Yunn-Hwen Gan

Yunn-Hwen Gan
National University of Singapore | NUS · Department of Biochemistry

PhD

About

86
Publications
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Introduction
Yunn-Hwen Gan currently works at the Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore. Yunn-Hwen does research in Immunology, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology and Microbiology. Their current project is 'Burkholderia pseudomallei pathogenesis and host immunity'. Another interest is multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and hypervirulent K. pneumoniae

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
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Melioidosis is a serious infectious disease endemic in Southeast Asia, Northern Australia and has been increasingly reported in other tropical and subtropical regions in the world. Percutaneous inoculation through cuts and wounds on the skin is one of the major modes of natural transmission. Despite cuts in skin being a major route of entry, very l...
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Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols contain reducing sulfhydryl groups that are important for maintaining antioxidant defense in the cell. Aside from the traditional roles of LMW thiols as redox regulators in bacteria, glutathione (GSH) has been reported to affect virulence and bacterial pathogenesis. The role of GSH in virulence is diverse, includin...
Article
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Objectives: Hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired liver abscess. We aimed to investigate if hypermucoviscous strains could be shared among households. Methods: We genotyped the clinical K. pneumoniae isolates in a cohort of 24 patients with Klebsiella liver abscess and analyzed the stool metagenomes of...
Article
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For a myriad of different reasons most antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have failed to reach clinical application. Different AMPs have different shortcomings including but not limited to toxicity issues, potency, limited spectrum of activity, or reduced activity in situ. We synthesized several cationic peptide mimics, main-chain cationic polyimidazoli...
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Loss of diversity in the gut microbiome can persist for extended periods after antibiotic treatment, impacting microbiome function, antimicrobial resistance and probably host health. Despite widespread antibiotic use, our understanding of the species and metabolic functions contributing to gut microbiome recovery is limited. Using data from 4 disco...
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The recognition and inactivation of specific pathogenic bacteria remain an enormous scientific challenge and an important therapeutic goal. Therefore, materials that can selectively target and kill specific pathogenic bacteria, without harming beneficial strains are highly desirable. Here, a material platform is reported that exploits bacteria as a...
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In article number 2001338, Bin Liu and co‐workers report a material platform that exploits bacteria as a template to synthesize polymers with aggregation‐induced emission characteristics. The bacterium‐templated polymer shows very weak fluorescence in aqueous media and the fluorescence is turned on upon recognition of the templated bacteria. The in...
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The host innate immunity offers the first line of defense against infection. However, recent evidence shows that the host innate immunity is also critical in sensing the presence of cytoplasmic DNA derived from genomic instability events, such as DNA damage and defective cell cycle progression. This is achieved through the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (...
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics with high morbidity and mortality. The facultative intracellular bacterium induces host cell fusion through its type VI secretion system 5 (T6SS5) as an important part of its pathogenesis in mammalian hosts. This allows it to spread...
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The convergence of carbapenem-resistance and hypervirulence genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae has led to the emergence of highly drug-resistant superbugs capable of causing invasive disease. We analyzed 556 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates from patients in Singapore hospitals during 2010-2015 and discovered 18 isolates from 7 patients also...
Article
Carbapenem‐resistant Gram‐negative bacteria (GNB) are heading the list of pathogens for which antibiotics are the most critically needed. Many antibiotics are either unable to penetrate the outer‐membrane or are excluded by efflux mechanisms. Here, we report a cationic block beta‐peptide (PAS8‐ b ‐PDM12) that reverses intrinsic antibiotic resistanc...
Article
Das glykosylierte kationische β-Peptid PAS8-b-PDM12 sensibilisiert die wirkstoffresistenten Gram-negativen ESKAPE-Bakterien für mehrere Antibiotika, indem es die Penetration durch die Außenmembran erleichtert und die Effluxpumpsysteme deaktiviert. Dies ebnet Wege für neue Kombinationstherapien für lebensbedrohliche bakterielle Infektionen. Abstrac...
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Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) causes Klebsiella‐induced liver abscess. Capsule is important for the pathogenesis of Klebsiella in systemic infection, but its role in gut colonisation is not well understood. By generating ΔwcaJ, Δwza and Δwzy capsule‐null mutants in a prototypical K1 hypervirulent isolate, we show that inactivation of w...
Article
Klebsiella pneumoniae induced liver abscess (KLA) is emerging as a leading cause of pyogenic liver abscess worldwide. In recent years, the emergence of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) has been strongly associated with KLA. Unlike classical K. pneumoniae which generally infects the immunocompromised population, hvKp can cause serious and invasive...
Article
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Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol that is important for maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. Some bacteria are able to import exogenous glutathione as a nutritional source and to counter oxidative stress. In cytosolic pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Listeria monocytogenes, host glutathione regulates bacterial virulence. In...
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TIP60 is a lysine acetyltransferase and is known to be a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor. TIP60 downregulation is an early event in tumorigenesis which has been observed in several cancer types including breast and colorectal cancers. However, the mechanism by which it regulates tumor progression is not well understood. In this study, we identi...
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Severe liver abscess infections caused by hypervirulent clonal-group CG23 Klebsiella pneumoniae have been increasingly reported since the mid-1980s. Strains typically possess several virulence factors including an integrative, conjugative element ICEKp encoding the siderophore yersiniabactin and genotoxin colibactin. Here we investigate CG23's evol...
Preprint
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Dysbiosis in the gut microbiome due to antibiotic usage can persist for extended periods of time, impacting host health and increasing the risk for pathogen colonization. The specific factors associated with variability in gut microbiome recovery remain unknown. Using data from 4 different cohorts in 3 continents comprising >500 microbiome profiles...
Article
Bacteria use various endogenous antioxidants for protection against oxidative stress associated with environmental survival or host infection. Although glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant and widely used antioxidant in Proteobacteria, ergothioneine (EGT) is another microbial antioxidant, mainly produced by fungi and Actinobacteria. The Burkholde...
Article
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Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are type III secretion system effectors produced by some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei Through their deamidase activity, Cifs inhibit the activity of Cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL). CRL inhibition induces the accumulation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27, thereby le...
Article
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Melioidosis is a notifiable infectious disease registered with the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA), Singapore. From a clinical perspective, increased awareness of the disease has led to early detection and treatment initiation, thus resulting in decreasing mortality rates in recent years. However, the disease sti...
Preprint
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Since the mid-1980s there have been increasing reports of severe community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess, meningitis and bloodstream infections caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae , predominantly encompassing clonal group (CG) 23 serotype K1 strains. Common features of CG23 include a virulence plasmid associated with iron scavenging and...
Article
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The major risk factor for Klebsiella liver abscess (KLA) is type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the immunological mechanisms involved in the increased susceptibility are poorly defined. We investigated the responses of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), the causative agent of KLA...
Article
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The anti-proliferative agent hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) belongs to a class of hybrid bipolar compounds developed more than 30 y ago for their ability to induce terminal differentiation of transformed cells. Recently, HMBA has also been shown to trigger HIV transcription from latently infected cells, via a CDK9/HMBA inducible protein-1 depend...
Article
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is a serum-resistant Gram-negative bacterium capable of causing disseminated infections with metastatic complications. However, their interaction with non-phagocytic cells is poorly understood. We observed that exposure of B. pseudomallei and the closely related yet avirulent B. thailandensis to human plasma increased epit...
Article
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Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL) and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif...
Article
The anti-proliferative agent hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) belongs to a class of hybrid bipolar compounds developed more than 30 y ago for their ability to induce terminal differentiation of transformed cells. Recently, HMBA has also been shown to trigger HIV transcription from latently infected cells, via a CDK9/HMBA inducible protein-1 depend...
Article
The anti-proliferative agent hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) belongs to a class of hybrid bipolar compounds developed more than 30 y ago for their ability to induce terminal differentiation of transformed cells. Recently, HMBA has also been shown to trigger HIV transcription from latently infected cells, via a CDK9/HMBA inducible protein-1 depend...
Article
Full-text available
Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotic...
Article
Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are major virulence mechanisms in many Gram-negative bacteria, but the physiological signals that activate them are not well understood. The T6SS1 of Burkholderia pseudomallei is essential for pathogenesis in mammalian hosts and is only expressed when the bacterium is intracellular. We found that signals for T6SS1...
Article
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The Type VI Secretion System cluster 1 (T6SS1) is essential for the pathogenesis of Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, a disease endemic in the tropics. Inside host cells, B. pseudomallei escapes into the cytosol and through T6SS1, induces multinucleated giant cell (MNGC) formation that is thought to be important for bac...
Article
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Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis. A conserved type III secretion system (T3SS3) and type VI secretion system (T6SS1) are critical for intracellular survival and growth. The T3SS3 and T6SS1 genes are coordinately and hierarchically regulated by a TetR-type regulator,...
Article
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Type 2 diabetic patients have increased susceptibility to melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. We had previously shown that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from diabetic patients with poor glycemic control had a defective IL-12 and IFNγ response to B. pseudomallei infection, resulting in poor intracellu...
Article
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Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially fatal disease endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. This Gram-negative pathogen possesses numerous virulence factors including three “injection type” type three secretion systems (T3SSs). B. pseudomallei has been shown to activate NFκB in HEK293T c...
Article
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Globally, the number of people with Type 2 diabetes (T2D) or diabetes mellitus is projected to grow to 366–440 million by 2030, with three quarters of the increase in low- to middle-income countries [1]. The burden of communicable diseases is concentrated in low-income and resource-strapped regions, and one could predict that diabetes-related infec...
Article
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Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp), the causative agent of the often-deadly infectious disease melioidosis, contains one of the largest prokaryotic genomes sequenced to date, at 7.2 Mb with two large circular chromosomes (1 and 2). To comprehensively delineate the Bp transcriptome, we integrated whole-genome tiling array expression data of Bp exposed t...
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that infects both humans and animals. Although cell culture studies have revealed significant insights into factors contributing to virulence and host defense, the interactions between this pathogen and its intact host remain to be elucidated. To gain insights into the host defense respons...
Article
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The in vitro evolution and engineering of quorum-quenching lactonases with enhanced reactivities was achieved using a thermostable GKL enzyme as template, yielding the E101G/R230C GKL mutant with increased catalytic activity and broadened substrate range [Chow, J. Y., Xue, B., Lee, K. H., Tung, A., Wu, L., Robinson, R. C., and Yew, W. S. (2010) J B...
Article
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Individuals with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of acquiring melioidosis, a disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei infection. Although up to half of melioidosis patients have underlying diabetes, the mechanisms involved in this increased susceptibility are unknown. We found that B. pseudomallei-infected PBMCs from diabetic patients were...
Article
Cycle inhibiting factor (Cif) is produced by pathogenic intracellular bacteria and injected into the host cells via a type III secretion system. Cif is known to interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle by inhibiting the function of cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs). Cullin proteins form the scaffold protein of CRLs and are modified with the u...
Article
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Type III and type VI secretion systems (T3SSs and T6SSs, respectively) are critical virulence determinants in several Gram-negative pathogens. In Burkholderia pseudomallei, the T3SS-3 and T6SS-1 clusters have been implicated in bacterial virulence in mammalian hosts. We recently discovered a regulatory cascade that coordinately controls the express...
Article
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Melioidosis is a severe infectious disease caused by the saprophytic facultative intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease is endemic in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia, and no effective vaccine exists. To describe human cell-mediated immune responses to B. pseudomallei and to identify candidate antigens for vaccine develo...
Article
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a highly versatile pathogen capable of infecting many species of animals and plants. It is the causative agent of melioidosis, a medically important infectious disease in humans with a wide spectrum of disease manifestations. Its versatility as a pathogen is reflected in its huge 7.2Mb genome and the many virulence mech...
Article
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative saprophyte that is the causative agent of melioidosis, a severe infectious disease endemic in Northern Australia and Southeast Asia. This organism has sparked much scientific interest in the West because of its classification as a potential bioterrorism agent by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and P...
Article
A major and critical virulence determinant of many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the Type III Secretion Systems (T3SS). T3SS3 in Burkholderia pseudomallei is critical for bacterial virulence in mammalian infection models but its regulation is unknown. B. pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially fatal disease endemic...
Article
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent for melioidosis, a disease with significant mortality and morbidity in endemic regions. Its versatility as a pathogen is reflected in its relatively huge 7.24 Mb genome and the presence of many virulence factors including three Type Three Secretion Systems known as T3SS1, T3SS2 and T3SS3. Besides bei...
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The gram-negative rod Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a potentially fatal disease which is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas. The bacterium multiplies intracellularly within the cytosol, induces the formation of actin tails, and can spread directly from cell to cell. Recently, it has been shown that B. pseud...
Article
Recent reports of the increase in peripheral blood γδ T cells in HIV+ patients prompted us to examine the γδ T cell system in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and the responses of these cells to SIV infection. Our results reveal differences in the γδ T cell subset composition and their expression of CD8 in the peripheral blood of monkeys and humans....
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis. While adaptive immunity has been shown to be important for host resistance to B. pseudomallei, the direct interaction of the bacteria with adaptive immune cells such as T and B cells is not well known. To address this question, we infected Jurkat T cells, as well as human primary CD4+...
Article
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Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an infectious disease that can result in asymptomatic, chronic, or acute illness. In acute melioidosis, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines are found in organs and blood, and neutrophils play a key role in controlling the infection. We showed that B. pseudomallei a...