Yu-Hsun Kao

Yu-Hsun Kao
Wan Fang Hospital · Medical Education and Research Department

About

90
Publications
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Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Atrial fibroblasts activation causes atrial fibrosis, which is one major pathophysiological contributor to atrial fibrillation (AF) genesis. Klotho is a pleiotropic protein with remarkable cardiovascular effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-apoptotic effects. This study investigated whether Klotho can modulate...
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The sex and age differences in the relationship between vitamin D and lipid levels remain unclear. This retrospective study investigated the correlations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and various biomarkers, along with the sex and age differences in these associations, among 573 men and 436 women during physical check-ups. The mean age o...
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Rationale Atrial fibrillation is a critical health burden. Targeting calcium (Ca ²⁺ ) dysregulation and oxidative stress are potential upstream therapeutic strategies. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 1 can modulate Ca ²⁺ homeostasis and has antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether FGF1 has anti-arrhythmic potential thro...
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Aim: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker of atrial fibrillation (AF) that mediates atrial inflammation. CD98 is the membrane surface receptor for Gal-3. Nevertheless, the role of the Gal-3/CD98 axis in atrial arrhythmogenesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Gal-3/CD98 signaling on atrial pathogenesis. Methods: Whole cell...
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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 induces hypertrophy and calcium (Ca2+) dysregulation in cardiomyocytes, leading to cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. However, knowledge regarding the effects of FGF-23 on cardiac fibrogenesis remains limited. This study investigated whether FGF-23 modulates cardiac fibroblast activity and explored its underlyin...
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Atrial fibrosis plays a key role in atrial myopathy, resulting in the genesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The abnormal distribution of fibrotic tissue, electrical coupling, paracrine interactions, and biomechanical–electrical interactions have all been suggested as causes of fibrosis-related arrhythmogenesis. Moreover, the regional difference in f...
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of arrhythmia. The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is a crucial site of ventricular tachycardia (VT) origination. We hypothesize that CKD increases RVOT arrhythmogenesis through its effects on calcium dysregulation. We analysed measurements obtained using conventional microelectrodes, patch cla...
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Background Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) attenuates cardiac fibrosis. In this study, we evaluated whether the inhibition of class I HDACs can attenuate angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced fibrogenesis and mitochondrial malfunction through its effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium dysregulation in human cardiac fibroblasts (C...
Article
Sarcopenia, the age-associated-fragility with loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, often coexists with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in older individuals. Derangement of muscle metabolism and mitochondrial dynamics is critical, particularly in high-energy-demand organs in patients with metabolic disorder. However, targeted therapies to halt or revers...
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Fructose is a main dietary sugar involved in the excess sugar intake-mediated progression of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic intake of fructose has been the focus on the possible contributor to the metabolic diseases and cardiac inflammation. Recently, the small intestine was identified to be a major organ in fructose metab...
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Background: Atrial fibrosis plays an important role in the genesis of heart failure and atrial fibrillation. The left atrium (LA) exhibits a higher level of fibrosis than the right atrium (RA) in heart failure and atrial arrhythmia. However, the mechanism for the high fibrogenic potential of the LA fibroblasts remains unclear. Calcium (Ca2+) signa...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), which is the most common sustained arrhythmia and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Advanced glycation end product and its receptor activation, cardiac energy dysmetabolism, structural and electrical remodeling, and autonomic dysfunction are imp...
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are antihyperglycemic agents with cardioprotective properties against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). However, the distinctive mechanisms underlying GLP-1RAs and SGLT2is in DCM are not fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to invest...
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Cardiac fibrosis plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Fibroblast activity is enhanced by increases in store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) levels. Lithium regulates SOCE; however, whether therapeutic concentrations of lithium can be used to inhibit cardiac fibrogenesis...
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Background Calcific aortic valve disease is associated with ageing and high mortality. However, no effective pharmacological treatment has been developed. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor are overexpressed in the calcified aortic valve tissue. However, the role of VEGF in calcific aortic valve disease pathogenesis and its...
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Aim To investigate the role of zinc finger homeobox 3 gene (ZFHX3) in tachypacing‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and explore its molecular mechanisms and potential as a therapeutic target in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Through a bioluminescent assay, a patch clamp, confocal fluorescence and fluorescence microscopy, microplate enzyme activ...
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Testosterone deficiency is associated with poor prognosis among patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Physiological testosterone improves the exercise capacity of patients with HF. In this study, we evaluated whether treatment with physiological testosterone contributes to anti-fibrogenesis by modifying calcium homeostasis in cardiac fibroblast...
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Aims: Klotho, a potential antiageing protein has remarkable cardiovascular effects, which is lower in the patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Chronic kidney disease increases the risk of atrial fibrillation, majorly triggered by pulmonary vein (PV) arrhythmogenesis. This study investigated whether klotho protein can modulate PV electrical...
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), however, its arrhythmogenic mechanisms are unclear. This study investigated the effects of COPD on AF triggers (pulmonary veins, PVs) and substrates (atria), and their potential underlying mechanisms. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and biochemical...
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Purpose/background: Lithium, a common medication used in bipolar disorder treatment, can exert an inhibitory effect on sodium and potassium channels and potentially cause cardiac electrical conduction disturbance and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation. This study aimed to examine whether lithium at therapeutic levels can change electrocardiographic p...
Article
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pivotal activator of angiogenesis and calcium (Ca²⁺) signaling in endothelial cells, was shown to increase collagen production in atrial fibroblasts. In this study, we evaluated whether VEGF may regulate Ca²⁺ homeostasis in atrial fibroblasts and contribute to its profibrogenesis. Migration, and prolifer...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading threats to human health. The advanced glycation end product (AGE) and receptor for AGE (RAGE) signaling pathway regulates the pathogenesis of CVDs, through its effects on arterial stiffness, atherosclerosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and cytoskeletal functi...
Article
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine, is highly expressed in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). CD74 (major histocompatibility complex, class II invariant chain) is the main receptor for MIF. However, the role of the MIF/CD74 axis in atrial arrhythmogenesis is unclear. In this study, we investigated...
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Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)‐α induces cardiac metabolic disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) contains anti‐inflammatory and biological effects in cardiomyocytes. This study investigated whether H2S modulates TNF‐α‐dysregulated mitochondrial function and metabolism in cardiomyocytes. HL‐1 cells were incubated with TNF‐α (...
Article
Background: A Pitx2c deficiency increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Atrial structural remodeling with fibrosis blocks electrical conduction and leads to arrhythmogenesis. A Pitx2c deficiency enhances profibrotic transforming growth factor (TGF)-β expression and calcium dysregulation, suggesting that Pitx2c may play a role in atrial fib...
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Aim Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Loss‐of‐function mutation in the zinc finger homeobox 3 gene (ZFHX3) is associated with risk of AF. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in arrhythmogenesis. MiRNA modulators may be applicable as therapeutic modalities for AF. However, the altered miRNA pro...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) has significant effects on cardiac calcium (Ca2+) and sodium (Na+) regulation. Clinical studies have shown that empagliflozin (Jardiance™) has cardiovascular benefits, however the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate whether empagliflozin modulates cardiac electrical activity as well as C...
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Objectives: The cellular mechanisms of calcific aortic valve (AV) disease and optimal medications for its treatment are poorly elucidated. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and non-canonical wingless-related integration site (Wnt) signaling play crucial roles in regulating the pathogenesis of valvular interstitial cell (VIC) calcification. Histone...
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Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). FGF-2 was reported to induce cardiac hypertrophy through activation of FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple laboratory findings indicate that calcitriol may be a potential treatment for CVDs. In this study, we attempted to invest...
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Background Ivabradine increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Heart failure (HF) or sinoatrial node (SAN) dysfunction increases the risk of AF, and pulmonary veins (PVs) play a critical role in the pathophysiology of AF. This study investigated the electrophysiologic effects of ivabradine on SANs and PVs in a rabbit model of HF. Methods an...
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Background: Rivaroxaban, a widely used factor Xa inhibitor in reducing stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients has multiple biological effects with activation of protease-activated receptor (PAR) signaling. Atrial fibrosis plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of AF. In this study, we evaluated whether rivaroxaban regulates atrial fibro...
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Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality during the course of their illness. For over half a century, lithium has been the gold-standard medication used to treat the mood burdens of BD. In addition, lithium possesses several biological effects that may modulate cardiovascular risk in patie...
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Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play vital roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure, which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contributes to the genesis of heart failure and impairs mitochondria. This study evaluated the role of HDACs in TNF-α-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and investigated their ther...
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Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a major complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. The pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy is complex, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction plays a vital role in the genesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Metabolic regulation targeting mitochondrial dy...
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Background: Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Calcitriol modulates cardiac RAGE expression. This study explored the mechanisms underlying the effect of calcitriol on RAGE and soluble RAGE (sRAGE) expression in cardiomyocytes. Methods: Western blot, E...
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Background: The calcific aortic valve (AV) disease is a common disease with the unclear mechanism, and optimal pharmacological treatment remains unavailable. Epigenetic modulation by histone acetyltransferase (HAT) plays a critical role in osteogenic transdifferentiation and atherosclerosis. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether H...
Article
Aim: Atrial fibrosis plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). The left atrium (LA) experiences greater fibrosis than the right atrium (RA) during HF. It is not clear whether LA cardiac fibroblasts contain distinctive activities that predispose LA to fibrosis. Methods: LA and RA fibrosis were evaluated in healthy and iso...
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Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), elevated in chronic renal failure, increases atrial arrhythmogenesis and dysregulates calcium homeostasis. Late sodium currents (INa-Late) critically induces ectopic activity of pulmoanry vein (the most important atrial fibrillation trigger). This study was to investigate whether FGF23 activates the INa-Late lea...
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) occurs with increased frequency in cancer patients, especially in patients who undergo surgery or chemotherapy. AF disturbs the prognosis of cancer patients and challenges therapeutic outcomes of cancer treatment. Elucidating the mechanisms of cancer-induced AF would help identify specific strategies for preventing AF occur...
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Background: Gap junction (GJ) dysfunctions predispose cardiac tissues to various arrhythmias. Sinoatrial node (SAN) and pulmonary veins (PVs) are closely related atrial dysrhythmia. This study evaluated whether GJ modifications modulate SAN and PVs electrical activities. Methods: Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials...
Article
Glucagon like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with antidiabetic effects through stimulating insulin secretion, β cell neogenesis, satiety sensation, and inhibiting glucagon secretion. Administration of GLP-1 provides cardioprotective effects through attenuating cardiac inflammation and insulin resistance. GLP-1 also modulates the heart rat...
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Colchicine is a microtubule disruptor that reduces the occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after an operation or ablation. However, knowledge of the effects of colchicine on atrial myocytes is limited. The aim of this study was to determine if colchicine can regulate calcium (Ca(2+) ) homeostasis and attenuate the electrical effects of the extra...
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate cardiac glucose and lipid homeostasis. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor has anti-inflammatory effects which may play a key role in modulating PPARs and fatty acid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HDAC inhibitor, MPT0E014, can modulate myocardial PPARs, infl...
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Background: Renal failure (RF) increases the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but arrhythmogenic mechanism is unclear. The present study investigated the electrophysiological effects of RF on AF trigger (pulmonary veins, PVs) and substrate (atria) and evaluated potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, a...
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Full-text available
Heart failure (HF) affects cardiac metabolism and inflammation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a critical role in cardiac pathophysiology. This study investigated whether HDAC inhibition can regulate HF by modifying cardiac inflammation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms. Echocardiography, electrocardiography, ELISA a...
Article
Sex hormones and calcium (Ca(2+)) regulation play roles in the pathophysiology of ventricular tachycardia from right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) can increase RVOT arrhythmogenesis through modulating RVOT electrophysiology and Ca(2+) homeostasis. Conventional m...
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), and patients with DM frequently develop diabetic cardiomyopathy. Currently, effective treatments for diabetic cardiomyopathy are limited. Vitamin D exerts pleiotropic effects on the cardiovascular system and is associated with DM. The pur...
Article
Effects of Indoxyl Sulfate on Pulmonary Vein and Atrial Arrhythmogenesis Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) with unclear mechanisms. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) accumulates in CKD patients. IS increases oxidative stress, which contributes to the genesis of AF. The arrhythmogenic effect...
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Background: Cardiac fibrosis plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. It has been observed that curcumin has several cardiovascular effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether curcumin can attenuate cardiac fibroblasts activity. Methods and results: We evaluated the migration, proliferation, collagen...
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Background: Androgen deficiency produces heart failure, which can be ameliorated by testosterone supplementation. Cardiac fibrosis plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of heart failure. This study aimed to evaluate whether testosterone can attenuate cardiac fibroblast activity through modulating transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and angio...
Article
Background: High free fatty acid with reduced glucose utilization in diabetes mellitus (DM) impairs cardiac function. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) modulate myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. The active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) regulates oxidative stress and inflammation, which may play a key role in the...
Article
Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for atrial fibrillation. High plasma concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid (OLA), are frequently noted in obese individuals and patients with metabolic syndrome. However, it is not clear whether monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) can directly modul...
Article
Background: Aging and testosterone deficiency contribute to the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). We determine the effects of testosterone replacement on the electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis of pulmonary vein (PV) and left atrium (LA) in aged rabbits. Methods: Electrocardiography, heart rate variability, echocardiography, Western b...
Article
Background: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 is a key regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Higher FGF-23 levels are correlated with poor outcomes in cardiovascular diseases. FGF-23 can produce cardiac hypertrophy and increase intracellular calcium, which can change cardiac electrical activity. However, it is not clear whether FGF-23 possesses arrh...
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Full-text available
Ventricular arrhythmias commonly originate from the right ventricular out-flow tract (RVOT). However, the electrophysiological characteristics and Ca(2+) homoeostasis of RVOT cardiomyocytes remain unclear. Whole-cell patch clamp and indo-1 fluorometric ratio techniques were used to investigate action potentials, Ca(2+) homoeostasis and ionic curren...
Article
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling pathway plays a vital role in diabetic cardiovascular complications. Calcitriol has been shown to exert various beneficial cardiovascular effects. The purpose of this study is to determine whether calcitriol can modulate RAGE expression, and study the potential mechanisms in diabetic hea...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The pulmonary veins (PVs) and atria are important foci during that period when atrial fibrillation (AF) is generated and maintained. It is well understood that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important risk factors for AF. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitors are new agents in the fight against type 2 DM, though they...
Article
Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) has several cardiovascular benefits. 1,25[OH]2 D has direct cellular effects, but its effects on the atrium are not clear. We evaluated the effects of 1,25[OH]2 D on the atrial electrophysiology and atrial fibrillation (AF). Conventional microelectrodes were used to record action potentials (APs)...
Article
Histone deacetylases (HDACs), important epigenetic regulatory enzymes, can reduce cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis. However, the mechanisms underlying the antifibrotic activity of HDAC inhibitors remain unclear. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of an HDAC inhibitor on systolic heart failure (HF) and investigate the po...
Article
Sex and sodium/calcium regulation play critical roles in cardiac electrophysiology and atrial arrhythmogenesis. We investigated whether sodium and calcium contributed to sex differences in atrial electrophysiology. Whole-cell patch clamp techniques and the indo-1 fluorometric ratio technique were used to investigate the ionic current and intracellu...
Article
Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) has been reported up-regulating heat shock protein (HSP) expression, and protecting against atrial remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GGA on atrial electrophysiology and inducibility of atrial fibrillation (AF) in heart failure (HF) model. HF rabbits were created 4weeks after coronary artery ligat...
Article
Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels play an important role in atrial electrophysiology. Blocking SK channels prolongs action potential (AP) duration and attenuate electrical remodelling. The effects of SK blocking on the pulmonary vein (PV) and the sinoatrial node (SAN) remain unclear. Conventional microelectrodes were used...
Article
Androgen deficiency is important in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Androgen regulates cardiac electrophysiology and calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) can modulate atrial electrophysiology and arrhythmogenesis with modulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis protei...
Article
Heart failure (HF) can increase atrial fibrillation and induce cardiac hypermethylation. Pitx2c plays important roles in the genesis of atrial fibrillation and the promoter region of Pitx2c contains CpG islands. Therefore, epigenetic modification by hypermethylation may reduce Pitx2c expression in atrial myocytes. The purposes of this study were to...