Zach Hambrick

Zach Hambrick
Michigan State University | MSU · Department of Psychology

About

112
Publications
138,004
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
11,653
Citations
Citations since 2016
48 Research Items
6770 Citations
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000
201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (112)
Article
Many cognitive tasks have what we refer to as a placekeeping requirement: steps or subtasks must be performed in a linear or other systematic fashion, without repetitions or omissions that would compromise performance. Here we asked whether the cognitive control mechanisms that meet this requirement are specific to individual tasks or general enoug...
Chapter
Scores on standardized tests of intelligence meaningfully predict certain real-world outcomes, including those reflecting performance in complex real-world tasks. At the same time, research on intelligence has been conducted in a largely acontextual fashion, overlooking the importance both of other individual-difference factors and environmental fa...
Article
Full-text available
Expert sport performers cope with a multitude of visual information to achieve precise skill goals under time stress and pressure. For example, a major league baseball or cricket batter must read opponent variations in actions and ball flight paths to strike the ball in less than a second. Crowded playing schedules and training load restrictions to...
Article
Full-text available
The self-generation effect refers to the finding that people’s memory for information tends to be better when they generate it themselves. Counterintuitively, when proofreading, this effect may make it more difficult to detect mistakes in one’s own writing than in others’ writing. We investigated the self-generation effect and sources of individual...
Article
Full-text available
Background Does early specialization facilitate later athletic excellence, or is early diversification better? This is a longstanding theoretical controversy in sports science and medicine. Evidence from studies investigating athletes’ starting age, childhood/adolescent progress, and amounts of coach-led practice and peer-led play in their main spo...
Article
A hallmark of intelligent behavior is rationality – the disposition and ability to think analytically to make decisions that maximize expected utility or follow the laws of probability. However, the question remains as to whether rationality and intelligence are empirically distinct, as does the question of what cognitive mechanisms underlie indivi...
Article
What explains the acquisition of exceptional human performance? Does a focus on intensive specialized practice facilitate excellence, or is a multidisciplinary practice background better? We investigated this question in sports. Our meta-analysis involved 51 international study reports with 477 effect sizes from 6,096 athletes, including 772 of the...
Article
Full-text available
Multitasking is ubiquitous in everyday life, which means there is value in developing measures that predict successful multitasking performance. In a large sample (N = 404 contributing data), we examined the predictive and incremental validity of placekeeping, which is the ability to perform a sequence of operations in a certain order without omiss...
Article
Full-text available
In a recent Psychological Research article, Moxley, Ericsson, and Tuffiash (2017) report two studies of SCRABBLE expertise. The results revealed that the average SCRABBLE rating was higher for males than for females. Moreover, correlational and structural equation analyses revealed that activities that the authors refer to as “purposeful practice”...
Preprint
Full-text available
A hallmark of intelligent behavior is rationality—the disposition and ability to think analytically to make decisions that maximize expected utility or follow the laws of probability, and therefore align with normative principles of decision making. However, the question remains as to whether rationality and intelligence are empirically distinct, a...
Chapter
Full-text available
The question of what individual differences in working memory capacity reflect has been a topic of intensive interest in research for several decades. This research has shed light on mechanisms underlying working memory performance. At the same time, the chapter authors argue this research has been myopic in two respects. First, it has largely igno...
Article
Mindset interventions are designed to encourage students to adopt a growth mindset, reflecting the belief that one's intelligence can be improved in an effort to increase academic achievement. How do these interventions exert their effects? We assessed the effects of an online mindset intervention on mindset and four outcome variables, grit, locus...
Article
Full-text available
The question of what explains individual differences in expertise within complex domains such as music, games, sports, science, and medicine is currently a major topic of interest in a diverse range of fields, including psychology, education, and sports science, to name just a few. Ericsson and colleagues’ deliberate practice view is a highly influ...
Article
Full-text available
Mind-set refers to people’s beliefs about whether attributes are malleable ( growth mind-set) or unchangeable ( fixed mind-set). Proponents of mind-set theory have made bold claims about mind-set’s importance. For example, one’s mind-set is described as having profound effects on one’s motivation and achievements, creating different psychological w...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of expertise have traditionally had a strong focus on the role of one single factor, i.e. long-term deliberate practice, for expert performance. However, recent empirical and theoretical work strongly suggests that expertise is a function of many variables that may have practice-independent effects on performance, but also moderate the effi...
Article
Although binocular rivalry is different from other perceptually bistable phenomena in requiring interocular conflict, it also shares numerous features with those phenomena. This raises the question of whether, and to what extent, the neural bases of binocular rivalry and other bistable phenomena overlap. Here we examine this question using an indiv...
Chapter
Full-text available
People with high levels of expertise in domains such as science, business, law, and music contribute to the prosperity of nations, the competitive advantage of organizations, and the well-being of families and communities. These individuals are often revered by society for their contributions—think of Marie Curie in science, The Beatles in popular...
Article
The field of expertise is mired in a nature vs. nurture debate. Despite what we now know from behavioral genetics research about the underpinnings of human behavior, some expertise theorists continue to deny or downplay the importance of genetic factors ("innate talent") in expert performance. In this commentary, we argue that this viewpoint is nei...
Article
It is well established that measures of reasoning ability and of working memory capacity (WMC) correlate positively. However, the question of what explains this relationship remains open. The purpose of this study was to investigate the capacity hypothesis, which ascribes causality to WMC. This hypothesis holds that people high in WMC are more succ...
Article
How important are training and other forms of domain-relevant experience in predicting individual differences in expertise? To answer this question, we used structural equation modeling to reanalyze data from a study of chess by Charness, Tuffiash, Krampe, Reingold, and Vasyukova (2005). Latent variables reflecting serious chess activity and formal...
Chapter
This chapter reviews evidence concerning the contribution of cognitive ability to individual differences in expertise. The review covers research in traditional domains for expertise research such as music, sports, and chess, as well as research from industrial–organizational psychology on job performance. The specific question that we seek to addr...
Article
Full-text available
Several currently popular areas of research—brain training, mind-set, grit, deliberate practice, and the bilingual advantage—are premised on the idea that environmental factors are the overwhelming determinants of success in real-world pursuits. Here, we describe the major claims from each of these areas of research and discuss evidence for these c...
Article
We adjusted for dependent performance measures using a method based on Cheung and Chan, 2004, Cheung and Chan, 2008 method. Cheung and Chan's method adjusts the sample size to be between the sample N and the cumulative sample N, and applies this to the average of the dependent effect sizes. Their adjustment formula is as follows: adjusted N = ((N−1...
Article
When a person explores a new environment, they begin to construct a spatial representation of it. Doing so is important for navigating and remaining oriented. How does one’s ability to learn a new environment relate to one’s ability to remember experiences in that environment? Here, 208 adults experienced a first-person videotaped route, and then c...
Article
Mindset refers to a person’s beliefs about the nature of their abilities—whether they believe their ability in a given domain is malleable or fixed. We investigated whether a brief, online intervention could alter ability and non-ability traits, including mindset of intelligence, locus of control, challenge-approach motivation, grit, and performanc...
Preprint
When a person explores a new environment, they begin to construct a spatial representation of it. Doing so is important for navigating and remaining oriented. How does one’s ability to learn a new environment relate to one’s ability to remember experiences in that environment? Here, 208 adults experienced a first-person videotaped route, and then c...
Article
Multiple frameworks for categorizing spatial abilities exist but it has been difficult to verify them using exploratory factor analysis. The present study tested one of these frameworks-a 2 × 2 classification scheme that crossed the dimensions of static/dynamic and intrinsic/extrinsic (Uttal et al., 2013)-using confirmatory factor analysis with dat...
Article
The circumvention-of-limits hypothesis holds that the more expert (i.e., knowledgeable) the task performer, the less it matters for task performance whether that person has limited general cognitive ability. We tested this hypothesis using a knowledge-activation approach to manipulate knowledge experimentally. The criterion task, which we designed...
Article
The debate over the origins of individual differences in expertise has raged on for over a century in psychology. The “nature” view holds that expertise reflects “innate talent”—that is, genetically-determined abilities. The “nurture” view counters that if talent even exists, its effects on ultimate performance are negligible. While no scientist ta...
Article
Scientists identify 22 genes associated with intelligence. Full Text: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/intelligence-and-the-dna-revolution/
Article
In a previous study, Mix, Levine, Cheng, Young, et al. (2016) reported that spatial skill and mathematics were comprised of two highly correlated, domain-specific factors, with a few cross-domain loadings. The overall structure was consistent across grade (K, 3, 6) but the cross-loadings varied with age. The present study sought to replicate these...
Article
Positive effects of practice are ubiquitous in human performance, but a finding from memory research suggests that negative effects are possible also. The finding is that memory for items on a list depends on the time interval between item presentations. This finding predicts a negative effect of practice on procedural performance under conditions...
Article
Green et al. (2017) raise two broad concerns with our two studies (Unsworth et al., 2015) showing little association between self-reported video-game experience and cognitive abilities: (a) Our analyses assumed linear gaming-cognition relationships and ignored possible confounding associations among different video-game genres, and (b) the video-ga...
Article
We investigated effects of task interruption on procedural performance, focusing on the effect of interruption length on the rates of different categories of error at the point of task resumption. Interruption length affected errors involving loss of place in the procedure (sequence errors) but not errors involving incorrect execution of a correct...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial research in the psychology of expertise has shown that experts in several fields (e.g., science, mathematics) perform better than non-experts on standardized tests of intelligence. This evidence suggests that intelligence plays an important role in the acquisition of expertise. However, a counter argument is that the difference between...
Article
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-innate-talent-a-myth/
Article
Ericsson and colleagues’ view that individual differences in expertise can largely be accounted for by accumulated deliberate practice is not supported by the available empirical evidence. Extending earlier work (Macnamara, Hambrick, & Oswald, 2014), we found that deliberate practice accounted for a sizeable amount of variance in sports performance...
Article
Why are some people so much more successful than other people in music, sports, games, business, and other complex domains? This question is the subject of one of psychology's oldest debates. Over 20 years ago, Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Römer (1993) proposed that individual differences in performance in domains such as these largely reflect accum...
Chapter
Questions about how expertise is acquired, and how it changes with age in adulthood, have long been of interest to psychologists. Beginning in the late 1960s, research established that novices and experts differ in acquired skills, such as the ability to perceive meaningful patterns of information. The view that emerged from this research was that...
Article
Full-text available
Psychometric intelligence (g) is often conceptualized as the capability for online information processing but it is also possible that intelligence may be related to offline processing of information. Here, we investigated the relationship between psychometric g and sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Participants studied paired-associates and we...
Article
Full-text available
The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that exp...
Article
Full-text available
This Research Topic sought to advance psychological understanding of expertise by drawing together lines of research from many different domains of expertise. The outcome is a collection of 35 articles in such diverse areas as chess, music, perception, teaching, intensive-care diagnosis, video-games, sports, dance, mathematics, climbing, and finger...
Article
The question of what underlies individual differences in general intelligence has never been satisfactorily answered. The purpose of this research was to investigate the role of an executive function that we term placekeeping ability—the ability to perform the steps of a complex task in a prescribed order without skipping or repeating steps. Partic...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory capacity is one of the most frequently measured individual difference constructs in cognitive psychology and related fields. However, implementation of complex span and other working memory measures is generally time-consuming for administrators and examinees alike. Because researchers often must manage the tension between limited te...
Article
The use of laptops and cell phones in the classroom is increasing but there is little research assessing whether these devices create distraction that diminishes learning. Moreover, the contribution of intellectual ability to the relationship between learning and portable device use has not been thoroughly investigated. To bridge this gap, students...
Article
Full-text available
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic o...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory is a critical element of complex cognition, particularly under conditions of distraction and interference. Measures of working memory capacity correlate positively with many measures of real-world cognition, including fluid intelligence. There have been numerous attempts to use training procedures to increase working memory capacity...
Article
Full-text available
Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segmen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Geologic mapping draws heavily on 3D visualization, as the geologist must navigate through unfamiliar terrain, observing and interpreting scattered surface rock outcrops to create an accurate mental representation of the 3D subsurface geology. The geologist must then transfer a 3D mental representation onto a 2D geologic map. Geological knowledge i...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty years ago, Ericsson, Krampe, and Tesch-Römer (1993) proposed that expert performance reflects a long period of deliberate practice rather than innate ability, or “talent”. Ericsson et al. found that elite musicians had accumulated thousands of hours more deliberate practice than less accomplished musicians, and concluded that their theoretic...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-c...
Article
Full-text available
Deficits in memory for everyday activities are common complaints among healthy and demented older adults. The medial temporal lobes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are both affected by aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease, and are known to influence performance on laboratory memory tasks. We investigated whether the volume of these structur...
Article
We investigated the effect of short interruptions on performance of a task that required participants to maintain their place in a sequence of steps each with their own performance requirements. Interruptions averaging 4.4 s long tripled the rate of sequence errors on post-interruption trials relative to baseline trials. Interruptions averaging 2.8...
Article
When memory is tested after a delay, performance is typically better if the retention interval includes sleep. However, it is unclear what accounts for this well-established effect. It is possible that sleep enhances the retrieval of information, but it is also possible that sleep protects against memory loss that normally occurs during waking acti...
Article
Domain knowledge is a powerful predictor of success in many complex tasks, but do general cognitive abilities also play a role? To investigate this question, we had 155 participants representing a wide range of poker experience and skill complete tests of poker knowledge, working memory capacity (WMC), and two components of skill in Texas Hold’Em p...
Conference Paper
Bedrock geologic mapping is a complex and cognitively demanding task. Successful mapping requires domain-specific content knowledge, visuospatial ability, navigation through the field area, creating a mental model of the geology that is consistent with field data, and metacognition. Most post-secondary geology students in the United States receive...
Article
Full-text available
Sources of individual differences in scientific problem solving were investigated. Participants representing a wide range of experience in geology completed tests of visuospatial ability and geological knowledge, and performed a geological bedrock mapping task, in which they attempted to infer the geological structure of an area in the Tobacco Root...
Article
It is clear from decades of research that, to a very large degree, success in music, games, sports, science, and other complex domains reflects knowledge and skills acquired through experience. However, it is equally clear that basic abilities, which are known to be substantially heritable, also contribute to performance differences in many domains...
Article
Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may be at an increased risk of adjustment problems. To examine possible predictors of adjustment difficulties in siblings, 70 mothers with at least one child with ASD and one typical child completed surveys of symptom severity in the child with ASD, impact of the child with ASD on the siblin...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of research have established that "online" cognitive processes, which operate during conscious encoding and retrieval of information, contribute substantially to individual differences in memory. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that "offline" processes during sleep also contribute to memory performance. However, the question of whether i...