Yuguang Zhao

Yuguang Zhao
University of Oxford | OX · Division of Structural Biology (STRUBI)

Doctor of Philosophy

About

125
Publications
20,524
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7,482
Citations
Citations since 2017
62 Research Items
6160 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,500

Publications

Publications (125)
Article
Full-text available
Notum inhibits Wnt signalling via enzymatic delipidation of Wnt ligands. Restoration of Wnt signalling by small molecule inhibition of Notum may be of therapeutic benefit in a number of pathologies including Alzheimer's disease. Here we report Notum activity can be inhibited by caffeine (IC50 19 µM), but not by demethylated caffeine metabolites: pa...
Article
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Echoviruses, for which there are currently no approved vaccines or drugs, are responsible for a range of human diseases, for example echovirus 11 (E11) is a major cause of serious neonatal morbidity and mortality. Decay-accelerating factor (DAF, also known as CD55) is an attachment receptor for E11. Here, we report the structure of the complex of E...
Article
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Sizzled (Szl) is both a secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP) and a naturally occurring inhibitor of the zinc metalloproteinase bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), a key regulator of extracellular matrix assembly and growth factor activation. Here we present a new crystal structure for Szl which differs from that previously reported by a large...
Article
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Signaling by the human C-type lectin-like receptor, natural killer (NK) cell inhibitory receptor NKR-P1, has a critical role in many immune-related diseases and cancer. C-type lectin-like receptors have weak affinities to their ligands; therefore, setting up a comprehensive model of NKR-P1-LLT1 interactions that considers the natural state of the r...
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The Wnt signaling suppressor Notum is a promising target for osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, and colorectal cancers. To develop novel Notum inhibitors, we used an X-ray crystallographic fragment screen with the Diamond-SGC Poised Library (DSPL) and identified 59 fragment hits from the analysis of 768 data sets. Fifty-eight of the hits were found...
Preprint
Sizzled (Szl) is both a secreted frizzled related protein (sFRP) and a naturally occurring inhibitor of the zinc metalloproteinase bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1), a key regulator of extracellular matrix assembly and growth factor activation. Here we present a new crystal structure for Szl which differs from that previously reported by a large...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neurons on left and right sides of the nervous system frequently show asymmetric properties but how these differences arise is poorly understood. Through a forward genetic screen in zebrafish, we find that loss of function of the transmembrane protein Cachd1 results in right-sided habenular neurons adopting left-sided character. Cachd1 is expressed...
Article
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Notum is a carboxylesterase that suppresses Wnt signaling through deacylation of an essential palmitoleate group on Wnt proteins. There is a growing understanding of the role Notum plays in human diseases such as colorectal cancer and Alzheimer's disease, supporting the need to discover improved inhibitors, especially for use in models of neurodege...
Article
Background: Administration of potent anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies has been shown to curtail viral shedding and reduce hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the structure-function analysis of potent human anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies and its links to the formulation of antibody cocktails remain...
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Alpha-B.1.1.7, Beta-B.1.351, Gamma-P.1 and Delta-B.1.617.2 variants of SARS-CoV-2 express multiple mutations in the spike protein (S). These may alter the antigenic structure of S, causing escape from natural or vaccine-induced immunity. Beta is particularly difficult to neutralize using serum induced by early pandemic SARS-CoV-2 strains and is mos...
Article
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The carboxylesterase Notum hydrolyzes a palmitoleate moiety from Wingless/Integrated(Wnt) ligands and deactivates Wnt signaling. Notum inhibitors can restore Wnt signaling which may be of therapeutic benefit for pathologies such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. We report the identification of a novel class of covalent Notum inhibitors, 4-(i...
Preprint
Human NKR-P1 (CD161, KLRB1) and its ligand LLT1 (CLEC2D) are a prototypical inhibitory C-type lectin-like receptor:ligand pair of NK cells with a critical role in homing lymphocytes to immune-privileged sites, particularly in multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Crohn's disease. Furthermore, NKR-P1:LLT1 inhibitory signaling is associated w...
Article
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SARS-CoV-2 has undergone progressive change with variants conferring advantage rapidly becoming dominant lineages e.g. B.1.617. With apparent increased transmissibility variant B.1.617.2 has contributed to the current wave of infection ravaging the Indian subcontinent and has been designated a variant of concern in the UK. Here we study the ability...
Article
Notum has recently been identified as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling through the removal of an essential palmitoleate group from Wnt proteins. There are emerging reports that Notum plays a role in human disease, with published data suggesting that targeting Notum could represent a new therapeutic approach for treating cancer, osteoporosis an...
Article
Full-text available
Interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) with the receptor ACE2 on host cells is essential for viral entry. RBD is the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies and several neutralizing epitopes on RBD have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants has revealed mutations arising in the RB...
Preprint
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Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations: P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10 and 9 changes in the spike respectively)...
Article
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A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-021-00566-w.
Article
Full-text available
Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations: P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10 and 9 changes in the spike respectively)...
Preprint
Full-text available
The interaction of the SARS–CoV–2 Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) with the ACE2 receptor on host cells is essential for viral entry. RBD is the dominant target for neutralizing antibodies and several neutralizing epitopes on RBD have been molecularly characterized. Analysis of circulating SARS–CoV–2 variants has revealed mutations arising in th...
Article
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Antibodies are crucial to immune protection against SARS-CoV-2, with some in emergency use as therapeutics. Here we identify 377 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the virus spike, and focus mainly on 80 that bind the receptor binding domain (RBD). We devise a competition data driven method to map RBD binding sites. We find that althoug...
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SARS-CoV-2 has caused over 2M deaths in little over a year. Vaccines are being deployed at scale, aiming to generate responses against the virus spike. The scale of the pandemic and error-prone virus replication is leading to the appearance of mutant viruses and potentially escape from antibody responses. Variant B.1.1.7, now dominant in the UK, wi...
Article
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The race to produce vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 began when the first sequence was published, and this forms the basis for vaccines currently deployed globally. Independent lineages of SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported: UK–B.1.1.7, South Africa–B.1.351 and Brazil–P.1. These variants have multiple changes in the immunodominant spike protein whic...
Article
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Objectives The only proteins known to be modified by O-linked lipidation are Wnts and ghrelin, and enzymatic removal of this post-translational modification inhibits ligand activity. Indeed, the Wnt-deacylase activity of Notum is the basis of its ability to act as a feedback inhibitor of Wnt signalling. Whether Notum also deacylates ghrelin has not...
Article
Carboxylesterase Notum is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. There is an emerging understanding of the role Notum plays in disease, supporting the need to discover new small-molecule inhibitors. A crystallographic X-ray fragment screen was performed, which identified fragment hit 1,2,3-triazole 7 as an attractive starting point for...
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The development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and therapeutics will depend on understanding viral immunity. We studied T cell memory in 42 patients following recovery from COVID-19 (28 with mild disease and 14 with severe disease) and 16 unexposed donors, using interferon-γ-based assays with peptides spann...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented health and economic impact and there are currently no approved therapies. We have isolated an antibody, EY6A, from an individual convalescing from COVID-19 and have shown that it neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and cross-reacts with SARS-CoV-1. EY6A Fab binds the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike...
Article
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The SARS-CoV-2 virus is more transmissible than previous coronaviruses and causes a more serious illness than influenza. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as a prelude to viral entry into the cell. Using a naive llama single-domain antibody library an...
Preprint
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Large trimeric Spikes decorate SARS-CoV-2 and bind host cells via receptor binding domains (RBDs). We report a conformation in which the trimer is ‘locked’ into a compact well-ordered form. This differs from previous structures where the RBD can flip up to recognise the receptor. In the ‘locked’ form regions associated with fusion transitions are s...
Article
The Wnt family of proteins are secreted signaling proteins that play key roles in regulating cellular functions. Recently, carboxylesterase Notum was shown to act as a negative regulator of Wnt signaling by mediating the removal of an essential palmitoleate. Here we disclose two new chemical scaffolds that inhibit Notum enzymatic activity. Our appr...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented health and economic impact, but currently there are no approved therapies. We have isolated an antibody, EY6A, from a late-stage COVID-19 patient and show it neutralises SARS-CoV-2 and cross-reacts with SARS-CoV-1. EY6A Fab binds tightly (KD of 2 nM) the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike gl...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 is an ongoing global crisis in which the development of effective vaccines and therapeutics will depend critically on understanding the natural immunity to the virus, including the role of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. We have conducted a study of 42 patients following recovery from COVID-19, including 28 mild and 14 severe cases, comparing...
Preprint
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is more transmissible than previous coronaviruses and causes a more serious illness than seasonal flu. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike protein binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as a prelude to viral entry into the cell. Using a naïve llama single chain nanobody library...
Article
Full-text available
There are as yet no licenced therapeutics for the COVID-19 pandemic. The causal coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) binds host cells via a trimeric Spike whose receptor binding domain (RBD) recognises angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), initiating conformational changes that drive membrane fusion. We find that the monoclonal antibody CR3022 binds the RBD...
Preprint
Full-text available
There are as yet no licenced therapeutics for the COVID-19 pandemic. The causal coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) binds host cells via a trimeric Spike whose receptor binding domain (RBD) recognizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), initiating conformational changes that drive membrane fusion. We find that monoclonal antibody CR3022 binds the RBD tigh...
Article
Full-text available
Misregulation of Wnt signalling is common in human cancer. Development of small molecule inhibitors against the Wnt receptor, Frizzled (FZD), may have potential in cancer therapy. During small molecule screens, we observed binding of carbamazepine (CBZ) to the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of the Wnt receptor FZD8 using surface plasmon resonance (SPR)...
Article
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Coxsackievirus A10 (CV-A10) is responsible for an escalating number of severe infections in children, but no prophylactics or therapeutics are currently available. KREMEN1 (KRM1) is the entry receptor for the largest receptor-group of hand-foot-and-mouth disease causing viruses, which includes CV-A10. We report here structures of CV-A10 mature viru...
Article
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The hormone melatonin, secreted from the pineal gland, mediates multiple physiological effects including modulation of Wnt/β‐catenin signalling. The Wnt palmitoleate lipid modification is essential for its signalling activity, while the carboxylesterase Notum can remove the lipid from Wnt and inactivate it. Notum enzyme inhibition can therefore upr...
Article
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The carboxylesterase Notum is a key negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway by mediating the depalmitoleoylation of Wnt proteins. Our objective was to discover potent small molecule inhibitors of Notum suitable for exploring the regulation of Wnt signaling in the central nervous system. Scaffold-hopping from thienopyrimidine acids 1 and 2,...
Article
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NOTUM is a carboxylesterase that has been shown to act by mediating the O-depalmitoleoylation of Wnt proteins resulting in suppression of Wnt signaling. Here, we describe the development of NOTUM inhibitors that restore Wnt signaling for use in in vitro disease models where NOTUM over activity is an underlying cause. A crystallographic fragment scr...
Article
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot and mouth disease—a disease endemic especially in the Asia-Pacific region¹. Scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) is the major receptor of EV71, as well as several other enteroviruses responsible for hand, foot and mouth disease, and plays a key role in cell entry². The isolated structure...
Article
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Potent Ebolavirus (EBOV) inhibitors will help to curtail outbreaks such as that which occurred in 2014-16 in West Africa. EBOV has on its surface a single glycoprotein (GP) critical for viral entry and membrane fusion. Recent high-resolution complexes of EBOV GP with a variety of approved drugs revealed that binding to a common cavity prevented fus...
Article
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Natural killer cells are white blood cells able to kill tumor, virus-infected or stressed cells. NKR-P1 is a C-type lectin like-receptor on surface of human natural killer cells and LLT1 is its binding partner belonging to the same structural family. Recently, we have expressed, purified and solved four crystal structures of the extracellular part...
Article
LYPD6 is a Wnt signaling enhancer that promotes phosphorylation of the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 (low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6). It also binds the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). We report here the 1.25 Å resolution structure of the LYPD6 extracellular Ly6/uPAR (LU) domain and map its interaction with LRP6 by mutagenesis...
Article
A large number of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs have been found to inhibit cell entry of Ebola virus (EBOV). However, since these drugs have various primary pharmacological targets their mechanisms of action against EBOV remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that six FDA approved drugs inhibit EBOV infection by intera...
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Here we show that four chemically divergent approved drugs reported to inhibit Ebolavirus infection, benztropine, bepridil, paroxetine and sertraline, directly interact with the Ebolavirus glycoprotein. Binding of these drugs destabilise the protein, suggesting that this may be the mechanism of inhibition, as reported for the anticancer drug toremi...
Article
The role of B cells and posttranslational modifications in pathogenesis of organ-specific immune diseases is increasingly envisioned but remains poorly understood, particularly in human disorders. In celiac disease, transglutaminase 2-modified (TG2-modified; deamidated) gluten peptides drive disease-specific T cell and B cell responses, and antibod...
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Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is an enzyme with several important biological functions that is known to process a large variety of different peptidic substrates although the mechanism behind this wide specificity is not clearly understood. We describe a crystal structure of IRAP in complex with a recently developed bioactive and selective...
Article
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Kremen 1 and 2 have been identified as co-receptors for Dickkopf (Dkk) proteins, hallmark secreted antagonists of canonical Wnt signaling. We present here three crystal structures of the ectodomain of human Kremen1 (KRM1ECD) at resolutions between 1.9 and 3.2 Å. KRM1ECD emerges as a rigid molecule with tight interactions stabilizing a triangular ar...
Article
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Ebola viruses (EBOVs) are responsible for repeated outbreaks of fatal infections, including the recent deadly epidemic in West Africa. There are currently no approved therapeutic drugs or vaccines for the disease. EBOV has a membrane envelope decorated by trimers of a glycoprotein (GP, cleaved by furin to form GP1 and GP2 subunits), which is solely...