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    ABSTRACT: Background: Subxiphoid thoracoscopic surgery has been used in various thoracic surgical procedures. The aim of this study is to compare the physiological and inflammatory responses between subxiphoid thoracoscopic surgery and standard transthoracic thoracoscopic surgery for anatomic pulmonary lobectomy in a canine model. Methods: Nineteen dogs were assigned to subxiphoid (n=10) or standard thoracoscopy (n=9). Animals in the subxiphoid and standard thoracoscopy group received anatomic lobectomy via a 3-cm xiphoid and thoracic incision, respectively. Physiological and inflammatory parameters were compared between the two groups before surgery, during the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14. The animals were sacrificed and necropsied at 2 weeks after surgery. Results: All procedures were performed successfully with no conversion nor complication. The physiologic changes were similar in both groups. There was no observable different between the two groups in terms of C-reactive protein (CRP) level, interleukin-6 (IL-6) level, neutrophil count, neutrophil 20,70-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) expression, monocyte count, monocyte inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and CD4/CD8 ratios. However, the reduction of total lymphocyte count, CD4, and CD8 lymphocyte counts were observed in the subxiphoid anatomic lobectomy group on postoperative day 7, which was significantly lower than that of the standard transthoracic thoracoscopic approach. Conclusions: Subxiphoid thoracoscopic surgery resulted in similar physiologic impact and surgical outcome to those of standard transthoracic thoracoscopic surgery. Nevertheless, subxiphoid thoracoscopic surgery is associated with more pronounced immunosuppression than the standard transthoracic thoracoscopic approach.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Thoracic Disease
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    ABSTRACT: Single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely applied recently. However, there are still only few reports describing its use in mediastinum tumor resection. We present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinum tumor resection and compare it with conventional VATS with regard to short-term outcome. We retrospectively enrolled 105 patients who received mediastinum surgery in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Sixteen patients received sternotomy or thoracotomy, 29 patients received single-port VATS, and 60 patients received conventional VATS (3 ports). The operative time, blood loss, postoperation day 1 pain score, discharge day pain score, and postoperative hospital stay were compared. In order to establish a well balanced cohort study, we also use propensity scores match (1:1) to compare the short-term clinical outcome in 2 groups. No operative deaths occurred in this study. Single-port VATS was associated with shorter operative time, lower postoperation day 1 pain score, and shorter postoperation hospital stay in our cohort study (P = 0.001, <0.001, and 0.039), and propensity scores matched cohort study (P = 0.003, <0.001, and <0.001). Single-port VATS for mediastinum tumor appears to be a safe and promising technique with short-term outcome not inferior to conventional VATS in our cohort study. The long-term oncology outcome may require time and more enrolled patients to be further evaluated.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The current TNM staging system did not provide disease relapse information. The aim of study was try to establish a predictive survival model for disease and overall survival in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who presented as resectable disease and to develop a reference for follow-up imaging tool selection. From January 2005 to December 2011, 442 patients who initially presented as resectable disease (stages I–IIIa) and received anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection were included in the study. Medical charts were thoroughly reviewed and clinico-pathologic factors were collected and analyzed. Visceral pleural invasion, tumor size >5 cm, and postoperative adjuvant therapy were identified as risk factors for poorer disease-free survival. The 5-year disease-free survival from score 0 to 3 was 68.7%, 46.6%, 31.9%, and 26.1%, respectively. The disease relapse percentage for scores 0 to 3 were 26.49%, 50.61%, 65.05%, and 73.81%, respectively. For analysis of overall survival, age >60 years, tumor size >3 cm, and total metastatic lymph node ratio >0.05 were correlated to worse overall survival. Because greater age may be correlated with poor general condition, we re-scored risk factors that correlated to disease severity that ranging from 0 to 2. The 5-year overall survival range from score 0 to 2 was 56.3%, 43.1%, and 13.1%, respectively. Poor prognostic factors correlated to disease-free survival were tumor size >5 cm, visceral pleural invasion, and patients needing to receive postoperative adjuvant therapy. Disease-free survival of resectable nonsmall cell lung cancer patients and disease relapse can be stratified by these 3 factors. Chest tomography may be recommended for patients with 1 or more poor disease-free survival risk factors.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, treatment plans for nonsmall cell lung cancer are to be based on cancer stage. Cancer staging for patients with resectable disease has been based on pathologic stage instead of preoperative clinical stage. However, the possibility of occult mediastinal lymph node metastases could lead to discrepancy between clinical and pathologic stage. While multi-modality treatments may be beneficial for patients with locally advanced disease, most studies have been based on clinical stage. The aim of this study was to identify the beneficial impact of neoadjuvant therapy and the prognostic value of final pathologic stage in these patients. This study enrolled 530 lung cancer patients who received anatomic resection and mediastinal lymph node dissection at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from January 2005 through June 2011. All resected specimens were examined by pathologists. Postoperative adjuvant therapies were given according to NCCN guideline recommendations. The clinico-pathologic factors of these patients were collected and analyzed. Patients not receiving neoadjuvant therapy had a better probability of disease-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.0005), as well as a lower incidence of early relapse. Patients not receiving neoadjuvant therapy had a better disease-free survival rate in stages IA (P < 0.001), IB (P = 0.002), and IIB (P = 0.0117) from the point of view of final pathologic stage. Patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy may experience a higher incidence of early relapse. Neoadjuvant therapy did not show definite benefits in the disease-free and overall survival rates from the point of view of final pathologic stage. Pathologic stage of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients who presented with resectable disease after neoadjuvant therapy did not predict the prognosis.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: A subxiphoid surgical approach to thoracic cavity operations has potential advantages such as preventing injuries to intercostal nerves and vessels due to the bypass of the intercostal space during thoracic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the feasibility and efficacy of the subxiphoid and standard transthoracic approaches for anatomic pulmonary lobectomy in a canine model. Methods: Nineteen dogs were assigned for pulmonary lobectomy using either the subxiphoid (n = 10) or standard transthoracic approaches (n = 9). Each group underwent thoracic exploration and anatomic pulmonary lobectomy. Subxiphoid thoracoscopy was performed with a flexible bronchoscope via a 3-cm incision over the xiphoid process. In the conventional thoracoscopy group, approach to the thoracic cavity was obtained through a 3-cm incision over the seventh intercostal space. Physiological parameters (respiratory rate and body temperature) and blood samples (white blood cell counts and arterial blood gases) were collected during the preoperative and postoperative periods. Surgical outcomes data (operating time, operative complications, and body weight gain) were also collected and compared between the groups. The animals were sacrificed 14 d after surgery for necropsy evaluations. Results: Anatomic pulmonary lobectomy was successfully performed without intraoperative and postoperative complications in all animals. There were no significant differences in the mean operating times or weight gain after surgery between the subxiphoid and the standard transthoracic approach groups. In terms of physiological and pulmonary parameters, there were no observed differences between the two surgical groups for respiratory rate, body temperature, white blood cell counts, and arterial blood gases at any time during the study. Necropsy confirmed the success of lobectomy without complication in all studied animals. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the subxiphoid approach was comparable with the standard transthoracic approach for anatomic pulmonary lobectomy, in terms of feasibility and effectiveness.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Surgical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Safe pulmonary vessel sealing device plays a crucial role in anatomic lung resection. In 2014, we reported high rates of massive bleeding complications during transumbilical lobectomy in a canine model due to difficulty in managing the pulmonary vessel with an endostapler. In this animal survival series, we aimed to evaluate the outcome of pulmonary vessel sealing with an electrocautery device to simplify the transumbilical thoracic surgery. Under general anesthesia, a 3-cm longitudinal incision was made over the umbilicus. Under video guidance, a bronchoscope was inserted through the incision for exploration. The diaphragmatic wound was created with an electrocautery knife and used as the entrance into the thoracic cavity. Using the transumbilical technique, anatomic lobectomy was performed with electrosurgical devices and endoscopic vascular staplers in 15 canines. Transumbilical endoscopic anatomic lobectomy was successfully completed in 12 of the 15 animals. Intraoperative bleeding developed in three animals during pulmonary hilum dissection, where one animal was killed due to hemodynamic instability and the other two animals required thoracotomy to complete the operation. There were five delayed bleeding and surgical mortality cases caused by inadequate vessel sealing by electrosurgical devices. Postmortem examination confirmed correct transumbilical lobectomy in the twelve animals that survived the operations. Transumbilical anatomic lobectomy is technically feasible in a canine model; however, the electrosurgical devices were not effective in sealing the pulmonary vessel in the current canine model.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Surgical Endoscopy
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    ABSTRACT: To present the technique of single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic mediastinal tumour resection, which includes limited thymectomy, extended thymectomy, cyst excision and posterior mediastinal tumour excision, and the early results of resection with the use of this technique. Twenty-nine patients with mediastinal tumours were treated with single-port thoracoscopic mediastinal resection at Chung Gung Memorial Hospital between April 2014 and May 2015.The surgical intervention was performed through the fourth or fifth intercostal space at the anterior axillary line. A 5- or 10-mm 30° video camera and working instruments were employed simultaneously at this incision site throughout the surgery. The perioperative variables and outcomes were collected and analysed retrospectively. Among the 29 cases included in the final analysis, 8 extended thymectomies, 5 limited thymectomies, 7 cyst excisions and 9 tumour excisions were performed successfully without the need for conversion. For the 29 patients who underwent single-port video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), the mean operation time was 97.3 ± 31.2 min and the average blood loss was 34.1 ± 45.7 ml. The average length of the incision wound was 3.41 ± 0.76 cm and the average length of postoperative hospital stay was 3.75 ± 1.53 days. There were no mortalities, and mobility was achieved 30 days after surgery. With regard to oncological concerns, the occurrence of postoperative myasthenia gravis or freedom from tumour recurrence is a paramount issue. Our cohort follow-up time was not long enough to address this, and more time and patients are needed for further evaluation. But our preliminary report showed that uniportal VATS for mediastinal tumour resection was a promising and safe technique with regard to short-term clinical outcome. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess the prognostic significance on overall survival (OS) of the 3-point tumor regression grade (TRG) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT); second, to investigate the associations of TRG with the clinicopathological characteristics of the study patients. A total of 357 ESCC patients were retrospectively enrolled. The 3-point TRG was determined by assessing the percentage of viable residual tumor cells (VRTC) in the resected specimens as follows: TRG 1, 0% VRTC; TRG 2, 1% to 50% VRTC; and TRG 3, >50% VRTC. A TRG of 1, 2, and 3 was found in 32.2%, 38.9%, and 28.9% of the specimens, respectively. High TRG values were significantly associated with advanced pretreatment clinical stage, longer tumor length, and higher posttreatment tumor depth of invasion (yT), the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM), and lymphovascular invasion. We observed a stepwise decrease in 5-year OS rates with increasing TRG, as follows: 51% for patients with a TRG of 1, 28% for patients with a TRG of 2, and 22% for patients with a TRG of 3 (P < 0.001). TRG and LNM were independent predictors of OS in multivariate analysis. Notably, the prognostic impact of TRG on OS was greater in patients without LNM (P < 0.001) and ypT3 disease (P = 0.021). TRG is independently associated with OS in ESCC patients treated with nCRT. The interrelationships between TRG, LNM, and depth of tumor invasion may improve the prognostic stratification in esophageal cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Even early-stage patients might encounter disease recurrence with relative high risk. Effective postoperative therapy is based on an accurate assessment of treatment failure after surgery. The aim of this study is to construct a disease-free survival (DFS) prediction model and stratify patients into different risk score groups. A total of 356 pathological stage I patients (7th American Joint Committee on Cancer) who underwent lung resection from January 2005 through June 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Of these patients, 63 patients were eliminated for this study. A total of 293 p-stage I patients were included for further univariate and multivariate analysis. Clinical, surgical, and pathological factors associated with high risk of recurrence were analyzed, including age, gender, smoking status, additional primary malignancy (APM), operation method, histology, visceral pleural invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, tumor necrosis, and tumor size. Of the 293 p-stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients examined, 143 were female and 150 were male, with a mean age of 62.8-years old (range: 25–83-years old). The 5-year DFS and overall survival rates after surgery were 58.9% and 75.3%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, current smoker (hazards ratio [HR]: 1.63), APM (HR: 1.86), tumor size (HR: 1.54, 2.03), nonanatomic resections (HR: 1.81), adenocarcinoma histology (HR: 2.07), visceral pleural invasion (HR: 1.54), and angiolymphatic invasion (HR: 1.53) were found to be associated with a higher risk of tumor recurrence. The final model showed a fair discrimination ability (C-statistic = 0.68). According to the difference risk group, we found patients with intermediate or higher risk group had a higher distal relapse tendency as compared with low risk group (P = 0.016, odds ratio: 3.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.21–9.03). Greater than 30% of disease recurrences occurred after surgery for stage I NSCLC patients. That is why we try to establish an effective DFS predicting model based on clinical, pathological, and surgical covariates. However, our initial results still need to be validated and refined into greater population for better application in clinical use.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Transumbilical single-port surgery is a potentially less invasive approach to many types of abdominal surgeries and offers better cosmetic outcomes than conventional 3-port laparoscopic surgery. It avoids the complication of intercostal neuralgia and may reduce the risk of pulmonary complications after video-assisted thoracic surgery. This study evaluated the feasibility of transumbilical lung wedge resection. Methods: Lung resection was performed in 11 beagle dogs weighing 5.9 to 8.5 kg. A 3-cm umbilical incision and one diaphragmatic incision were made, and an endoscopic stapler was used. The diaphragmatic incisions were repaired under video guidance using a V-Loc knotless suturing device (Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts). Animals were monitored daily for signs of postoperative infection. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, and IL-6 level were measured in all animals. Animals were euthanized 14 days after surgery and underwent necropsy evaluation. Results: Accurate lung resection was achieved in 10 of 11 animals during a median operative time of 98 minutes (range 60-165). In 1 animal, transumbilical lung resection was not possible and was converted to thoracotomy. All animals survived without major postoperative complications. At necropsy, evidence of uneventful healing of the stapled resection margin and diaphragmatic wound were found. There was no evidence of vital organ injury or intrathoracic infection. Conclusion: A transumbilical approach to thoracic cavity exploration and stapled lung resection is technically feasible. Primary suturing of the diaphragmatic incision is a simple and effective means of diaphragmatic wound closure. This may be an alternative to video-assisted thoracic surgery for the management of simple thoracic disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Single-port transumbilical surgery is a well-established platform for minimally invasive abdominal surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamics and inflammatory response of a novel transumbilical technique with that of a conventional transthoracic technique in thoracic exploration and lung resection in a canine model. Sixteen dogs were randomly assigned to undergo transumbilical thoracoscopy (n = 8) or standard thoracoscopy (n = 8). Animals in the umbilical group received lung resection via a 3-cm transumbilical incision in combination with a 2.5-cm transdiaphragmatic incision. Animals in the standard thoracoscopy group underwent lung resection via a 3-cm thoracic incision. Hemodynamic parameters (e.g., mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, and global end-diastolic volume index) and inflammatory parameters (e.g., neutrophil count, neutrophil 2',7' -dichlorohydrofluorescein [DCFH] expression, monocyte count, monocyte inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, total lymphocyte count, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte counts, the CD4+/CD8+ratio, plasma Creactive protein level, interleukin-6 level) were evaluated before surgery, during the operation, and on postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14. Lung resections were successfully performed in all 16 animals. There were 2 surgery-related mortality complications (1 animal in each group). In the transumbilical group, 1 death was caused by early extubation before the animal fully recovered from the anesthesia. In the thoracoscopic group, 1 death was caused by respiratory distress and the complication of sepsis at 5 days after surgery. There was no significant difference between the two techniques with regard to the hemodynamic and immunologic impact of the surgeries. This study suggests that the hemodynamic and inflammatory changes with endoscopic lung resection performed by the transumbilical approach are comparable to those after using the conventional transthoracic approach. This information is novel and relevant for surgeons interested in developing new surgical techniques in minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · International Journal of Surgery (London, England)
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic biopsy examinations after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) are of limited value in patients with esophageal cancer due to the high rates of false negative (FN) findings. We sought to investigate the anatomical locations of residual tumors in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients with FN endoscopic biopsies with the ultimate goal of improving their clinical management. ESCC patients with residual cancers after nCRT which were not identified by preoperative endoscopic biopsy were deemed eligible. All of the surgical specimens were re-reviewed with a special focus on (1) distribution of residual cancer in each esophageal layer; (2) tumor regression grade (TRG); and (3) shortest distance between the lumen and the residual tumor. Among the 49 ESCC patients with FN biopsy results, a strong 'layer-dependent' tumor regression was observed. There was a preferential clearing of esophageal cancer cells located in the adventitia, followed by muscle and the submucosal (SM) and mucosal (M) layers (p < 0.001). Residual malignancies located in the muscle layer or the adventitia without simultaneous involvement of the M/SM layers were rare (n = 3; 6.1 %). TRG following nCRT did not affect the rate of M/SM involvement (p = 0.55) but was inversely associated with the distance between the lumen and residual cancer (mean distance in patients with TRG of 2, 3, and 4 was 1.1, 0.82, and 0.37 mm, respectively; p = 0.041). Most ESCC patients who show FN endoscopic biopsies following nCRT still have detectable lesions in the M/SM layers. Aggressive biopsy protocols may potentially improve detection rates.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: The usefulness of endoscopic biopsy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is limited because of its high false-negative (FN) rates. However, data on the factors associated with FN biopsy results remain scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with FN results on endoscopic biopsies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) following nCRT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of ESCC patients who were treated at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, between 1999 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were receiving nCRT as first-line treatment before esophagectomy and having been preoperatively submitted to an endoscopic biopsy. Endoscopic findings at the lesion site were classified into 6 distinct categories: stricture, tumor, ulcer, scar, other findings, or normal. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with FN biopsy findings. A total of 227 patients were selected, of which 92 (41.9%) had positive biopsy results. Among patients with negative biopsy findings (n = 135), 85 were found to have residual cancer on the resected esophagus. Multivariate analysis identified endoscopic findings as the only independent predictor of FN biopsy results. The negative predictive values were 77.8%, 61.9%, 52.6%, 30.3%, 23.1%, and 20.0% for the normal, scar, other findings, ulcer, stricture, and tumor categories, respectively (P < 0.001). In ESCC patients, the FN rate of endoscopic biopsy after nCRT is associated with the type of residual lesion.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Background: N2-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) exhibits extremely low survival rates. The role of surgery in operable locally advanced N2 NSCLC remains controversial. In this study, we tried to analyze the role of surgery in resectable N2 NSCLC and the relationship between survival and clinico-pathologic factors from a pathologic point of view. Methods: 108 resectable pathologic N2-positive NSCLC patients, diagnosed from January 2005 to July 2012, were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records, image studies, and pathology reports to collect the clinico-pathologic factors in these patients. Results: Those who received lobectomy (p = 0.002) and had a metastatic lymph node ratio less than 0.4 (p = 0.01) had a better overall survival rate. In addition, our study also showed that perineural invasion may play a significant role in disease-free survival (p = 0.01) CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic lymph node ratio greater than 0.4 and non-anatomic resection were poor prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Anatomic resection for selected N2 patients may play a crucial role in the overall survival rate. Perineural invasion showed an adverse impact on disease-free survival, but further investigation is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. Transumbilical single-port surgery has been associated with less postoperative pain and offers better cosmetic outcomes than conventional 3-port laparoscopic surgery. This study compares the safety and efficacy of transumbilical thoracoscopy and conventional thoracoscopy for lung wedge resection. Methods. The animals (n = 16) were randomly assigned to the transumbilical thoracoscopic approach group (n = 8) or conventional thoracoscopic approach group (n = 8). Transumbilical lung resection was performed via an umbilical incision and a diaphragmatic incision. In the conventional thoracoscopic group, lung resection was completed through a thoracic incision. For both procedures, we compared the surgical outcomes, for example, operating time and operative complications; physiologic parameters, for example, respiratory rate and body temperature; inflammatory parameters, for example, white blood cell count; and pulmonary parameters, for example, arterial blood gas levels. The animals were euthanized 2 weeks after the surgery for gross and histologic evaluations. Results. The lung wedge resection was successfully performed in all animals. There was no significant difference in the mean operating times or complications between the transumbilical and the conventional thoracoscopic approach groups. With regard to the physiologic impact of the surgeries, the transumbilical approach was associated with significant elevations in body temperature on postoperative day 1, when compared with the standard thoracoscopic approach. Conclusions. This study suggests that both approaches for performing lung wedge resection were comparable in efficacy and postoperative complications.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Surgical Innovation
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    ABSTRACT: With regard to pathologic stage IIA (pIIA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), there is a paucity of literature evaluating the risk factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic factors of DFS and OS in patients with NSCLC pIIA. We performed a retrospective review of 98 stage II patients (7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer) who underwent lung resection from January 2005 to February 2011. Of these, 23 patients were excluded for this study because of loss of follow-up or different substage, and 75 patients with pIIA were included for further univariate and multivariate analysis. Risk factors for DFS and OS were analyzed, including age, gender, smoking history, operation method, histology, differential grade, visceral pleural invasion, angiolymphatic invasion, and metastatic N1 lymph node ratio (LNR). Of the 75 patients with pIIA NSCLC who were examined, 29 were female and 46 were male, with a mean age of 61.8 years (range: 34–83 years). The average tumor size was 3.188 cm (range: 1.10–6.0 cm). Under univariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were risk factors for DFS (P = 0.011, P = 0.007). Under multivariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion and metastatic N1 LNR were all independent risk factors for DFS, while adjuvant chemotherapy and higher metastatic N1 LNR were independent prognostic factors for OS. For patients with pIIA, higher metastatic N1 LNR and angiolymphatic invasion were related to poor DFS. In addition to DFS, higher metastatic N1 LNR was also a poor prognostic factor for OS rates and adjuvant therapy effectiveness. Clinical physicians should devise different postsurgical follow-up programs depending on these factors, especially for patients with high risk.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in patients with thymoma remains controversial. We sought to evaluate the perioperative and oncological outcomes after VATS resection for stage I and II thymoma and to compare the outcomes with those obtained after median sternotomy (MST). Methods: Between 1991 and 2007, a total of 140 patients with stage I and II thymoma underwent surgery at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Of them, 58 underwent MST, 61 VATS, and 21 thoracotomy. Using a propensity score based on four variables (myasthenia gravis, tumor size on CT images, age, and Masaoka stage), 48 VATS-treated patients were matched to 48 patients who received MST. Outcomes compared included perioperative complications, length of stay, tumor recurrence, and survival. Results: No operative deaths occurred in this study. VATS was associated with fewer intraoperative blood loss, and more patients in the VATS group were extubated in the operating room after surgery compared with the MST group (37.5 vs. 12.5 %, respectively, P = 0.005). The mean length of stay was shorter in the VATS group than in the MST group (5.8 vs. 7 days, respectively; P = 0.008). After a median follow-up of 53 months, five patients developed recurrent tumors (four pleural and one pericardial). No statistically significant differences were found in the 5-year survival rates between the two study groups. Conclusions: VATS appears feasible for patients with stage I and II thymoma and is associated with better perioperative outcomes than MST. The oncological outcomes are also similar.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: There is growing evidence that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) interact with tumor cells and play important roles in tumor progression and invasion. Podoplanin is a type-1 transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in a variety of normal human tissues, including lymphatic endothelium. Tumor cell expression of podoplanin correlates with nodal metastasis and poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of oral cavity and esophagus. Recently, podoplanin-positive CAFs have been shown to exert adverse or beneficial prognostic effect on different cancer types. However, the significance of podoplanin-positive CAFs in esophageal SCC has not been investigated. This is the first study to investigate podoplanin expression in CAFs and tumor cells by immunohistochemistry in 59 cases of surgically resected esophageal SCC. We found significant association of podoplanin expression between CAFs and tumor cells (P = 0.031). Although the abundance of podoplanin-positive CAFs per se had no prognostic effect, concordant podoplanin expression in CAFs and tumor cells (both high or both low) was strongly associated with short survival (P = 0.00088). Multivariate analysis showed that concordant podoplanin expression was the strongest independent adverse prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 3.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.69-7.77; P = 0.00094). Our data suggest that interaction between podoplanin-positive CAFs and tumor cells is important in tumor biology of esophageal SCC.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To investigate the prognostic significance of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 416 consecutive patients with ESCC who underwent surgical resection following nCRT at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 1998 and 2008. After exclusion of patients with non-R0 resection or showing no residual tumor (ypT0Nx), the histological tumor sections of 231 patients were reviewed for LVI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the independent predictors of overall survival (OS). Results LVI was observed in 85 patients (36.8 %). The presence of LVI was related to close circumferential resection margins (CRMs), a greater depth of invasion, poor tumor differentiation, and an increased occurrence of lymph node metastases (LNM). The 5 year OS was significantly lower (10 %) in patients with LVI than in those without (31 %; p
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Annals of Surgical Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: We studied whether the bronchoscopic findings could be help to predict outcome after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with airway invasion by esophageal cancer. Between 2000 and 2010, we retrospectively investigated esophageal cancer patients with T4 disease due to airway invasion who had received CRT as first line treatment. Airway invasion is defined as infiltration of the tracheobronchial wall or protruded intraluminal growth on bronchoscopy. The total radiation dose of CRT was 60 Gy and divided into two cycles. Bronchoscopic findings were evaluated together with other clinical parameters and correlated with overall survival (OS). There were 68 patients with a mean age of 54.5 years. After the first cycle of CRT, bronchoscopic examination showed complete regression of endobronchial lesion in 16 patients. OS was 26% at 1 year and 5% at 3 years with the median survival time (MST) of 7 months. Multivariate analysis revealed vocal cord palsy (unfavorable, OR [95% CI]:2 [1.07-3.84], P = 0.03), carina involvement (unfavorable, OR [95% CI]:2.6 [1.12-6], P = 0.025) and intraluminal tumor growth (unfavorable, OR [95% CI]:1.9 [1.1-3.3], P = 0.023) as independent factors for survival. The MST after CRT was 12.1, 6.1, 5.7 months in patients with 0, 1, 2 factors, respectively (P < 0.001). Bronchoscopic finding determined outcome after CRT in esophageal cancer patients with airway invasion J. Surg. Oncol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of Surgical Oncology

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