Zafer Erbay

Zafer Erbay
Adana Science and Technology University · Department of Food Engineering

PhD

About

66
Publications
31,655
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2,309
Citations

Publications

Publications (66)
Article
Full-text available
The size distribution of droplets in emulsions is very important for adjusting the effects of many indices on their quality. In addition to other methods for the determination of the size distribution of droplets, the usage of machine learning during microscopic analyses can enhance the reliability of the measurements and decrease the measurement c...
Chapter
Legal frameworks are one of the key points in the control of the dairy processing systems, as in many food products. Dairy products including processed cheese are subject to various national and/or international regulations and legislations in different countries due to the assurance of the product safety and quality for consumers as well as to reg...
Article
Enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) is a flavour ingredient with intense cheese flavour and can be produced in both liquid and powder form. In this study, the effects of spray drying process conditions (inlet temperature, feed flow rate, air flow rate) on the quality parameters of EMC powder (compositional, physical, and morphological properties) were inv...
Article
The variation of volatile compounds during production of microencapsulated cream powder was investigated. First, maltodextrin (DE18) and sodium caseinate as wall materials were used to obtain microencapsulated cream as an oil-in-water emulsion, then it was spray-dried to produce the microencapsulated cream powder. Headspace solid-phase microextract...
Chapter
Enzyme modified cheese production and applications continue to increase with the growth in convenience foods. Changes in labelling legislation continue to reduce the use of chemically derived or nature identical cheese flavors, which in turn has seen more developments in natural enzyme modified cheese production, which is seen as accelerated form o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hazır gıdaların gelişimi ile lezzet katkılarına olan talep artmıştır. Lezzet katkıları içerisinde peynir lezzeti önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Peynir lezzeti sağlayan katkılar, üretim tekniğine göre doğal veya sentetik olabilmektedir. Peynir lezzetinin karmaşık ve dinamik yapısı nedeniyle sentetik lezzet katkılarının üretilmesi zor ve maliyetlidir. A...
Article
The purpose of this study was to extract phenolics from lemon balm followed by microencapsulation with spray drying. The optimum extraction conditions were 100°C for the temperature and 120 min for the time with TPC of 6,365 mg GAE/100 g and ABTS radical scavenging activity of 9,196 mg TEAC/100 g. Lemon balm extracts were spray dried using three di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peynir lezzetini geliştirmek veya yoğunlaştırmak için, taze peynirin kontrollü koşullarda enzimle işlenmesi sonucu elde edilen ürüne enzim modifiye peynir (EMP) denilmektedir. Doğal lezzet katkısı olarak gıdalarda EMP kullanımı son yıllarda artmıştır. EMP üretiminin temeli, süt, pıhtı veya taze peynirin ekzojen enzim ve/veya mikroorganizmalarla ink...
Article
In this Research Communication we describe the optimisation of spray drying conditions in the production of microencapsulated cream powder. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using maltodextrin (18 DE) and sodium caseinate as wall materials (with the total wall material per total solid content ratio of 30%) and then converted into powder by spray...
Article
Enzyme-modified cheeses (EMCs) have been used uniquely to enhance the cheese flavour in processed foods. In this paper, effects of lipolytic enzymes during EMC production were investigated. EMC with ripened white cheese flavour was produced by a two-stage process in which proteolysis is followed by lipolysis. The results of proteolysis as the first...
Article
Full-text available
Optimization of main extraction parameters of the headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for two high-fat dairy powders with distinctly different volatile profiles was performed with response surface methodology. While cream powder (60% fat content) has a weak odor, enzyme-modified cheese powder (EMC) (35% fat content) is known with it...
Article
Enzyme-modified cheeses (EMCs) are used uniquely to enhance the cheese flavour in processed foods. Here we report, for the first time, the results from proteolysis process of the two-stage production of EMC with ripened white cheese flavour. Proteolytic ripening parameters, sensory properties, and volatile compounds were investigated to reach a tar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Peynir lezzetini geliştirmek veya yoğunlaştırmak için enzimatik muamele ile kontrollü koşullarda olgunlaştırılarak elde edilen ürüne enzim modifiye peynir (EMP) denilmektedir. Peynir lezzetinin bulunması istenen işlenmiş gıdalarda lezzet arttırıcı olarak EMP kullanımı son yıllarda tercih edilmektedir. Bunun nedenleri, EMP teknolojisi ile doğal, düş...
Article
Eight different commercial enzyme‐modified cheeses (EMCs) were analysed, and the distinctive/common features of the products and production methods were investigated. Results showed that the total free fatty acid contents of EMC samples were 10 to 100 times higher than the values reported for the related cheese varieties. A total of 37 volatile com...
Article
Use of maltodextrin and whey improves the physical properties of spray-dried cheese powder and, as cheese replacers, they decrease the raw material costs. However, it is necessary to evaluate their effects on the chemical quality and sensory properties of the product. Three powders, control (CON), whey-added cheese powder (WACP), and maltodextrin-a...
Article
Enhanced exergy analysis is built up as a novel modality to specify the origins of irreversibilities and to concentrate substantial improvement potential of components. The scope of this paper is to apply the enhanced exergy analysis to an olive oil refinery plant operated in Izmir, Turkey, that is conducted for the first time to agree the first le...
Article
Effects of spray drying conditions including inlet drying temperature (150, 170 or 190 °C), feed flow rate (9.0, 19.5 or 30 mL min⁻¹), and aspiration rate (50, 75 or 100%) on the composition, water activity, reconstitution, density, colour, morphology, surface fat and free fatty acid content of microencapsulated cream powder were evaluated. The var...
Article
Turkish white cheese is the most important cheese variety made in Turkey and significant variations are commonly observed in their properties (mainly sensory). White cheese samples were collected from different geographical regions of Turkey and analysed to determine the common characteristics and to investigate the effects of the regional differen...
Poster
Cream powder is the product obtained by the partial removal of water from pasteurized cream and contains minimum 42% of milk fat. For transforming milkfat into dried form, spray drying is a commonly used method. This well-established method results in a powder with good quality, small particle size, and low moisture content regardless of dryer capa...
Article
Encapsulation wall material formulations were determined to obtain stable emulsions to produce high-quality microencapsulated powders. Fifty different emulsions were prepared using two types of proteins (sodium caseinate, whey protein concentrate) and five types of carbohydrates (maltodextrins having dextrose equivalency of 6 and 18, oxidised starc...
Article
The spray-dried white cheese powder from full-fat ripened cheese was packaged in three different multilayer plastic materials such as polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum foil/low density polyethylene (PET/Al-foil/LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate/aluminum metalized polyethylene terephthalate/low density polyethylene (PET/Met-PET/LDPE) and oriented...
Conference Paper
Aroma of cheese is one of the most important features due to the product quality and consumer’s acceptance. Although most of the studies related to the analysis of volatile compounds of cheeses were carried out with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, there is lack of information about the effects of SPME parameters on extraction efficiency....
Conference Paper
Cheese is the most remarkable dairy product due its variability, high market coverage and flavor. An important ratio of worldwide cheese production is used as ingredient for the production of other foods. The main reason for using the cheese as ingredient is its flavor. Unique flavor of cheese is developed during the ripening period. The ripening i...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of principal extraction conditions on the extraction rates of 10 selected volatile compounds (isoamyl alcohol, ethyl lactate, 2-nonanone, ethyl octanoate, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, butanoic acid, phenethyl alcohol, phenol, δ-decalactone, and decanoic acid) with the headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of white-b...
Article
Advanced exergoeconomic analysis, the so-called new exergetic approach combined with the economic analysis, is applied to a ground-source heap pump (GSHP) drying system in this study. The thermodynamic inefficiencies and cost performance of the system components are evaluated in parts. Moreover, the results of the advanced exergoeconomic analysis a...
Article
This study deals with exergoeconomic analysis of a ground-source heat pump food dryer through the specific exergy costing method for the first time. Moreover, variations of the exergetic and exergoeconomic performance parameters with dead state temperatures are also investigated and discussed with the literature results. The results show that the c...
Conference Paper
Gıda kalite ve güvenliği hakkında tüketici duyarlılığının artmasının bir sonucu olarak, gıda güvenliği ve kalite kontrolü gıda işleme endüstrisinde önemli bir yer edinmiştir. Süt endüstrisinde kalite kontrol, tüketiciye sunulan süt ve ürünlerinin kalite ve güvenliğini sağlamak açısından zorunlu bir basamaktır. Süt ürünlerinin kalite kontrolünde kul...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on assessing the performance of an olive oil refinery plant (with an oil capacity of 5595 kg/h) located in Izmir, Turkey. The analysis performed with the use of actual operational data of the system components and based on the application of the advanced exergy analysis method. By this way, unavoidable and avoidable destructions...
Article
In this study, the analyses of first and second laws of thermodynamic are presented for a 6.5 MW power plant located in Adana, Turkey. The system components, examined in the present study, are listed as a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC), a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), an economizer (ECO), fans, pumps, a cyclone and a chimney. All of th...
Article
Full-text available
Peynir, gıda tedarik zincirinin en büyük ve önemli parçasını oluşturan süt sektörünün, hem ürün çeşitliliği, hem kullanım yaygınlığı, hem de lezzet yoğunluğu açısından en dikkat çekici ürünüdür. Dünyada tüketilen sütün yaklaşık %40'ının peynir üretiminde kullanıldığı düşünülmektedir. Günümüzde ise, üretilen peynirlerin önemli bir bölümü, başka gıda...
Article
There is an increasing demand for cheese as a food ingredient, especially as a flavoring agent. One of the most important cheese flavoring agents is cheese powder. To obtain an intense cheese flavor, ripened cheese is used as a raw material in cheese powder but this increases production costs. Moreover, use of natural cheese decreases the physical...
Article
Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white...
Article
In this study, white cheese powder was produced using a pilot scale spray drier and response surface methodology was used to optimize the operating conditions of spray drying. The independent variables were inlet drying temperature, atomization pressure and outlet drying temperature, while drying experiments were carried out with an inlet drying ai...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a fruit powder was produced from the mixture of cornelian cherry puree (CCP)/maltodextrin by spray drying. The performance of spray drying process and the drying system was evaluated by energy and exergy analyses. Experiments were carried out with an inlet drying air temperature range of 130-160°C, an outlet drying air temperature ra...
Article
In this study, the results of conventional and advanced exergoeconomic analyses of the performance of a pilot scale air-source heat pump food dryer were compared for the first time. The contributions of the components of the drying system to the exergetic cost effectiveness of the dryer were evaluated, and the effects of changing the inlet drying t...
Article
In this study, exergoeconomic analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of a pilot scale spray dryer during white cheese powder production by the specific exergy costing (SPECO) method. Drying experiments were carried out at an inlet drying air temperature range of 160–230 °C, an outlet drying air temperature range of 60–100 °C and an atom...
Data
a b s t r a c t Inefficiencies in an energy system can be quantitatively determined through conventional exergy analy-sis while sources of the irreversibilities and real improvement potential can be deducted using a rela-tively new method named as advanced exergy analysis. For the first time, an advanced exergy analysis is applied to a ground-sourc...
Article
Inefficiencies in an energy system can be quantitatively determined through conventional exergy analysis while sources of the irreversibilities and real improvement potential can be deducted using a relatively new method named as advanced exergy analysis. For the first time, an advanced exergy analysis is applied to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP)...
Article
Drying is a high-energy-intensive operation and an important step in the pasta production. In this study, exergy analysis of a four-step drying system in a farfalle pasta production line using actual operational data obtained from a plant located in Izmir, Turkey, was performed. Exergy loss rates, evaporation rates, exergy efficiencies, and improve...
Article
Full-text available
Since the late 1800s, smoking has been used for giving color, taste, and aroma to foods, as well as for developing new products. Due to health, technical, and economic reasons, one of the widely used smoking techniques preferred by manufacturers is smoking with liquid smoke. In this study, fresh Kashar cheese slices were smoked by immersion in liqu...
Article
Full-text available
Exergy analysis has been used as a powerful tool to study and optimize various types of energy systems. However, the methodology of splitting the exergy destructions (the so-called advanced exergy analysis) allows for a further understanding of the exergy destruction values to improve the system efficiency. In this study, advanced exergy analysis w...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, performance of a pilot scale spray drier was evaluated by exergy analysis method. Performance parameters were investigated for the components of the drying system and overall system. Furthermore, the effects of process conditions such as atomisation pressure, inlet and outlet drying air temperatures on the performance of the spray dr...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, white cheese powder was produced using a pilot-scale spray dryer. Drying experiments were carried out with an inlet drying air temperature range of 160-230 degrees C, an outlet drying air temperature range of 60-100 degrees C, and an atomization pressure range of 294.2-588.4 kPa. The performance of the spray-drying process and the ef...
Article
Full-text available
Exergoeconomic analysis has been used as a powerful tool to study and optimize various types of energy-related systems. In this study, we use the specific exergy cost (SPECO) method to calculate exergy-related parameters and display cost flows for all streams and components in a gas engine–driven heat pump drying system based on the experimental da...
Article
Exergoeconomic analysis of a pilot scale gas engine driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system is performed based on the experimental values using Exergy, Cost, Energy and Mass (EXCEM) analysis method in this study. The performance of the drying system components is discussed, while the important system components are determined to improve the system ef...
Article
In this study, three medicinal and aromatic plants (Foeniculum vulgare, Malva sylvestris L. and Thymus vulgaris) were dried in a pilot scale gas engine driven heat pump drier, which was designed, constructed and installed in Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Drying experiments were performed at an air temperature of 45 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, plum slices were dried in a heat pump dryer designed and constructed in Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Drying experiments were carried out at an air temperature range of 45–55°C. The performance of the dryer along with its main components were evaluated using an exergy analysis method. Exergy destruction and capital cost rates were u...
Article
Recently, olive leaves have a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. The main process in olive leaf treatment is drying. Because drying is an energy-intensive process, analyzing and improving the drying systems is important. In this study, olive leaves were dried in a tray drier and the performance of the drying process wa...
Article
Full-text available
Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this...
Article
It is well known that micro-level system parameters may have some great impact on macro-level energy aspects, the environment, and sustainability. Of course, if one wants to approach these thermodynamically, there are two ways: energy analysis through the first law of thermodynamics and exergy analysis through the second law of thermodynamics. Exer...
Article
Full-text available
Drying is a complicated process with simultaneous heat and mass transfer, and food drying is especially very complex because of the differential structure of products. In practice, a food dryer is considerably more complex than a device that merely removes moisture, and effective models are necessary for process design, optimization, energy integra...
Article
In this study, olive leaves were dried in a pilot-scale heat pump (HP) belt conveyor dryer as a thin layer. Drying experiments were carried out at the drying air temperature range of 45–55°C with the drying air velocity range of 0.5–1.5 m s−1. The performance of the system and the process was evaluated using exergy analysis method. The exergy loss...
Article
Full-text available
This article deals with the exergy analysis and evaluation of broccoli in three different drying systems. The effects of drying air temperature on the exergy destruction, exergy efficiency, and exergetic improvement potential of the drying process were investigated. The exergy destruction rate for the drying chamber increased with the rise in the d...
Article
Full-text available
In this Study, plum slices were dried in three different driers (tray, fluid bed, and heat pump (HP) driers). Drying experiments were carried out at an air temperature range of 45-55 degrees C with an air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The performance of the driers along with their main components was evaluated and compared by using the exergy analysis metho...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of a tray dryer system for the parsley drying process was assessed using energy and exergy analysis methods in this study. The drying temperature ranged from 40 degrees C to 60 degrees C, while the drying air velocity varied from 0.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s. The higher temperature and lower velocity led to higher exergy and energy efficienci...
Article
Recently, the interest in olive leaves has increased due to its high phenolic content. Olive leaves have a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry and drying is the main process in olive leaf treatment. In this study, response surface methodology was used to optimize operating conditions of the drying of olive leaves in a tr...
Article
Recently, interest in olive leaves has increased because of their high phenolic contents. Although the critical process in olive leaf treatment is drying, the drying behavior of olive leaves has not been known yet in the literature. In this study, olive leaves were dried in a tray drier at the temperature range of 50–70C and velocity range of 0.5–1...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, the interest in olive leaf has increased due to its high phenolic content. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in food industry and the main process in olive leaf treatment is drying. Drying affects the product quality and is an energy-intensive process, so the use of heat pumps in drying processes that have low operating...
Article
This study reviews gas engine-driven heat pump (GEHP) systems for residential and industrial applications in terms of energetic and exergetic aspects for the first time to the best of the authors' knowledge. These systems are novel heat pump systems (one of today's promising new technologies). Although the first investigations had been performed at...

Projects

Projects (15)
Project
Investigation of the Effects of Postbiotics on Colon Microbiota by In Vitro and In Vivo Methods and Evaluation of the Potential Using in Food
Project
I am very pleased to announce that our project titled "Investigation of the Effects of Postbiotics on Colon Microbiota by In Vitro and In Vivo Methods and Evaluation of the Potential Using in Food" has been funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBİTAK) with the most prestigious national program (1001). I would like to thank our great research team: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Zafer Erbay (Adana Alparslan Türkeş Science and Technology University, Food Engineering Department), Dr. Adem Yavaş (Aydin Adnan Menderes University Cine Vocational School, Food Processing department) and Assist. Professor Dr. Esra Örenlili Yaylagül (Aydin Adnan Menderes University, Nutrition and Dietetics Department). Two master students and one PhD candidate will study in this project and be supported. We will share the developments of our project. #TÜBİTAK #ADÜ #ATÜ #postbiotics #colon microbiota
Project
The aim of this project is to increase the bioactive properties of hazelnut pulp with solid state fermentation, which is a more economical and environmentally friendly method, as an alternative to hydrolysis processes using purified enzymes, and to produce low-calorie vegan ice cream from fermented hazelnut pulp, which does not contain sugar and animal origin.