studies reporting on the prevalence of polypharmacy and factors associated with polypharmacy. M...
Article
Background COVID-19-related physical distancing measures necessitated widespread adoption of virtual care (i.e. telephone or videoconference), but patients, caregivers and healthcare providers raised concerns about its implementation and sustainability given barriers faced by older adults. Objective To describe barriers and facilitators experience...
Article
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Background To understand how best to approach dementia care within primary care and its challenges, we examined the evidence related to diagnosing and managing dementia within primary care. Methods Databases searched include: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 11 May 2020. English-language s...
Article
Background Clinically relevant anxiety and anxiety disorders are commonly associated with adult-onset isolated dystonia, contributing substantially to quality-of-life impairment in patients with this movement disorder. However, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and disorders in adult-onset isolated dystonia remains unclear. Methods A systematic r...
Article
Background/objectives: Virtual (i.e., telephone or videoconference) care was broadly implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic accuracy of virtual to in-person cognitive assessments and tests and barriers to virtual cognitive assessment implementation. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis....
Article
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Introduction There is a diverse body of evidence investigating non-pharmacological treatment options for apathy in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We aimed to better understand the context and mechanisms by which non-pharmacological interventions may improve apathy in persons with PD. Methods We conducted a realist review of the body of evidence investi...
Article
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Introduction Frailty and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are common conditions that increase with age. Independently, frailty and PD lead to increased morbidity and mortality for patients. Few studies report on frailty in patients with PD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, associations and outcomes of frailty in persons...
Article
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Objective To describe the comparative efficacy of drug and non-drug interventions for reducing symptoms of depression in people with dementia who experience depression as a neuropsychiatric symptom of dementia or have a diagnosis of a major depressive disorder. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane...
Article
Adult onset idiopathic dystonia (AOID) is the third most common movement disorder in adults. Co-existing depressive symptoms and disorders represent major contributors of disability and quality of life in these patients, but their prevalence remains unclear. We investigated the point prevalence of supra-clinical threshold depressive symptoms/depres...
Article
Background virtual care has been critical during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there may be inequities in accessing different virtual modalities (i.e. telephone or videoconference). Objective to describe patient-specific factors associated with receiving different virtual care modalities. Design cross-sectional study. Setting and Subjects we review...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: To understand how best to approach dementia care within primary care and its challenges, we examined the evidence related to diagnosing and managing dementia within primary care. Methods: Databases searched include: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 11 May 2020. English-language...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual care (i.e. telephone or videoconference) has played a critical role. However, concerns were raised regarding equitable access for older adults, in particular, given potential advantages of videoconference-as opposed to telephone-based assessment. Our objective was to describe patient-specific factors...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To conduct a scoping review of the literature on apathy in Parkinson's disease (PD), to better understand how apathy in Parkinson's disease is diagnosed, treated and managed. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Control Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to 17 May 2017....
Article
Background: Aggressive and disruptive behaviours are frequently observed in children. Short-term use of antipsychotics with monitoring for adverse effects is recommended when first-line interventions fail (e.g. psychosocial therapies and psychostimulants for ADHD). This study aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators to behavioural change...
Article
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Background: Prescribing trends suggest that pharmacologic alternatives to antipsychotics are gaining in popularity, but randomized trial (RCT) data of their comparative safety is scarce. Our objective was to describe the comparative safety of pharmacologic interventions for treating neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Methods: We searched MED...
Article
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Background: The main objective is to better understand the prevalence of depressive symptoms, in long-term care (LTC) residents with or without cognitive impairment across Western Canada. Secondary objectives are to examine comorbidities and other factors associated with of depressive symptoms, and treatments used in LTC. Methods: 11,445 residen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This review aimed to assess the existing evidence regarding the clinical effectiveness and safety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in adults with insomnia and identify where research or policy development is needed. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, and PubMed were searched from incepti...
Article
Background: Both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions are used to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons with dementia. Purpose: To summarize the comparative efficacy of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions for treating aggression and agitation in adults with dementia. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central...
Article
Background: Individuals experiencing apathy in Parkinson's disease (PD) have a lack of emotion and motivation. Apathy often overlaps with comorbidities such as depression, and is sometimes difficult to detect. Objective: To examine diagnostic accuracy of apathy-screening tools compared with a gold standard (clinician diagnosis) among adult outpa...
Article
Full-text available
Background Apathy is a prominent non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD). People with apathy show a lack of emotion, passion, and motivation. Between 17 and 70% of persons with PD have apathy; the extreme heterogeneity in these estimates is due to limited heterogeneous knowledge concerning how to diagnose PD. The lack of a widely utilized dia...
Article
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Introduction Anxiety is a common symptom for those experiencing dementia and is associated with worse outcomes. The aim of the study was to examine which anxiety tools have been validated compared with a gold standard diagnostic criterion in persons with dementia. Methods We completed a systematic review of the literature, which was registered a p...
Data
Supplementary_Material_20180811 – Supplemental material for Perceived Significance of Engagement in Research Prioritization Among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients, Caregivers, and Health Care Professionals: A Qualitative Study
Article
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Background Patients and other stakeholders are increasingly engaging as partners in research, although how they perceive such experiences, particularly over the long term, is not well understood. Objective To characterize how participants from a nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) research priority-setting project conducted 2 years previously...
Article
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Background Patients and stakeholders are increasingly engaging in health research to help address evidence‐practice gaps and improve health‐care delivery. We previously engaged patients, caregivers, health‐care providers (HCPs) and policymakers in identifying priorities for chronic kidney disease (CKD) research. Objective We aimed to explore parti...
Article
RÉSUMÉ Notre principal objectif était de comprendre les barrières et les facilitateurs associés à l’application de guides de pratique clinique (GPC) de haute qualité pour la dépression et l’anxiété chez les patients atteint de démence ou de la maladie de Parkinson (MP). Des groupes de discussion et des entrevues ont été réalisés avec des participan...
Article
Objective: To examine diagnostic accuracy of anxiety detection tools compared with a gold standard in outpatient settings among adults with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: A systematic review was conducted. MEDLINE, EMABASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to April 7, 2017. Prevalence of anxiety and diagnosti...
Article
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Background Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are highly prevalent in patients with dementia. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies are commonly used to treat these symptoms, but their comparative safety and efficacy is unknown. Methods We will conduct a systematic review of the published and unpublished lit...
Article
Background: Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines for the management of depression or anxiety in dementia or Parkinson’s disease (PD), these comorbidities remain under-diagnosed and under-treated. Objectives: Our primary objective was to understand the barriers and facilitators associated with the implementation of high quality C...
Article
Objective: To address whether to restart older patients on anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents in the setting of a chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Methods: This is an update of a previous review (searched until July 2012). Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, PLOS, and the Cochrane Register for Systematic Reviews databases...
Article
Purpose of review: To review the available evidence for the detection and management of depression in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia. Recent findings: Depression is a common comorbidity in those with PD or dementia, and leads to increased morbidity. There are several available and accurate tools for the detection of depression in PD (e.g.,...
Article
Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of depression case finding tools with a criterion standard in the outpatient setting among adults with dementia. Design Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Setting Studies of older outpatients with dementia. Participants Elderly outpatients (clinic and long‐term care) with dementia (N = 3,035). Mea...
Article
Full-text available
Background Depression and anxiety remain under-diagnosed and under-treated in those with neurologic diseases such as dementia or Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Our objectives were to first, to provide a synthesis of high quality guidelines available for the identification and management of depression or anxiety in those with dementia or PD. Second, to i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Failure to detect depression in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) can lead to worsened outcomes for patients and caregivers. Accurate identification of depression would enable practitioners to provide comprehensive care for their patients with PD. Methods: Our objective was to examine the diagnostic accuracy of tools for detecting...

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